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Full text of "A history of Enfield in the County of Middlesex; including its royal and ancient manors, the chase, and the Duchy of Lancaster, with notices of its worthies, and its natural history, etc.; also an account of the church and charities, and a history of the New River; the church history by George H. Hodson, and the general history by Edward Ford"

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A HISTORY OF ENFIELD 

IN THE COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX, 



I 

INCLUDING ITS 




AND 

THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER, 

WITH 

NOTICES OF US WORTHIES, 

AND ITS 

IETC. 



ALSO AN ACCOUNT OF 

curfturci) an& tfje 

AND 

A HISTORY OF THE NEW RIVER. 



e Church History, by the Rev. GEORGE H. HODSOX, I'i.w, 
And the General History by EDWARD FORD, Esquire. 




PRINTED FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY, AND NOT PUBLISHED. 

(PRICE O.\E CUIXEA.) 

ENFIELD PRESS : PRINTED BY J. H. MKYERS. 
1873. 



(HO 



KN FIELD: 

JjY I. H. MEVEKS. 






CONTENTS. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



PAGE. 
PARISH OF ENFIELD. 

Its Situation and Extent ... 7 

Divisions of the Parish ... II 

Privileges and Exemptions... 12 

THE MANORS. 

MANOR OF ENFIELD 15 

Geoffrey de Mandeville ... 16 

Robin Hood... ... ... 16 

Family of Boh un ... ... 17 

John o' Gaunt ... ... 21 

Manor House . ... ... 21 

"The Palace" 25 

THE OLD PARK ... ... 29 

Ranger's House ... ... 31 

Chase Park ... ... ... 32 

Chase Side House ... ... 33 

THE CHASE ... ... ... 35 

Surveys of ... ... ... 36 

Division of ... ... ... 42 

Officers of ... ... ... 45 

Battle of Barnet 46 

South Lodge ... -... -48 

West Lodge... ... ... 49 

East Lodge ... 50 



PAGE. 

Enclosure Acts ... ... 5 1 

Trent Park 53 

Camelot Moat ... ... 54 

Beech Hill Park 55 

Chase Lodge ... ... 56 

Claysmore ... ... ... 57 

Hill Lodge 59 

THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER. 

History of ... ... ... 60 

Separated from the Crown ... 61 

TheSovereignal\vays"Duke" 6l 

The Duchy Court 63 

MANOR OF WORCESTERS . 68 

Families of Wroth, Tiptoft, 

Roos, and Lovell... ... 69 

Given by the Earl of Rutland 

to King Henry VIII. ... 70 
Granted to the Cecils, and 

alienated by the 2nd Earl 

of Salisbury ... ... 70 

Forty Hall 71 

Purchased by J. Meyer, Esq. 72 

ELSYNGE HALL. 

The Old Manor House of 



1'AGE. 


PAGE. 


Worcesters, and Royal 




ANTIQUITIES, TRADITIONS, &C. 


121 


Residence ... 


73 






Queen Elizabeth holds her 




NATURAL HISTORY. 




Courthere... 


74 


Ornithology ... 


137 


Site of 


75 


Botany . . 


147 


Myddelton House ... 
The Gunpowder Plot 
Site of Old White Webbs 


76 
77 


Ferns and Fungi 
Entomology ... 
Meteorology... 


150 
157 

164 


House 


79 


Trees (by j. w. F.) 


167 


King James and the Tinker 


80 


BIOGRAPHY. 




White Webbs Park 


83 


Sir Walter Raleigh 


185 


Old Conduit House 


84 


Incident of the Cloak 


187 


Descriptive Catalogue 


84 


Evidence of Fuller ... 


194 


Roselands 


88 


William Wickham ... 


199 


MANOR OF DURANTS 


82 


Robert Uvedale 


200 


Old Gateway and Moat 


92 


Isaac D'Israeli 


202 


Abbot of Thorney's Lands... 


93 


Lord George Gordon 


206 






Richard Gough ... ... 


207 


MANOR OF ELSYNGE OR NORRIS 


93 


Major Cartwright ... 


209 


MANOR OF SUFFOLKS 


93 


Rev. Daniel Cresswell, D. D. 


2IO 


MANOR OF CAPELS 


94 


John Abernethy 


2I 4 


Enfield Court 
Lincoln House 


95 
96 


Charles Babbage 
The Right Rev. Connop 
Thirhvall, D.D 


216 

219 


Bridgen Hall 


97 


Captain Marryat 


22O 


THE OLD ROMAN ROAD 


99 


Charles I^amb 


221 


MARKETS AND FAIRS, &C. ... 


101 


THE RIVER LEE 


225 


Races 


1 08 










THE MILL RIVER, &C. 


228 


THE MAGISTRACY AND POLICE 


no 






rF.RAMBULATION OF BOUN- 




THE NEW RIVER 


230 


DARIES 


112 


The Envoy ... 


264 



THE CHURCH AND ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, &c. 

THE PARISH CHURCH 

The Bells 

The Organ 

Monuments ... 
The Churchyard 

The Rectory 

The Vicarage 
The Vicars ... 
The Lecturer 
The Churchwardens 
Parish Registers 

DISTRICT CHURCHES. 

S. James's, Highway 

Jesus Church, Forty Hill 

Christ Church 

S. John's, Clay Hill 

S. Michael and All Angels 

The Cemetery 

THE FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

Parochial Schools ... 
Population ... 

DISSENTING PLACES OF 
WORSHIP. 

Baker-street Chapel... 
Ponder's-end Chapel 
- Zion Chapel... 
Chase-side Chapel ... 



PAGE. 


PAGE. 


... 267 


Primitive Methodist Chapel .... 


333 


... 276 


Highway Congregational ditto 


333 


... 2 7 8 


Wesleyan Methodist ditto 


334 


... 2 7 8 


Baptist Tabernacle 


334 


... 287 


Baptist Chapel, Totteridge-roac 


334 


... 288 


Roman Catholic Chapel 


335 


... 299 


British and other Schools 


335 


303 










t 


305 


CHARITIES. 




... 306 


Poynet's 


ii. 


- 37 


Ramston's ... 


iv. 




Wilson's 


iv. 




Smith's 


vii. 


3 T 3 


David's 


viii. 


--314 


Deycrowe's... 


X. 


3H 


Loft's 


xi. 


315 


Cock's 


xiii. 


3 ... 3 ^ ^ 


Raynton's ... ... 


xiv. 


... 316 


Billings' 


xvi. 




Grave's 


xvi. 


oi. 317 


Wroth's 


xvii. 


327 


King James's 


xvii. 


... 329 


Nichols' (Jasper) ... 


xix. 




Market Place 


XX. 




Billing's and Osbourne's ... 


xxii. 


... 331 


Dixon's 


xxiii. 


... 331 


Pigott's ... ... .. xxviii. 


332 


Nichols' (Mary) ... 


xxix. 




Maurer's 


XXX. 



PAGE. 

Darby's ... ... ... xxxi. 

Turpin's ... ... ... xxxii. 

Timber Money ... ... xxxiii. 

Wright's Almshouses ... xxxv. 

Crowe's Almshouses ... xxxvi. 

Ellson's ... ... ... xxxvii. 

Eaton and Meyers' ... xxxviii. 

Dickason's . . . ... ... xxxix. 

Claxton's ... xl. 



PAGE. 

Mestura's ... ... ... xL 

The Two Hundred Acres... xli. 

The Timber Money ... xli. 

Conduits xlii. 

Mrs. Anne Cough's ... xliii. 

Mrs. Kelham's xliii. 

The Green and Encroach- 
ments ... ... ... xlvi. 

New River Company's ... xlvii. 



ERRATA AND ADDENDA. 



/. 15, /. 7, for son, read descendant. 
/. 22, /. 17, for 335 acres, read 3-35 acres. 
p. 30, /. 4, for Albermarle, read Albemarle. 
/. 54, (Note) Transfer to page 53. 

/. 62, Additional Note. The sovereign of Hungary was always 
"King." In the I4th century Louis of Hungary, surnamed 
(t the Great," was succeeded by his daughter Mary "King of 
Hungary," and when, in 1740, Maria Theresa, driven from 
every other part of her dominions took refuge in Hungary, and 
threw herself and her child on the loyalty of her subjects, they 
unsheathed their swords and swore to devote "vitam et 
sanguinem pro rege nostn? Maria." 

p. 67, add, The Right Hon. John Bright, Aug. 1873. 
/ 73> I' 7) f r command, read commend. 

p. 82. Every reader will recall the concluding scene of the 
Lady of the Lake, where 

" in the room 

Fitz-James alone wore cap and plume." 
/. 134, /. 7, Edmond Godesman was the last chantry priest, and 

received a pension at the dissolution of chantries. 
/. 173, /. 23, for laying, read lying. 

p. 2U, /. 4, for July gth, 1835, read October I5th, 1831. 
/. 212, /. 12, for emeritas, read immeritas. 
p. 213, [vulturnus comix snowdrop curfew.] 
p. 271, /. 14, for 10, read 10 marks. 
/. 273, /. 27, for Jugland's, read Juglans. 
/. 302, /. 5, for presentum, read presentem. 
p. 308, /. 17, for January 3 1st, read January 1st. 
p. 319, /. 25, But in the Chauntry Roll (Hen. VIII. and Edw. VI.) 
in the Public Record Office, under Enfield, we find : 
"Landes and tenements being in the townes of South 
Benfleet, Hadley, and Thundersley, given for the maintenance 
of a brotherhood priest there, whereof Sir John Bridgeman 
received for his salary, vii,." 



" Go, lityl boke, be simple of mannere, 

" And specially let this be thy prayere, 

" Unto all 'hem that thee will rede or hear, 

"Where thou art wrong after ther' help to call 

" Thee to correct, in any parte or all. 

" Praie 'hem also, with thine humble serrlse 

" Thy boldenesse to pardon in this case; 
' ' For els thou art not able in no wise 
" To make thyself appear in any place, 

" Consideryng by good advisament 

" My grete unconnyng and my simplenesse. 

Chaucer. 



THE PREFACE. 



WHEN this volume was first announced, the intention 
was simply to edit a new edition of Mr. Tuff's " Historical 
Notices," for the benefit of his widow. The general 
interest however that was taken in the work, and 
the encouragement given by the constantly lengthening 
list of subscribers, were so far beyond what had been 
anticipated, that the Editors felt something more would 
be expected of them than a mere reprint of the little 
book as originally proposed. 

They have attempted to meet this expectation, so far 
as the more important duties of one writer, and the 
literary inexperience of the other,* would permit, and 
they offer the following pages as a HISTORY OF ENFIELD, 
" endeavoured " to use the expression of old Fuller 
according to their ability. Any such work, must be 
necessarily imperfect, and when the life-long antiquarian 
researches of Mr. Gough, and of Mr. Lysons, have been 
at fault, many errors no doubt still remain. 



* I shall be excused for adding, that any value or interest which 
my share in the work may possess, is in great measure due to the 
labour and- research of my son, John W. Ford, to whose filial 
assistance in this, as in other matters, I am so much indebted. [E. F. ] 



Much information has been gleaned from both these 
writers, and from the later history of Dr. Robinson 
(whose references in particular have been of great value). 
"\Vhere, however, their statements are at Variance with 
other evidence, and the Editors have attempted to 
correct inaccuracies, or to remove obscurities ; or where, 
what appeared redundant has been replaced by matter 
which they thought would be more generally interesting, 
they have endeavoured to steer between the two extremes, 
so aptly described by Hen. VIII. in proroguing Parliament 
on Christmas Eve, 1545. "Some be too stiff in their 
" old mumpsimus, others be too busy and curious in their 
" new sumpsimus." (NOTE.) Whatever may be the defects 
of their unpretending production, it will be a gratification 
to them and to the Subscribers, to know that its original 
object has succeeded far beyond their expectations, and 
that a sum of nearly one hundred pounds will be realized, 
which it is intended to invest for the widow of Mr. Tuff, 
on whose behalf it was undertaken. 

No probable sale could have defrayed the cost of the 
engravings, so skilfully executed by Mr. Pearson, many 
of them have been contributed free of expense by 
different subscribers ; for the interesting illustrations of 
the New River, the Editors are indebted to the liberality 
of Mr. Smiles and Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, and 
for those of the Bohun and Tiptoft families to the London 
and Middlesex Archaeological Society. It is a grateful 
duty to express their thanks to these donors, to the 



different landed proprietors who have lent their title 
deeds for examination (from which much curious informa- 
mation has been obtained) ; to the officials of the British 
Museum, whose courteous attention never fails to the 
most troublesome enquirer; and lastly, to the "troops of 
friends " who have done so much to encourage and assist 

their faithful and obliged servants, 

j 

THE EDITORS. 



NOTE. The curious reader may be gratified to see this proverbial 
allusion, (which has perhaps been more frequently quoted than 
explained) traced to its source. The anecdote is first told by Sir 
Richard Pace, Dean of St. Paul's, the friend and correspondent of 
Erasmus, and Secretary of State. It occurs in a rare volume, 
" Ricardi Pacei, invictissimi Regis Anglise primarii secretarii, ejusque 
' ' apud elvetios oratoris De Fructu qui ex doctrina percipitur Liber. 
' ' In inclyta Basilea. A.D. 1517." Where Pace speaking of the 
hard usage to which the letter S had been subject, tells the story of 
an ignorant English priest who had disused it for thirty years, and 
during that time (in the office of the mass) had read mumpsimus 
instead of sumpsimus, and when his error was pointed out to him by 
a scholar, replied that he did not choose to change his own old 
" mumpsimus " for his new " sumpsimus." 

"Sane proba hsec mea ancilla [S] omnium literarum fuit infortu- 
4 ' natissima. Nam et quidam indoctus sacrificus Anglicus earn, 
' ' possessione sua annis triginta expulit, nee puduit ilium tam longo 
' ' tempore mumpsimus legere loco sumpsimus, Et quum moneretur 
"adocto, ut errorem emendaret, respoudit se nolle mutare suum 
"antiquum mumpsimus ipsius novo sumpsimus." p. 80. 



HISTORY OF ENFIELD. 



1 ' I know each lane, and every alley green, 
"Dingle, or bushy dell of forest wild; 
"And every bosky bourn from side to side, 
"My daily walks and ancient neighbourhood." 

Masque of Cotnus. 



THE parish of Enfield is situated about nine miles 
from London * and is bounded by Edmonton, East 
Barnet, Hadley, South Mimms, Northaw, and Cheshunt, 
and by the River ' Lea, which separates it from 
Waltham, in Essex. It contains 12653*096 acres, 
of which 223 are public roads, 12 2*5 water, and about 
too railways. It extends from east to west about Sj4 
miles, and 3^ from north to south by the main road, 
but between 5 and 6 in other places. 

Few districts in the vicinity of London retain so much 
of rural and sequestered character, owing no doubt in part 
to its formerly tedious and circuitous means of access. 



* The old mile-stone, opposite the Market-house, was inscribed, 
"9 miles and a-half-and 32 poles, from Shoreditch Church." 



6 

Since the opening of two new lines of railway however, 
this isolation cannot much longer continue. The beauty 
and variety of the scenery, the upland Chase, still so 
nobly timbered, and the more cultivated lowlands, 
watered for many a mile by the windings of the New 
River and the Lea; and the long-sustained character of 
the parish for health and longevity (rating the second in 
England) are drawing the attention of the country-loving 
public, to this picturesque and interesting neighbourhood. 

From the more elevated situations, extensive prospects 
may be obtained in all directions over the adjoining 
counties; from Camlet-moat, and from the Ridgeway-. 
road, across the broad expanse of the Chase; far down 
into Hertfordshire, from the wood at Forty Hall; and 
away into the heart of Buckinghamshire, from above 
Potter's-bar; and the long range of Epping and Hainault 
forests from everywhere. 

The bridle-road across Hadley-common, perhaps the 
last remains of genuine forest scenery in Middlesex, leads 
to the highest ground in the parish, whence looking 
south, distant gleams of the Thames and the white sails 
of its shipping may be seen in the far horizon. 

Norden (MS. Harl. 370) describes it as "a parish stand- 
ing on the edge of the Chace, of such extent that if it were 
measured by the ring it would be found at least 20 miles 
in extent, some time parcell of the Duke of Lancaster's 
lands now Queen Elizabeth's. The Chace, called 
Enfield Chace, taketh its name of this place." To this he 



uncivilly adds, "It is called of some Enfen, and so 
" recorded in regarde of the fenny scytuation of some 
" parte thereof, upon the marshes or meerish ground, 
"which, though now brought to be good meadow and 
" profitable pasture, it hath in time past been fenny." 

This statement, however, is not supported by any 
authority. The termination " field," is the past participle 
of the -verb fsellan, to fell, and opposed to woodland, 
as land where the trees have been cleared. Domesday 
Book calls it Enefelde, and the variations in subsequent 
records are very trifling, Endfield, Enfeld, Enefield, 
and Enfield, and le'ss frequently Envild. 

This place formerly conferred the title of Baron, on 
the Earl of Rochfort, whose ancestor, the first Earl, 
married Joan, daughter of Sir Henry Wroth, of Durants, 
and was created Baron of Enfield by William III. in 
1695. It now gives the title of Viscount to the Earl 
of Strafford, whose son and heir is M.P. for Middlesex. 

The parish is included within the " Hundred " of 
Edmonton, a division which originated in the old military 
constitution, the name being given to a district which 
chose one hundred men for counsel and defence, though 
it is stated by Tacitus that the number did not always 
correspond with the name. The meetings of the hundred 
were held monthly, " quum aut inchoatur luna atit 
"impletur." Every free member of the community 
above twelve years old was bound to enrol himself in a 
hundred, which should be surety for him, and in case of 



10 

an accusation, should bring him to justice. The leader 
of the men of the hundred was called the "comes 
stabuli," since degenerated into that subordinate police 
officer the constable. 

The administration of justice was also in the hundred, 
the finding a verdict being entrusted to a committee of 
twelve of the principal thanes. The decision of two- 
thirds of this jury was a valid one, those outvoted 
being subject td a pecuniary mulct. 



11 

DIVISIONS OF THE PARISH. 

The parish is divided into four quarters, viz. the 
Town, Chase, Bull's Cross; and Green Street and 
Ponder's End. 

Town Division. Enfield Old-park, London-road, Essex- 
road, Sydney-road, Raleigh-road, Cecil-road, Church- 
street, Enfield-town, Silver-street, Nag's-head-lane, Baker- 
street, Clay-hill, Parsonage-lane, and the east side of 
Chase-side. 

Chase Division. Windmill-hill, the west side of Chase- 
side, and the whole of Enfield-chase. 

Bull's Cross Division. Forty-hill, Bull's-cross, Turkey- 
street, Enfield-wash, Lock-lane, the Lock, Freezywater, 
White-webbs, and CrewVhill. 

Green Street and Ponder's End Division. Green-street, 
Enfield-highway, and Ponder's-end. 

It appears by the minute book of the Vestry, 1691 
(the earliest one preserved) that there were then, and for 
several years subsequently, four Churchwardens and four 
Overseers for four quarters, viz.: "Enfield Green" now 
" the Town " quarter, Bull's-cross quarter, Green-street 
quarter, and Ponder's-end quarter; and five Surveyors, 
for Enfield-green, Parsonage-ward, Bull's-cross, Green- 
street, and Ponder's-end respectively. In 1703, one 
Churchwarden served for Green-street, Ponder's-end, and 
Bull's-cross. From that time, Green-street and Ponder's- 
end seem to have been permanently united for Church- 
wardens ; but not for Overseers, till 1710. 



12 

PRIVILEGES AND EXEMPTIONS. 

There is a singular document in existence, with 
reference to Fairs and Markets. There was originally a 
grant by Richard II., and subsequently confirmed by 
Henry IV. and VI., and other Monarchs, down to 
George III., a copy of which can be had on application 
to the Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, which exempts 
the inhabitants of Enfield from toll, pannage, passage, 
lastage, tallage, tollage, carriage, pesage, picage, and 
terrage, for their goods, wares, and merchandizes, in all 
fairs, markets, villages, and other places throughout 
England, (out of the Duchy of Lancaster, in the County 
of Middlesex.) It is stated, however, that this exemption 
has been resisted in Covent-garden and Whitechapel 
markets. 

There was also a charter of exemption from arrest, 
granted by Richard I., but it has not been acted upon 
for many years, and is now considered obsolete. 

An exemption from toll at Warebridge was also granted 
to the inhabitants of Enfield by Queen Elizabeth, and 
subsequently confirmed by George III. All these 
charters are preserved among the parish records. 



13 
MANORS, COURTS-LEET, COURTS-BARON, &c. 

"Out of monuments, names, words, proverbs, traditions, private 
" recordes and evidences, fragments of stories, passages of bookes, 
"and the like, we doe save and recover somewhat from the deluge 
"of time." 

Bacon Advancement of learning, Book II. 



The following is a list of the Manors for which Courts- 
leet and Courts-baron are held on particular days, for the 
purpose of settling all fines, heriots, services, reliefs, 
profits, perquisites of courts, waters, waste grounds, 
fisheries, royalties, liberties, franchises, &c., viz. 

The Manor of Enfield. 

The Manor of Durants, or Durant's Harbour. 

The Manor of Elsynge, alias Norris, or North Farm. 

The Manor of Suffolks. 

The Manor of Honylands and Pentriches, alias Capels. 

The Manor of Goldbeaters. 

The Manor of Worcesters, and 

The Rectory Manor. 



14 

Of these Manors the most important are those of 
Enfield and of Worcesters, both of which were formerly 
in the possession of the Crown, each having its owa park 
and palace. 

It is material that this circumstance should be distinctly 
pointed out, as it has led to some confusion in the state- 
ments of both Gough and Lysons, which have been copied 
by Dr. Robinson and all subsequent writers. The Manor- 
house of Worcesters, was Elsynge-hall, alias Enfield- 
house ; this was built by the Earl of Worcester in the 1 5th 
century, and enlarged by his nephew, Sir Thomas Lovell, 
after which, it was sometimes known by the name of 
Lovell-place. This was the royal residence of Edward VI., 
of Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, and was pulled 
down in the time of Charles II. 

"The palace," as it is still called, and a part of which 
yet remains, was the Manor-house of Enfield, and appears 
to have been built by Edward VI. at the time when he 
gave the Manor to his sister Elizabeth, who resided here 
whilst Princess, but held her court at Elsynge-hall, after 
she came to the throne. Norden records with exultation, 
"the stately and most princely pallaces of Queene 
" Elizabeth," and speaks of " Hir Majesties parkes 
" exceeding all the kingdome of Fraunce, (if the discourse 
"be true betweene an Heraulde of England and a 
" Heraulde of France) where it is affirmed that there are 
" in all that region but two parkes, in Mydlesex there 
"are ten of Her Majesties, Enfield parkes two." 




15 
MANOR OF ENFIELD. 

In the reign of Edward the Confessor, the Manor of 
Enfield belonged to Asgar, Master of the Horse. When 
the survey of Domesday was taken, it was the property 
of Geoifrey de Magnaville, or Mandeville, a powerful 
Norman, who had accompanied William to England. 

His^William de Mandeville, gave to the Priory of 
^fi/w Hurley, in Berks, the tithe of nuts, "in parco suo de 

" Enfeld in frank-almoine," and to Trinity Priory, Aldgate, 
" XL carucates bushii per ann. in bosco de Enefeld. He 
married Margaret, daughter of Eudo Dapifer, (Steward to 
the Conqueror), by whom he had a son, Geoffrey, created 
Earl of Essex, by King Stephen. 

" Circa haec tempora ROBERTUS HUDUS et PARVUS 
" JOANNES, latrones famatissimi in nemoribus latuerunt - - 
" Latronum omnium humanissimus et princeps erat." 
[Majoris Britan. Histor.] 

Dr. Stukely says, that " Robin Hood took to this wild 
" way of life, in imitation of his grandfather, Geoffrey de 
" Mandeville, who, being a favourer of Maude, Empress, 
' King Stephen took him prisoner at St. Albans, and 
"made him give up the tower of London, Walden, 
" Plessis, &c., after which he lived in plunder." 

In resentment for this reduction of his power and 
influence, he committed (says Camden) the most violent 
ravages on the King and his party, and proceeding to 
seize and pillage Ramsey Abbey, was shortly afterwards 



16 

mortally wounded at the Castle of Burwell, which he had 
laid siege to. He was carried off by some of the Knights 
Templars, who, putting him in the habit of their order, 
carried his corpse into their orchard at the Old Temple. 
But as he died under sentence of excommunication, they 
would not give him Christian burial, but wrapping him 
up in lead (canali plumbeo inclusum) hung him up on a 
crooked tree. At length the sentence was taken off by 
the application of the Prior of Walden, to the Pope, and 
the Templars buried the body obscurely in the porch 
before the west door. 

This haughty baron inherited above one hundred 
Manors, with the constableship of the tower of London. 
The Monks of Walden have taken care to embalm .the 
memory of their munificent founder, and though they 
acknowledge him to have committed the greatest outrages, 
he was with them one of the bravest and best of men. 
" Erat enim vir militaris ac Deo devotus, cujus cordis 
" area virtutibus nunquam erat vacua." He married 
Roisia de Vere, daughter of the Earl of Oxford, by whom 
(according to Dr. Stukeley) William Fitzooth was brought 
up, and he marrying their daughter, Joanna, became the 
father of Robert Fitzooth, commonly known as Robin 
Hood.* The sons of Geoffrey de Mandeville dying 



* The traditional bow of Robin Hood, (which is stated by 
Ritson to have been preserved with peculiar veneration) is in 



17 

without issue, the bulk of his possessions devolved to 
Henry de Bohun, in right of his wife, Matilda, sole 
daughter and heiress of Geoffery Fitz Piers, who was 
himself, through his wife, Beatrice de Say, representative 
and heir of the Mandevilles. Henry de Bohun, constable 
of England, was created Earl of Hereford, and was one 
of the Barons of Runnymede. He died in 1220, on his 
voyage to the Holy Land, and was succeeded by his son 
Humphrey, second Earl of Hereford, and Earl of Essex, 
and distinguished by the title of " The Good." By his 
marriage with Maude, daughter of the Earl of Eu, in 
Normandy, he had a son, Humphrey, who died before 



possession of J. W. Ford, Esq., and would tax the strength of any 
modern archer to string it to say nothing of drawing it with "a 
cloth-yard arrow " to the head. 

Whatever exaggeration may attach to the stories of Robin Hood 
shooting an arrow "a measured mile," there can be no doubt that 
the distances reached by the old bowmen were far beyond anything 
which modern skill or strength could approach. Drayton says that 
they used to shoot at marks full 800 yards, and the statute 33 Henry 
VIII. cap. 9, made it penal for any one who had reached the age of 
24, to shoot at any less distance than 220 yards. 

Strutt mentions that at the end of the last century he was at a 
meeting of the London Toxophilites, "in their ground near Bedford 
Square," when the Turkish Ambassador, who was present, com- 
plained of the shortness of the enclosure, and going out into the 
adjoining fields, he shot several arrows "more than double the 
length of the archery ground," being above a quarter of a mile. 




Counter Seal of Humphrey de Bohiui, 
4/7* Earl of Hereford, and "yd Earl of Essex. 

The principal shield in this seal bears azure a bend argent 
cotised and between six lioncels or. On either side is a small shield 
charged with the arms of Mandeville, Earl of Essex quarterly or. 
and gules from which arrangement the usage of quartering is said 
to have been derived. 

The de Bohun swan was a badge of the Mandevilles, who bore 
this device, along with the Nevilles, in token of their descent from a 
common ancestor Adam de Swanne, or Sweyn, a Dane. 

Geoffrey Mandeville, Earl of Essex, was buried in the Temple 
Church, where may be seen his effigy, with a shield, on which his 
arms are sculptured being the earliest instance known of a 
monument with an armorial bearing. 

Cough's Sepulchral Monuments, p. 104, Introd. 



19 

his father, leaving a son, Humphrey, who married 
Matilda, daughter of William de Fienles, and had one 
son, Humphrey de Bohun, who, in 1302, married 
Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I. The 
eminent position of the Bohun family at this time is 
apparent both from the alliance and the cause that led to 
it, as set forth in an important document, which states } 
that there having been great dissention between the King 
and the Earl's father, the peace and tranquillity of the 
realm might be secured by the proposed marriage- 




Counter Seal of John de Bohim, 
Earl of Hereford, and 4/// Earl oj Essex. 



20 

Shortly after this event, he surrendered all his honours and 
lordships to the King, who granted them again to him 
and his heirs. His eldest son, John, succeeded him, 
who married Alice, daughter of the Earl of Arundel, and 
was succeeded by his brother Humphrey, who, in 1347 
obtained the royal licence to fortify and embattle his 
manor houses in Essex, Middlesex, Wilts, and Gloucester- 
shire; of these ten castles, one was at Enfield. His 
nephew, Humphrey, was the eleventh and last who bore 
that name. He died in 1372, leaving two daughters, 
Alianore and Mary de Bohun, the two most noble and 
wealthy heiresses in the realm. Alianore married 
Thomas de Woodstock, seventh son of Edward III., 
Earl of Buckingham and Essex, afterwards Duke of 
Gloucester, who was murdered at Calais by the command 
of his nephew Richard II., in 1397. " I was informed," 
(says Froissart) " that he was on the point of sitting down 
"to dinner; when the table had been laid and he was 
"about to wash his hands, four men rushed from an 
"adjoining chamber, and throwing a towel round his 
"neck, strangled him by two pulling at one end and two 
" the other. When he was quite dead they carried him 
" to his bed and undressed him, placing him between two 
" sheets, and covering him with a furred mantle, 
" gave out that he had died of a fit of apoplexy." His 
unfortunate widow survived her husband for a period of 
about two years, and was buried in St. Edmund's Chapel, 
in Westminster Abbey, according to the directions of her 




BRASS TO ALIANORE DE BOHUN, WESTMINSTER ABBEY, A.D. 1399. 



21- 

will. The monumental brass upon her tomb, and that of 
Joice Lady Tiptoft, in Enfield Church, are among the 
best and most interesting specimens of these memorials, 
and will be more fully described hereafter. 

After the death of Alianore,* in 1399, the Manor of 
Enfield was inherited by her sister Mary, who was married 
to Henry of Lancaster, the son of John of Gaunt, after- 
wards King Henry IV. The Manor thus vested in the 
crown was annexed to the Duchy of Lancaster, of which 
it still continues to be parcel. 

The site of the original Manor-house of Enfield has 
been the subject of much, antiquarian, research.. Camden 
says, that. " almost in the middle of the Chase there are 
the ruins and rubbish of an ancient house which the 
common people from tradition affirm to have belonged to * 
the Mandevilles, Earls of Essex." This site, called 
Camlet-moat, is a large quadrangular area, overgrown 
with briars and bushes. When measured in 1773, the 
length was 150 feet. At the north-east corner is a deep 
well, paved at the bottom, in which.it is pretended lies 
an iron chest full of treasure, which cannot be drawn up 
to the top, and that the last owner to whom the Chase 
belonged being attained of treason, hid himself in a. 
hollow tree, and falling into this well perished miserably.. 
This tradition is probably a distorted version of the account 

* This unfortunate Duchess is introduced by Shakespeare as one of 
the dramatis personas in his Richard II. 



22 

of Geoffry de Mandeville, which has been given above. 
Mr. Lysons (whose attentive investigations were assisted 
by the late Mr. Gough) considers however that this spot 
was more probably the site of the principal lodge and the 
residence of the chief forester.* The tiles scattered over 
the area, the well and the traces of the enclosures and 
avenues, would seem to be rather the works of the 1 5th 
or i6th centuries than of any earlier period. 

It appears from Dugdale's Baronage, and from MS. in 
the British Museum, that Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, obtained in 1347, the King's license to fortify 
his Manor-house in Enfield, as mentioned in page 20, the 
words of the grant are, " mansum manerii de Enefelde 
muro et petra et calce firmare et kernellare," dated 
at Guildford, Dec. 22, 21 Edward III. 

In a meadow to the east of the Church near Nag's-head- 
lane, there is an oblong area of 3*55 acres, (marked 1946, 
1947 on the ordnance map) surrounded by a deep and wide 
moat with high embankments. The south side is 132 
yards long, with a vallum 1 2 yards high, and the north 
side 1 60 yards long with the vallum 15 yards high, and 16 
yards wide at the base. The east and west sides are 
135 yards long, the vallum on the west side showing an 
entrance in the middle, corresponding with another in 



* It seems to be so indicated in a "sketch of the outlines of the 
Chase, 1658," in the centre of "the great square convenient for the 
deer to feed in." ^., 



23 

the inner vallum, which is 40 yards long at the east and 
west, and 96 yards at the north and south. The moat is 
from 10 to 12 yards wide, except on the north, where 
it is 32 yards wide. At the north-west corner is a 
mount, indicating a small keep, and opposite to it on the 
other side of the moat is a deep well. It is probable 
that this moated place, which was included in some 
demesne lands, might have been the site of Humphrey 
de Bohun's castle, and that when the manorial residence 
was removed it acquired the name of Oldbury, by which 
it is still known. 

From the records of the Duchy it appears that the 



Manor of Enfield was leased to private individuals in the 
early part of the 1 6th century, and that the lease reverted 
to the crown at the latter end of Henry VIII. 's reign. 
During this time the original Manor-house of Bohun 
had fallen into decay, and the royal children were brought 
up at Elsinge Hall (alias Enfield House) belonging to the 
Manor of Worcesters. 

At the death of King Henry VIII. his son Edward 
was resident in the Castle of Hertford, and his daughter 
Elizabeth at Enfield. The Earl of Hertford, the young 
King's maternal uncle, accompanied by Sir Anthony 
Browne, the Master of the Horse, undertook the charge 
of conducting the new sovereign to the metropolis. 
They repaired to Hertford Castle, and, without apprising 
Edward of all that had occurred, removed him (probably 
on Saturday, the 29th of January, 1547) to Elsynge Hall. 



24 

Here, in the presence of his sister, Edward was informed of 
his father's death, and of his own accession to the crown. 
On the following Monday he was conducted from Enfield 
to the Tower of London.* 

It was in the garden at Elsynge Hall that the Earl of 
Hertford took the opportunity of communicating to his 
companion, the Master of the Horse, his intention to 
assume the office of Protector, in contravention to the late 
King's will, which had designated eighteen executors 
with equal powers. 

We are told, that " after communication in discourse 
of the state," Sir Anthony " gave his frank consent to the 
proposal;" upon which, as we learn from a letter,t of 

* In the State Paper Office is a letter from the Earl of Hertford 
to the Council "From Envild this Sunday night att xj of the 
clok." He writes, " We intend the King's Matie. shal be a 
horsbak to-morrow by xj. of the clok, so that bi iij. we trust His 
Grace shal be att the Tower." 

t "Myne old master, the master of th' orsses, albeit, as is 
commonly known, he did much dissent from the proceedings in 
matters of religion, yet was I long sins by himself right well assured 
that he, commoning with my Lordes Grace in the garden at Endfielde, 
at the King's Majesties cooming from Hartforde, gave his franke 
consent, after communication in discourse of the state, that His 
Grace should be Protector, thinking it (as indede it was) both the 
surest kynde of government and most fyt for this commonwelth." 
Letter of William Wightman to Cecill, Literary Remains of King 
Edward VI. ( printed for the Roxburghe Club, 1558^ p, ccxlvii. 

" Remember what you promised me in the gallery at Westminster, 
before the breath was out of the body of the King that dead is. 
Remember what you promised immediately after, devising with me 
concerning the place which you now occupy. I trust in the end to 
good purpose, however things thwart now." (Letter of Paget to 
the Protector Somerset. ) 



25 

Paget's, Hertford had previously " devised" with Secretary 
Paget, who was now left at Court to arrange matters 
with the other counsellors. 

Edward VI. did not again return to Enfield, and in 
1552 he settled the Manor of Enfield on his sister 
Elizabeth,* at which time he probably built (or re-built on 
the site of a former structure) the house now known as 
" The Palace," for her use, as is shown by the initials 
E. R. on the walls and chimney pieces, and the words 
" benevolentia regis." Dr. Robinson erroneously states 
that it was " built in the reign of Henry VII., by Sir 
Thomas Lovell, as one may gather from the arms" citing 
Camden as his authority. The reference in Camden is 
clearly to Elsynge Hall, and Gough's edition explicitly 
says " the arms of Lovell do not appear on the Palace." 
Notwithstanding the great alterations it has undergone 
the interior still preserves some vestiges of its ancient 
magnificence, and a part of one of the large rooms on 
the ground floor remains nearly in its original state, with 



* In April, 1557, " the Princess was escorted from Hatfield Hall, 
Hatfield House, to Enfield-chase, by a retinue of twelve ladies, in 
white satin, on ambling palfries, and twenty yeomen, in green, on 
horseback, that Her Grace might hunt the hart. On entering the 
Chase she was met by fifty archers, in scarlet boots and yellow caps, 
armed with gilded bows, each of whom presented her with a silver- 
headed arrow, winged with peacocks' feathers; and by way of 
closing the sports, the Princess was gratified with the privilege of 
cutting the throat of a buck!" 



26 

its fine fretted pannels of oak and its ornamental ceiling 
with pendants of four spreading leaves, and enrichments 
of the crown, the rose, and the fleur de lis. The chimney 
piece is of stone beautifully cut and supported by Ionic 
and Corinthian columns, decorated with foliage and birds, 
and the rose and portcullis crowned; with the arms of 
England and France quarterly in a garter, and the royal 
supporters, a lion and a dragon. 

Below is the motto "Sola salvs servire Deo sunt 
csetera fraudes." The letters E. R. are on this chimney 
piece, and were formerly on each side of the wings of the 
principal building. The monogram is clearly that of 
Edward VI., as the same room contains part of another 
chimney piece which was removed from one of the upper 
apartments, with nearly the same ornaments, and the 
motto, " Vt ros svper herbam est benevolentia REGIS," 
alluding no doubt to the royal grant. Several of the 
ceilings in the upper rooms are decorated in a similar 
manner to those below. 

It appears that the Queen leased the Manor-house, 
" the Palace," in the year 1582, to Henry Middlemore, 
Esq., for fifty-one years, and that it did not revert to the 
crown during her reign. 

It was alienated in 1629, by Charles L, to Edward 
Ditchfield, and others, trustees for the City of London, 
who afterwards conveyed it to Sir Nicholas Raynton, and 
it has ever since remained private property. Sir N. 
Raynton let the house to Sir Thomas Trevor, one of the 



27 

Barons of the Exchequer, in whose tenure it seems to 
have been from 1635, till his death in 1656. About the 
year 1660, " the Palace " was let to Dr. Robert Uvedale, 
Master of the Grammar School, who, being much 
attached to the study of botany, had a large and curious 
garden in which he cultivated a choice collection of 
exotics. Among others he had a cedar, said to have 
been brought in a portmanteau from Lebanon, by one of 
his pupils, and planted by himself, which has since 
become much celebrated for its beauty and size, being 
probably the largest in England, and but little inferior in 
girth to the largest tree on Mount Lebanon. 

It was destined to be cut down by the late Dr. 
Callaway soon after he purchased the Palace, the saw- 
pit was actually prepared and the trench dug round it 
ready for the axe, but at the earnest request of the late 
Mr. Gough and Dr. Sherwen the tree was spared. 
Although it has suffered much from storms and high 
winds, it is still a magnificent tree, and forms a con- 
spicuous object from many parts of Enfield. 

In 1792 a great part of the original Palace was pulled 
down, and several dwelling houses built upon the site. 
It formerly consisted of a centre and two wings facing 
the west, with bay windows and high gables. The wings 
bore the arms of England, with supporters, and the letters 
E. R., the same as on the chimney piece before mentioned. 

After the death of Eliab Breton, the descendant of 
Sir N. Raynton, this property was purchased by Daniel 



28 

Lister, Esq., in whose family it still remains. It was for 
many years in the tenantcy of the late Dr. May, as a 
first class boarding school, and it still retains all its 
deserved reputation under its present accomplished 
master, W. Nutter Barker, B.A., F.R.A.S. 

In the time of Edward the Confessor, the Manor of 
Enfield was valued at ^50, and bore the same value in 
the survey of Domesday. In the reign of Edward I. 
(1303) it was valued at only 34 3 s - l< ^- In that of 
Edward III. (1337) its extent and value are thus de- 
scribed: "A capital messuage, 135. 4d.; a garden of 
herbs, 55.; a dove house, 55.; four hundred and twenty 
acres of arable in demesne, sixpence an acre ; sixty-three 
acres of meadow, 35.; and thirty-nine other acres of 
meadow, one shilling only; twenty-four acres of pasture, 
35.; a park called " The Frith," or Old Park, whence 
twenty acres of underwood, worth 33. an acre might be 
sold annually; another called the Great Park, or Chase, 
which was of common pasture and no underwood, worth 
505. per annum. There were fish ponds also,* whence 
fish might be sold every seventh year to the amount of 
15 marks." 

To this Manor belongs a view of frankpledge; courts 
leet and baron are held in Whitsun-week, and on 



* Old Pond, New Pond, Sloper's Pond, Ranmey Reach Pond, 
and Monkey Mead Pond, all long since drained and filled up. 



29 

November 5th, when a constable and two headboroughs 
are chosen for the town quarter, with a brander and 
aleconner; a constable, headborough, and brander, for 
BulPs-cross quarter; and two headboroughs, a brander, 
and a hayward for Green-street. The annual fines did 
not exceed 16. The Court Rolls were burnt by 
accident many years ago, and the present books begin 
in 1705. 

The value of the fee simple of these quit rents was 
deducted from the allotments under the Enclosure Act, 
and their estates exonerated and for ever discharged, 
from the 2Qth September, 1803. 



THE OLD PARK. 

" In the early surveys of the Manor of Enfield, the 
Old Park (so called in contradistinction from the Little 
Park or New Park, near White-webbs) is sometimes 
called the Frith,* and sometimes ' Parcus Intrinsecus,' or 
the Home Park, to distinguished it from the Chase, 
which was called ' Parcus Extrinsecus,' and sometimes 
the Great Park." 

" It was formerly the home park of the ancient 
Manorial Palace of Enfield, at which the Princess 



* P'RITH is used by Chaucer for a wood, an open space among 
woods. 



30 

Elizabeth resided.* The park, with ' the hop garden,' 
(designated on the Ordnance Map as Old Park Farm), 
and the 'warren,' was granted by Charles II. to George 
Monk, first Duke of Albe\marle, in 1660. It was 
bequeathed by Christopher, the second Duke, together 
with the whole of his great estates, to his cousin and 
godson, Christopher Rawlinson, Esq., of Cark-hall, 
Lancashire, (son of Curwen Rawlinson, M.P. for 
Lancaster, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas 
Monk, Bishop of Hereford) in the event of his surviving 
the Duchess. Her Grace being taken ill, Mr. Rawlinson 
was called to London, but was seized by the small-pox 
on the road, and died one month before the Duchess. 
He was buried in the north transept of St. Alban's Abbey, 
where a marble monument was erected to his memory. 
The property thus escheated to the Crown; it was again 
granted by King William III., in the first year of his 
reign, to the Earl of Rutland, and was sold in 1736 by 
Grace, Countess of Granville, to Samuel Clayton, Esq., 



* To this time belongs an incident which is recorded by George 
Puttenham in his Art of Poesie, and which is "characteristic of the 
majesty of her thoughts as well as her actions." When she came to 
the crown, a knight who had behaved insolently to her when Lady 
Elizabeth, fell upon his knees and besought "her pardon, expecting 
to be sent to the tower. "Do you not knowe" (she good- 
humouredly replied) " that we are descended of the lion, whose 
nature is not to harme or prey upon the mouse, or any other such 
smalle vermine." 






81 

for ^7000, at which time it consisted of 230 acres, to 
which 33 acres were added by the Enclosure Act of 1777. 
In 1825, the mansion house and 200 acres were 
purchased by the late Mrs. Winchester Lewis, and a part 
was afterwards resold. It is now the property and 
residence of her son-in-law, Edward Ford, Esq., a 
descendant of the Rawlinson family. The house appears, 
from the survey of 1650, to have been then a Ranger's 
Lodge, at which time it was occupied by Mr. Crosby, 
and valued at ^8 per annum, and from the remains of 
massive foundations in every direction, must have been 
of considerable extent; but the greater part of the original 
structure has long since been pulled down, and the 
remainder transformed into a comparatively modern 
residence.* 

The park is richly wooded with oaks, the growth of 
centuries, from which three hundred and ninety-seven 
were selected and felled for the Navy, in the time of the 
Commonwealth. 

The lawn, in front of the house, is mentioned by 
Camden as the site of an ancient Roman Oppidum, and 
is surrounded on three sides by a circular entrenchment, 
from which various interesting relics have, at different 
times, been obtained." 



* There still remain in the Library the original open chimney 
and hearth, with fire dogs, and a curious old "reredos," with 
figures of the time of James I. 



CHASE PARK. 

Chase Park, the residence of Mrs. Adams, was 
originally parcel of the Old Park. The former house 
which stood near the entrance lodge from Chase Green, 
was purchased of Mr. Clayton, in 1811, by Mr. Thomas 
Cotton, along with thirty-four acres of land, for ^7027. 
In 1822, he sold it to the late Mr. Browning, who pulled 
it down and built the present mansion in its stead. Ten 
years afterwards Mr. Browning conveyed the estate to 
his son-in-law, William Carr, Esq., who had previously 
purchased of Mrs. Winchester Lewis, fifty-six acres of 
adjoining land, when the whole property was thrown 
together, and the present park laid out. 

About the same time the New River Company, under 
a mutual agreement, formed the ornamental sheet of 
water in front of the house, on which the proprietor has 
the right of fishing and keeping a boat.* 

In the year 1859, the estate, which then contained 
seventy-six acres, was purchased for ^15000, by the 
late Francis Bryant Adams, Esq., the husband of the 
present owner. 

* The New River Company having failed in procuring powers 
from Parliament to construct a drain to divert the surface water of 
the adjoining lands, for which the parochial authorities had refused 
permission, obtained leave from Mr. Carr to take the drain through 
his estate, which was done at a cost of 2000, the lake being 
excavated by the Company in return for the permission granted 
to them. 



33 

CHASE SIDE HOUSE. 

The estate of Chase Side House was originally a part 
of the Old Park, which formerly extended as far as 
Enfield, and included " the Palace," with its gardens and 
curtilage. After these had been alienated by the Crown 
in the year 1629, parts of the freehold adjoining the 
street were sold for building purposes to various indi- 
viduals. 

This part of the town was then known by the name of 
" Enfield Green," (the present Green being at that time 
unenclosed chace), and within this century several trees 
were still standing, marking the former boundary of the 
Old Park. The last of these, a noble old elm, stood in 
the middle of the open space at the top of the town. It 
was greatly injured by a bonfire on the 5th of November, 
1836, and finally blown down by^the great hurricane on 
the 29th of the same month. 

Amongst the oldest of those houses which can be now 
identified, was the George Inn,* originally a private 
dwelling house, and a house marked upon the old map 
of 1658, where Chase Side House now stands, which 
was possibly that of Sir Robert Jason, who had " a 
mansion at Enfield Green, in 1686." 

This house was bought in 1826 by the late Mr. 
Steadman, who afterwards purchased an additional 

* The title-deeds of Mr. Mathison comprise the original con- 
veyance of this house from Edward Heath to Thos. Taylor, in 1666. 

C 



84 

quantity of land, lying within the bend of the New 
River, from the late Mr. Clayton, and subsequently he 
re-built a great part of the house as it now stands, 
removing the wrought iron gates and the piers, with their 
fine floriated vases of cast lead, from the front facing the 
road, and placing them within the grounds as an entrance 
to the walled garden. 

Mr. Steadman's widow, afterwards so well known as 
Mrs. Everett for her hospitality and beneficence, and for 
the liberality with which the beautiful grounds were 
constantly thrown open whenever they could contribute 
to the public benefit or amusement, died 1865, and the 
property was purchased in 1867, by Phillip Twells, Esq., 
M.A., the present proprietor. 

The estate consists of thirty-five acres within a ring 
fence. 

A young oak in these grounds has an interesting history, 
which is worth recording. General Pallisier had sent 
over some acorns from Algiers to Louis Philippe, by whom 
they were presented to the Queen, and Her Majesty 
distributed several to different ladies about the Court. 
One of these was given by Miss Skerrett to Mrs. Everett, 
who planted it on the lawn, where it has reached a height 
of twenty feet, the stem being a foot in diameter, and the 
spread of the branches eighteen feet. The leaf, which 
somewhat resembles that of the beech, remains on the 
tree till May, when the young leaves appear, thus giving 
it all the advantages of an evergreen. 



35 
ENFIELD CHASK. 

"next Enfield 

" A Forrest for her pride, though titled but a Chace, 
" Her Purlewes, and her Parks, her circuit full as large 
' ' As some perhaps whose state requires a greater charge, 
" Whose Holts that view the East, do wistly stand to look 
" Upon the winding course of Lee's delightful Brook." 

Draytoit's Polyolbion 16//< Song. 



On the north side of Enfield Town there is an extensive 
tract of land called Enfield Chase, anciently in the 
possession of the Mandevilles, and afterwards of the 
Bohuns, their successors, but now belonging to the Duchy 
of Lancaster, since the marriage of Henry IV. to Mary, 
daughter and ultimate heiress of Humphrey de Bohun. 

Enfield Chase first occurs under that name in the reign 
of Edward II., previously to which it was generally called 
the " Great Park," " parcus extrinsecus," or the outer 
park. It extends into several adjoining parishes, and is 
supposed by Lord Lyttleton to have been a tract of the 
ancient forest of Middlesex. 

The Chase, together with the Manor of Enfield, was 
given by Richard III. in 1483, to Stafford, Duke of 
Buckingham, as a reward for his services in raising him 
to the crown; but it is doubtful whether he ever took 
possession, as he soon conspired, with the Bishop of Ely, 
to dethrone the King, and being betrayed by his own 
servants, he was taken to Salisbury and beheaded in the 
Market-place, without any arraignment or trial. 



36 

The Chase remained in the possession of the sovereign 
till the death of Charles I., when it was seized by the 
Commonwealth as public property, and by an order of the 
House of .Commons, was surveyed in the year 1650, 
when it was reported to contain 7,900 acres, and its value 
,4,742 8s. per annum. . At this time there was an 
abundant quantity of deer, which were valued at 150. 
The oak timber (exclusive of 2,500 marked for the use of 
the navy) was valued at 2,100. The horn-beam and 
other wood at ,12,100. 

In November, 1652, it was resolved, "that Enfield 
Chase should be sold for ready money;" pursuant to 
which resolution it was divided into parcels, which were 
sold to various purchasers, and a considerable part was 
inclosed, and several houses built. The proposed 
division, according to the plan made in 1650, called 
" Oliver Cromwell's Division-' was as follows: 

To persons entitled to common rights in A. R. P. 
the Parish of Enfield, and Enfield Old 
Park ... ... ... ... ... 1329 2 o 

To ditto of Edmonton ... ... ... 917 o o 

To ditto of Hadley ... ... ... 240 o o 

To ditto of South Mimms and Old Fold 

Farm ... ... ... ... ... 913 o o 

Total Allotment to the Commoners ... 3399 2 o 
Roads over His Majesty's Allotment ... 140 o o 
The remainder to the King ... ... 4360 o o 

The whole contents of the Chase 7899 2 o 



87 

Much discontent was excited among those who claimed 
the right of common which caused " divers riots and 
unlawful assemblies," and also " manslaughter and other 
outrages." These were suppressed under an order of the 
House of Commons (July i8th, 1659,) by the Sheriff and 
Magistrates, " all military officers and forces whatsoever 
" being required to aid and assist the said Sheriff and 
" Magistrates." Four files of foot being sent against the 
insurgents were so far from being able to suppress them, 
that they seized ten soldiers and made them prisoners, on 
which " Mr. Sheriff Bateman, according to order of 
" Parliament, went down, attended by some troops of 
" horse in a readiness, when quiet was at last restored." 

In the Bodleian Library, Oxford, there may be found 
an original survey of the Chase, intituled, "A Description 
" of Enfield Chase, situate in the Parish of Enfield, and 
" County of Middlesex, as the same is now divided 
"between the Commonwealth and the Commons, by 
" Edmund Rolfe and Nicholas Gunter, in the year 1658."* 
It was on a thick parchment, with rollers. There are 
some seats mentioned in this survey, with the names of 
their possessors at that time, viz. Captain Nelthorp's. 
(called the West Lodge), Captain Dauge's (called the- 
East Lodge), and Captain Kempe's (called the South 



* A duplicate, or probably the original, of this document, much 
decayed and obliterated by age and damp, is in the possession of 
the Vestry Clerk. 



38 

Lodge). Adjoining the Chase, on the south, were the 
seats of Captains Colvill, Malyn, Spinage, Blake, and 
Gladman. On the east, Forty House, one mile from 
Enfield, the seat of the Wolstenholme and Breton families ; 
and adjoining the Edmonton allotment, the seats of 
William Allton, Esq., Mr. Megg, and Edmund Peeke, Esq. 
(called Belmont), and Sir William Ashurst's, near South 
Mimms allotment, the seat of Colonel Web. 

The following is a schedule of the division marked on 
this map, with the quantity of land contained in each. 





A. 


K. 


p. 




A. 


K. 


1'. 


Greene Oak Plane 


126 





o 


The Great Scoots 


109 


I 





Faire Feedings . . . 


131 


I 


o 


The Little Scoots... 


26 


3 





Great Monkey Mead 


IOI 


2 


o 


East Camelot 


86 


i 





Long Hill... 


95 


I 


3 


Noddin's Well Hill 


88 


3 





Great Broad Slade 


99 


3 


o 


Leezing Beech 


103 


2 





Little Broad Slade 


24 


2 


o 


Horsey Plane 


149 








Little Monkey Mead 


34 


2 


o 


Marke Plane 


138 


3 





High Beech 


43 


2 


o 


Capt. Coville's ... 


6 


3 





On South Mims 








Merry Hill 


67 


2 





Common 


17 


2 


o 


Red Clay 


65 


2 





New Pond Plane.. 


138 


3 


o 


Matthew's Plane 


95 


2 





Fenny Slade 


80 


2 





Matthew's Breake 


7i 


2 





Plumridge Hill ... 


172 


O 


o 


South Coney B.urrow 


62 








Faire Thorne 


131 








Great Hooks Hill 


117 








North Camelot ... 


80 





o 


Little Hooks Hill 


65 


3 





WestCamelot ... 


1 10 


3 


o 


Mote Plane 


109 


2 


o 


Camelot Hill 


"5 


3 





Hart Green 


56 


I 






Little Lodge Hill 16 2 o 

Den's Lawne ... 630 

Enfield Common 1522 i 30, 
Common of the. 

Old Parke ... 31 I 30 
Edmonton Com- 
mon 1224 2 15 

Hadley Common 186 I 30 
Sir F. Allen's ... 45 o 28 
South Minis Com- 
mon 1077 3 26. 



There was a survey of the Manor; of Enfield in 1686, 
(deposited in the office of the Duchy of Lancaster), 
which states that on a former perambulation, the Chase, 
had been found to contain 7,6po acres, of which 50*) had, 
been since inclosed in Theobald' s-park. This inclosure 
was made by King James I.t while he resided at 



West Earvin* 


61 


3 





South Barvin 


97 


2 


o 


East Barvin 


69 


I 





Pond's Course .. 


IO2 


2 





Cow's Face 


105 








Stroud Head .. 


"4 





o 


North Coney 








Burrow 


74 


o 


o 


Deep Slade 


. 115 


I 





Lodge Hill 


. 86 


2 


o 


Old Lawne 


34 


3 






* This word (erroneously printed "Baroin" in Robinson's 
History) is the same as burrow, or warren, being the past participle 
of Parian (protegere.) 

"Foxis han borwin or dennes, and briddes of the eir han 
" nestis, but mannes sone hath not where he shal reste his hede." 
\_Mattkeu viii, 20. Wicliffe's translation.] 

t The King gave the Parish, for these 500 acres, the estate called 
King James's Charity, at North Mimms, which was sold by the 
Parish under the authority of a private Act of Parliament. Set the 
Account of the Charities. 



40 

Theobald's.* At this time the Chase was abundantly 
stocked with deer; but the army of the Parliament, 
during the civil war, destroyed the game, cut down the 
trees, and let the ground out into small farms. In this 
state it continued until the restoration, when young trees 
were planted, and the Chase was again stocked with 
deer. 

Upon one of the surveys it was presented that the fines 
for the Manor of Enfield were certain, and not arbitrary. 
Every heir paid, on his admittance, one year's quit-rent 
as his fine for his copyhold, and every one admitted 
upon surrender paid two years' quit-rent for his fine. 

" There are no heriots belonging to this Manor, either 
to freehold or copyhold lands; but every heir, upon 
descent, paid to His Majesty, for a relief, one year's quit- 
rent for his freehold land." There are no other rents 



* In the year 1606 Sir Robert Cecil (who was the second son and 
successor of his father, Lord Burleigh, in the possession of the manor 
of Theobalds), entertained King James I. and Frederick III., King 
of Denmark, there. "The King, having become enamoured of this 
" place from its proximity to an extensive tract of open country favour- 
"able to the diversion of hunting (his favourite amusement), he pre- 
" vailed upon his Minister to exchange it with him for his Palace of 
" Hatfield, in the County of Herts. The King, having obtained 
" possession of this manor, enlarged the park by taking in part of 
" adjoining Chase, and surrounded it with a wall of brick ten miles 
" in circumference." ClutterlmcKs Hertfordshire. 






41 

and services except fealty and suit of court, and the 
following curious fine: 

" Item, of Henry Hunsdon, for two parcells of meadow 
in South marsh, whereof the one containeth three roods, 
and the other half an acre, both of them abutting south 
upon the demesnes of the mannour of Worcesters, 
called the nine acres, sometime John Banks, - - per 
annum. A Red Rose at Midsummer."* 

There was another survey of the Chase in 1698, when 
the Earl of Stamford was Chancellor of the Duchy, by 
Hugh Westlake, Esq., Surveyor of the Woods, in the 
south part of the Duchy, in order to a fall of timber, by 
which several new ridings were to be formed, and a 
square lawn of 300 acres for the deer to feed in. The 
money arising from the sale of this timber was for the 
King's use, who granted it to the Earl. In consequence 
of this, 261 acres of wood were to be cleared, for which 
one John Shelley contracted at ^"1,044, with bond and 
penalty ^2,000. 

The ridings marked out when the Chase was to be 
divided into farms at the time of the Commonwealth, 



* Hatton Garden was held by Sir Charles Hatton, of the Bishop 
of Ely, by a similar tenure, of "A Red Rose at Midsummer," the 
Bishop reserving to himself and his successors, the privilege of 
walking in the garden and gathering twenty bushels of roses yearly. 



42 

still distinguished by hedges and ditches, were* Cock- 
fosters, and the Ridgeway from the gravel pits by East 
Lodge to Ganna-corner. 

In the year 1766 the largest oak on the Chase was 
felled, which measured thirty feet long, and contained 
three tons, or about t\vo loads, reckoning a ton and a 
half to a load; the diameter of the butt end was three 
feet. It was sold for 10. 

In the year 1777, an Act of Parliament passed for 
dividing the Chase, intituled, " An Act for dividing the 
Chase of Enfield, in the County of Middlesex, and other 
purposes therein mentioned," and assigning allotments to 
such parishes and individuals as claimed right of common 
which rights were in the survey of 1650 thus defined: 
herbage, mast age for swine, green boughs to garnish horses, 
thorns for fences, and crabs and acorns gathered under trees. 

Upon this occasion an accurate survey was made by 
order of Thomas, Earl of Clarendon, Chancellor of His 
Majesty's Duchy of Lancaster, intituled, " A survey and 
admeasurement of Enfield Chase, shewing the boundaries 
thereof, and the lines and quantities of the allotments 
assigned and set out to the several parishes and estates 



* An obliging antiquarian correspondent writes, that the 
name of "Cock Fosters" is a corruption of Bicoque Forestier 
Bicoque (bi-kok) petite ville de peu de consideration, petite maison, 
a hut, a hovel. Vile oppidulum. "Bicoque a little paltry 
"town," &c. (Cotgrave.) 



43 

in lieu of their respective rights; with the roads directed 
to be made on the division of the said Chase, made and 
taken in obedience to an order of the Right Honourable 
Thomas Earl of Clarendon, Chancellor of His Majesty's 
Duchy of Lancaster, in the months of August and 
September, 1776, by F. Russell, His Majesty's Surveyor 
General of the south parts of the said Duchy, and Richard 
Richardson, Land Surveyor, his deputy, and since 
corrected, according to the Act of Parliament of the 
seventeenth year of King George III. for the division of 
the said Chase;" when the Chase was found to 
contain, including the roads, lodges, and encroach- 
ments, 8,349 acres, i rood, and 30 perches, or there- 
abouts, which were divided and allotted in the 
following manner: 

To the King, 3,218 acres, 2 roods, 20 perches ; to the 
Lodges, 313 acres, 3 perches ; to be enfranchised, 6 acres, 

2 roods, i perch; to the Tithe-owners, 519 acres, 
32 perches ; to the Manor of Old-fold, 36 acres, 3 roods, 
24 perches ; to the Proprietors of the Old Park, 30 acres, 
15 perches; to the Parish of South Minims, 1,026 acres, 

3 perches ; to the Parish of Hadley, 240 acres ; to the 
Parish of Edmonton, 1,231 acres, 2 roods, 6 perches; to 
the Parish of Enfield, 1,732 acres, 2 roods, 6 perches. 
The greater part of this allotment, viz., 1,530 acres, 
remained as waste land until 1801, when the inclosure 
took place, over which the inhabitants had right of 
common. 200 acres of the 1,732 acres, 2 roods, 



I! 

6 perches, were cultivated, and on an average, in 1795 
were worth 303. an acre, but let out on lease for ninety- 
nine years, at 355. an acre, in 1778, producing 
.333 143. 8d. per ann. One-half of the produce was 
appropriated in aid of the quota to the Land-tax, the 
other to the reduction of the Poor-rates, and these 200 
acres were tithe-free. 

The calculations for Tithes were as follow : 

A. R. p. 

The Chase contained .... 8036 i 27 
The Lodges 313 o 3 



Total, including roads . . 8349 i 30 

Titheable part of Enfield -A. R. p. 

allotment .... 1532 2 6 

Edmonton ditto . . . 1231 2 6 

Hadley ditto .... 240 o o 

Roads on the residue . ' . 153 i 8 

3157 i 20 



To be clear of tithes ..... 5192 o 10 



One-tenth of which for tithe is . . . 519 o 32 
The allotments to Hadley, South Mimms (to which the 
Manor of Old-fold belongs), and Edmonton, were 
annexed by the Act to those parishes, which left 5,824 
acres in the Parish of Enfield, and made the whole extent 
of this parish to be about 12,254 acres ; and at the time 
this survey was made, the greater part of the Chase was 
covered with wood. 



45 

The officers belonging to the Chase were, " the Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster ; a Master of the Game, 
Forester, Ranger, Keepers, Woodward, Steward, Bailiff, 
Verderers (who were annually chosen in the King's Court 
of the Manor of Enfield, a sort of Supervisor of the 
Wood), Receiver-General of the Duchy of Lancaster) 
Auditor of ditto, Attorney-General of ditto, Clerk of the 
Revenues of ditto." 

The joint offices of ranger, forester, keeper of the lodges, 
master of the game, and chief steward of the manor, 
having been vest'ed successively in the persons of John 
Dudley, Earl of Warwick, Sir Thomas Wroth, John 
Ashley, Esq., Robert Lord Cecil, William Earl of Salis- 
bury, Charles Viscount Cranbourne, Charles Lord Gerard 
of Brandon, George Villiers (the younger), Duke of 
Buckingham, the Right Hon. Henry Coventry, and Adam 
Loftus, Viscount Lisburne, were, in the year 1694, 
granted to Sir Robert Howard for fifty-six years, who, the 
same year, assigned all his right in the grant to Sir 
William Sca\ven, of Carshalton, for ^1,245. 

When the Chase was ordered to be sold by the Parlia- 
ment, during the interregnum, the sum of ,1,051 is. 8d. 
was ordered to be paid to the Earl of Salisbury, who then 
held the above offices, for his interest therein, and in the 
custody of the parks,* which claims were allowed on the 
25th of December, 1651, by the House of Commons. 



*See Journals of the House of Commons. 



46 

In the year 1714 James Bridges (afterwards Duke of 

Chandos), purchased the above offices for the unexpired 

' term, and they were afterwards vested in the Marquis of 

Buckingham, in right of his wife, who was the daughter 

and sole heir of the late Duke of Chandos. 

The whole district, called Enfield Chase, was dis-chased 
from the ist of January, 1779. 

The form of the Chase was very irregular its north 
and longest side was nearly straight, as was also its west 
side ; its south and east sides were full of angles ; its 
greatest length was about four miles and a half from east 
to west, that is, from Parsonage-lane to Ganna-corner ; 
from north to south, from Cattle-gate to Southgate, about 
four miles. Its shortest length, from east to west, that is, 
from Potter's-bar to Hadley-town, two miles and three- 
quarters. On the north side it abuts on Northaw- 
common, with which it communicates by Cattle-gate, 
Stock-gate, Cooper's-lane, and Potter's-bar. On the east 
it adjoins Enfield parish, its outlets to which are White- 
webbs, Clay-hill, Cocker, or Crook-lane, New-lane, 
Parsonage-lane, and Enfield-green, or the Town ; on this 
side also it extends into Edmonton parish, communicating 
with it by Winchmore-hill and Southgate. 

On the west side it runs up to the north road, on the 
edge of which stands Hadley, and part of the Chase 
hereabouts, under the name of Gladmore-heath, or 
Monken-mead-plane, was, in 1471, the scene of a decisive 
battle, commonly called " the Battle of Barnet," between 



47 

the houses of York and Lancaster. Although this battle 
has been generally considered to have been fought on 
the road to Barnet, yet it seems pretty certain that it was 
fought on that part of Enfield Chace formerly called 
" Monken, or Monkey-mead," which was near Hadley 
and South Mimms Common, and probably the armies 
extended across the Barnet-road, from which circum- 
stance, and the rebel army having marched directly 
from Barnet to the scene of action, it derived the 
name of the " Battle of Barnet," though it was 
actually fought on Enfield Chace. Cannon were 
used in this battle " Bothe parties had goons and 
" ordinaunce, but the Erie of Warwicke had many 
"moo than the Kynge." \Fleetwoocfs M.S. printed by 
the Camden Soc. p. 62]. 

" In this battle the Erie of Warwyke and the Markes 
" Montague were slain. The Duke of Excetre faugth 
" manly, and was gretely despolede and woundede, and 
" lefte naked for dede in the felde ; and so lay ther from 
" vij. of clokke tille iiij. after none, which was taken up 
" and brought to a house by a manne of his owne, and 
" a leche brought to hym. After that the felde was don, 
" Kynge Edwarde commanndyd bothe the erle of 
" Wanvike's body and the lord Markes' body to be putt 
"into a cart, and the seide ij. bodyes to be layede in the 
" Chyrche of Paulis on the pavement that every manne 
" myghte see them, and so they lay iij. or iiij days." 
The Warkworthe Chronicle (Camden Soc). 



48 

On the south and south-west, the Chace abuts upon 
Southgate and Barnet ; the outlets to which are by 
Southgate and Bohun,* Bohon, or Bourngate. It is 
reported to have had four Lodges, though properly there 
were but three, that is to say, the East Bailey-lodge, the 
West Bailey-lodge, and. the South Bailey-lodge ; the last 
of which, 

SOUTH LODGE, 

is situated a mile and a-half west of Enfield Town, and 
was for some years the, occasional residence of the 
Earl of Chatham, to whom it was bequeathed with a 
legacy of pio,ooo. Some parts of the grounds are said 
to have been planted by his own hand. A story is told 
of his desiring the owner of a windmill, which stood on a 
post at the top of the Windmill-hill, to paint that side 
next South Lodge at his expense. The miller did so, but 
when his Lordship on his next return from London 
looked out of the window and saw the mill unpainted, he 
sent for the miller to remonstrate with him, when the 
miller informed him that the wind had changed, but that 
he was quite ready to paint that side also on the same 
terms. The mill in question was pulled down many 
years ago, and the present one erected on its site. The 
enclosure annexed to this lodge in 1635, was stated to be 
sixty-five acres, two roods. 

* Probably so called from Humphrey de Bohun. 



49 

WEST LODGE. 

West Lodge was pulled down and re-built by the late 
Archibald Paris, Esq., in 1832, the walls ha,ving given way 
several inches in one night. Evelyn thus writes of it, 
June, 1676: "I went with my Lord Chamberlain to see 
"a garden at Enfield Town (probably Dr. Uvedale's), 
" thence to Mr. Sec. Coventry's Lodge on the Chase. It 
" is a very pretty place, the house commodious, the 
"gardens handsome, and our entertainment very free. 
" That which I most wondered at was, that in the compass 
" of twenty-five miles, yet within fourteen of London 
" there is not an house, barne, churche, or building, 
"besides three lodges. To this lodge are three great 
" ponds, and some few enclosures, the rest a solitarie 
" desert, yet stored with not lesse than 3,000 deer. 
" These are pretty retreats for gentlemen, especially for 
"those who are studious and lovers of privacy."- 
( Evelyn's Diary, p. 419.) 

EAST LODGE. 

East Lodge is described in the survey of 1650, as a brick 
building, covered with tiles, and was occasionally used 
by Charles I. as a hunting seat. At the time of the 
Commonwealth it was sold to John Nelthrope, Adjutant- 
General, and towards the end of last century it was 
occupied by Alexander Wedderburne, who succeeded 
Lord Thurlow as Chancellor, and was created Earl of 

D 



50 

Rosslyn. It was afterwards, for many years, the residence 
of the Elphinstones. The house was pulled down and 
rebuilt by G. J. Graham, Esq., the present occupant. 
The enclosure annexed to this lodge in 1686, was thirty- 
eight acres- 

The Chase was formerly considered to have been a 
sheep-walk, belonging to the family of Coningsby, of 
Wales, one of whom having been complained against 
for having too many sheep, brought up a parcel of 
goats, which did great damage. This circumstance it 
seems gave rise to the right of sheep-walk on-the Chase, 
annexed to certain farms in its neighbourhood, for a 
certain time of the year. Norden says, " there ariseth a 
" profit unto the poore inhabitants there, by the use of 
" the Chase, where they have common of pasture for all 
"kinde of cattle, pannage, and wood;" but the Parish, it 
seems, thought otherwise, finding itself over-burthened 
by numerous and disorderly poor, who availed them- 
selves of the privilege of the Chase to support 
dissolute lives of idleness and beggary. The deer were 
stolen and exposed for sale with the greatest audacity; 
venison could be purchased cheaper than mutton ; the 
poachers were sometimes transported, but at the expira- 
tion of their time returned to their old habits.* 



* Nov. I, 1762. John Batt, of Potter's Bar, was committed to 
Bridewell, for cutting young beech trees on the Chase, and carrying 
them away in a cart. He was sentenced to be publicly whipped in 



51 

The Parish was entitled, under the Inclosing Act of 
1777, to a certain portion of the Chase, amounting "to 
1,732 acres, 2 roods, and 6 perches, together with the 
encroachments, timber trees, and other trees, tellers and 
sapplings thereon," which were vested in the Church- 
wardens, for the time being, and their successors, in trust, 
for the sole benefit of the owners and proprietors of 
freehold and copyhold messuages, lands and tenements, 
within the Parish; their heirs and assigns, and their 
lessees, tenants, and undertenants, for the time being 
entitled to right of common or other rights within the 
Chase, according to their several estates and interests 
therein. In 1801 they obtained "an Act for dividing 
" and inclosing the open and common fields, common 
"marshes, and lammas grounds, Chase allotment, and 
" other commonable and waste lands within the Parish," 



the market place, at Enfield, once every month during his imprison- 
ment. (Gent. Mag.) 

"On Wednesday, the 14, a woman, an old offender, was conveyed 
" in a cart from Bridewell to Enfield, and publicly whipped at the 
' ' cart's tail by the common hangman, for cutting down and 
" destroying wood in Enfield Chase. She is to undergo the same 
" discipline twice more." (Public Ledger, 1764. ) 

As late as 1810, a public house, kept by one Brocksop, stood 
on the site of Mr. Logsden's coach factoiy, which had been the 
recognised depot for venison, for those who made no enquiries, 
according to the old forest adage, 

" Non inquirendum est, unde venit venison." 



52 

(41 Geo. III. 1801); and the same have been divided 
and allotted accordingly, among the tithe owners, lords 
of manor, and proprietors of freehold and copyhold 
lands, and others entitled thereto. 

At the present time it is nearly all inclosed, and but 
little of its original appearance remains to arrest the 
attention. The deer from the Chase, which were very 
numerous, were taken to the estate of the Earl of Bute, 
at Luton-park, Bedfordshire.* 

The " Ancient Chase," has been converted into tillage, 
so that almost all traces of its ancient state have 
disappeared under the axe and plough. The first 
attempts to improve it after the division, were, in 
general, unsuccessful, and it was not until a large 'amount 
of capital and labour was expended, that any great 
progress began to be made in its cultivation ; the great 
obstacles at first were, the expence of clearing away the 
wood, which, at the time of the enclosure, bore - (oak 
excepted) a very low price, and the poverty of the soil, 
which was mostly a thin gravel intermixed with clay. 
The methods adopted were draining, paring, burning, 
and manuring with marie, which has been found in great 
abundance and of a fine quality. 

At the time of this enclosure, a large portion of the 



* The last red deer killed on Enfield-chase, was shot by William 
Mellish, Esq., M.P., and its horns are in the possession of 
E. Ford, Esq. 



53 

Chase remained in Woodland, a rude yet beautiful 
district, browsed by deer and suited to the pastimes of its 
former possessors. 

The neighbourhood lost much of its picturesque attrac- 
tion when the enclosure took place, but a sylvan wild 
of this extent situated in the vicinity of the metropolis 
was a dangerous source of mischief. 

While the moral benefit derived from the change can 
scarcely be doubted, the advantages in an agricultural 
point of view are unquestionable. Perhaps the only 
parts of the Chase now remaining, are at Hadley-com- 
mon, the " Rough Lot," at 1'rent Park, and Winchmore- 
hill wood. 

TRENT PARK. 

Trent Park, the seat of R. C. L. Bevan, Esq., was 
formerly the residence of Sir Richard Jebb, Bart., to 
whom George III. granted a lease of 200 acres, of which 
he afterwards purchased the freehold. On conferring the 
dignity of baronet on Dr. Jebb, His Majesty gave "the 
estate the name of Trent Place, in commemoration of 
the great medical skill by which the life of his brother 
had been preserved in his severe illness at Trent in the 
south Tyrol.* The estate, which consists of above a 

" * Before the decease of Sir Edward Wilmot, physician in ordinary 
to His Majesty, George III. being indisposed, ordered Dr. Jebb to 
be sent for, and being informed that it was etiquette to send for the 
physician in ordinary, he replied, "don't tell me of your ordinary or 
" extraordinary, I will have Jebb," and this confidence Sir Richard 
ever afterwards enjoyed. 



54 

thousand acres, covered with magnificent timber, the 
growth of centuries, gives -some idea of what Enfield 
Chase must have been in its primeval state. 

The moated site of the reputed Manor House of 
Enfield,* before referred to, called Camlet Moat, is in 
this park. The scene is thus described by Sir Walter 
Scott, in " The Fortunes of Nigel :" 

"The sun was high upon the glades of Enfield Chase, 
" and the deer with which it abounded were seen sporting 
" in picturesque groups among the ancient oaks of the 
" forest, when a cavalier and a lady sauntered slowly up 
" one of the long alleys which were cut through the park 
"for the convenience of the hunters. The place at 
" which he stopped was at that time a little more than 
" a mound, partly surrounded by a ditch, from which it 
"derived the name of Camlet Moat. A few hewn stones 
" were there, which had escaped the fate of many 
" others that had been used in building different lodges 
" in the forest for the royal keepers. These vestiges 
" marked the ruins of the abode of a once illustrious 
"but long-forgotten family, the Mandevilles, Earls of 
"Essex, to whom Enfield Chase and the extensive 
" domains adjacent, had belonged in elder days. A wild 



* The house is said (Gent. Mag., 1737, p. 643) to have cost 
Sir R. Jebb upwards of ^"19,000. 




55 

" woodland prospect led the eye at various points through 
"broad and apparently interminable alleys, meeting at 
" this point as from a common centre." 

This moat is said also to have been the lurking place 
of the notorious highwayman and robber, Dick Turpin, 
whose grandfather, one Nott, kept " The Rose and 
Crown," by the brook (Bull Beggar's-hole), Clay-hill. 
The moat was distant but a few miles from the scene 
of Turpin's exploits (Finchley-common), whence he 
could easily conceal himself in such a place, in the then 
wild state of Enfield Chase. 



BEECH HILL PARK. 

Beech Hill Park, containing above 270 acres, was first 
enclosed by Francis Russell, Esq., Secretary to the Duchy 
of Lancaster, and the Board of Control for India. He 
had the merit of first suggesting and drawing up the plan 
for the enclosure of Enfield Chase, in recognition of 
which, and his other services, he obtained a grant of this 
beautifully situated estate, where he built the present 
house, and surrounded it with extensive plantations. 

After his death, September ist, 1795, the property was 
purchased by the late Archibald Paris, Esq., who added 
greatly to its extent, and for some years farmed upwards 
of 2000 acres on the Chase. In 1841 it passed into the 
hands of the late General Sir Edward Barnes, (G.C.B. 
and M.P. for Sudbury), for some years Commander-in- 



56 

Chief in India, and Governor of Ceylon, and it was 
afterwards purchased by the present proprietor, Charles 
Jack, Esq. For many years after the enclosure, the 
land on the north side of Beech Hill retained much of 
its original character, but the last remnant of the old 
Chase woodland on this estate was cleared by Sir Edward 
Barnes, in 1845, and the timber sold to the Great 
Northern Railway, which was then constructing, for 
sleepers and fencing. 

CHASE LODGE. 

Chase Lodge was formerly the residence of Thomas 
Holt White, Esq., a nephew of the Rev. Gilbert White,* 
the gentle author of " The Natural History of Selborne," 
and himself an accomplished scholar, well known as a 
commentator on Shakespeare, and the editor of Milton's 



* The father of Gilbert White married Anne, daughter of the 
Rev. Thomas Holt, rector of Streatham, after whom Mr. Holt 
White was named. It is to be hoped that the good taste of the 
inhabitants will preserve the nomenclature of Holt White's-lane, and 
Hill, by which they have so long been known. The unhappy 
ignorance of some proprietors in a neighbouring parish has changed 
the picturesque and descriptive name of " Hanger," to " St. Anne's 
Road !" thus obliterating the last memorial of the old forest or 
"Hangre," of Tottenham, in a name which it had borne for above 
seven centuries, from the time of Malcolm, King of Scotland. 



57 

" Areopagitica, a speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed 
Printing." The estate was purchased in 1862, by 
Admiral Tindal (only surviving son of Chief Justice Sir 
Nicholas Tindal) whose residence it now is. 

CLAYSMORE. 

Claysmore was purchased in the year 1847, by James 
Whatman Bosanquet, Esq., the descendant of an old 
Protestant family, in Languedoc, from whence, on the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes, they escaped to 
England " per damna, per cgedes " and were natural- 
ized by Act of Parliament. The estate is composed 
partly of an allotment from the Chace made to Mrs. 
Hume, who built the present residence, and partly of 
other enclosures lying between the " Rose and Crown," 
and the " Fallow Buck." Ten acres situated at " More- 
hatch" were conveyed in 1765, by Mary Turpin, probably 
connected with the family of the notorious Dick Turpin, 
whose grandfather is said to have kept the " Rose and 
Crown." The gipsy character of the original population 
of this district may still be traced in the features of some 
of the peasantry, and gipsy encampments are yet some- 
times seen along the lanes beyond the " Fallow Buck." 

In 1847 the present owner, in co-operation with the 
Vicar and other gentlemen, having established a school 
at Claysmore, appropriated, with the sanction of the 
Bishop, a building near Turpin's land, which had been 



58 

fitted up as a private chapel by the former owner, for the 
performance of afternoon Sunday service, where one of 
the Curates preached to a congregation of seventy or 
eighty people. 

This chapel, as well as another building in which the 
fine library of the late Lord Chief Justice Tindal had 
been placed by his executors, were burnt, with their 
contents, by the acts of incendiaries; and not less than 
five other fires occurred in the neighbourhood about 
the same time. 

The late owner of the property, Mr. Edward Harman, 
a gentleman of cultivated taste, greatly enlarged and 
improved the residence, especially by the addition of a 
gallery, sixty feet in length, with a carved oak screen 
and panelling, and windows of stained glass, together 
with a corridor adjoining, seventy feet long. The large 
window at the end of the room (expensively set in 
copper) contains some fine specimens of the art in the 
1 3th century, and one of those in the corridor is composed 
of sixteen compartments, technically known as " German 
Circles," dated from 1565 to 1622, the central figure 
(of James the less) being a gem of its kind. The 
picturesque character of the grounds is mainly due to 
the taste of Mr. Harman, who greatly added to their 
beauty by extensive plantations, and a well placed 
sheet of water. A long avenue of elms, lately opened 
by Mr. Bosanquet, forms a striking feature from the 
garden terrace. 



59 

HILL LODGE. 

Nearly adjoining the above estate is Hill Lodge, the 
residence of Sir Rowland Macdonald Stephenson, a 
compact property, consisting of about twenty-three acres, 
and commanding a beautiful and extensive view across 
the Chase, towards the Ridgeway and Trent Park. 



60 



THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER. 



"It must be granted, I am DUKE of Lancaster." 

Richard II., A. 2, S. 3. 



The Duchy of Lancaster, of which (says Sir Ed. 
Coke) it shall be necessary to show the beginning and 
erection, dates from 1352, when Henry Plantagenet 
(named Grismond, from the place of his birth) was 
created Duke of Lancaster by Edward III. Duke Henry - 
died of the plague in 1361, and his daughter Blanche, 
who was married to the celebrated John of Gaunt, 
became sole heir to his estate. 

" At the Parliament, holden 36 Edward'IIL, the King, 
in full parliament, did gird his son John with a sword, 
and set on his head a cap of furre, and upon the same a 
circle of gold and pearls, and named him Duke of 
Lancaster, and thereof 'gave to him and to his heires 
males of his body, and delivered him a charter." 

" In full Parliament, 50 Edward III., the King erected 
the county of Lancaster into a county palatine. It is 
called comitatus Palatinus, not d comite, but d cotnitatu, 
and a palatio regis, because the owner thereof hath 



61 

'jura regalia/ as fully as the King had in his palace, 
from whence all justice, honours, franchises, and 
privileges, flowed. 

" Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, the first and 
last of that name had issue, two daughters, Eleanor, 
married to Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, and Mary, 
married to the Earl of Hertford, Bolingbroke, afterwards 
Henry IV.; and by 2 Henry V. it was enacted that all 
mannors and hereditaments which descended to Henry V. 
from the said Mary, his mother, should be dissevered 
from the Crown of England, and annexed to the Duchy 
of Lancaster. The Duchy thus separated from the 
Crown, was by Act of Parliment assured to Edward IV. 
and his heirs, Kings of England ; and afterwards it was 
enacted, i Henry VII. that the King and his heirs 
(without adding ' Kings of England ') should hold and 
enjoy the Duchy of Lancaster separately from the Crown 
of England, the Duke still having 'jura regalia;' and in 
this state doth the Duchy stand to this day, the King 
having the Duchy as" Duke, and not as King, and the 
title and possession belonging to his person and not to 
the Crown." (Coke's Institutes.) 

It may be added, on the authority of the late Lord 
Chief Baron Pollock, that the reigning Sovereign is 
always the " Duke " of Lancaster. " King and Queen 
(Rex and Regina) are separate titles, but Duke (Dux) 
has no feminine, Duchess being originally only a title of 



62 

courtesy given to a Duke's wife.* Whoever therefore 
holds a Dukedom, whether male or female, is a Duke, 
and as the Dukedom of Lancaster is held with 'jura 
regalia,' no homage is done or can be required in respect 
of it, and the holder is not necessarily a vassal of the 
Crown; therefore the sovereign can, and does, hold this 
Dukedom of Lancaster." 



* The word appears to have been coming into use in the time of 
Skinner, who gives "Duke" "Dux," and adds " Fr. duchesse, 
dux faemina." (ETYM. ANGLIC.) " 

An attempt was made by the wives of the bishops to claim the 
courtesy title of " lady " in the reign of Elizabeth, and again in that 
of James I., who is said to have negatived the pretension in terms 
more energetic than courteous, "I made the carles lairds; but wha 
the de'il made their carlines leddies?" 



63 



THE DUCHY COURT. 

The Court to the Duchy has the power of deciding 
all cases belonging to it. The officers are a chancellor, 
vice-chancellor, attorney-general, Queen's serjeant and 
counsel, receiver-general, clerk of council and registrar, 
coroner, &c.* 

The following is a list of the Chancellors to the present 
time : 



NAME. 


REIGN, 


Date of Appointment, &c. 


Sir Henry de Haydok 

Ralph D. Ergham, Clerk ... 
Thomas de Thelwall, Clerk. 

Sir JohndeYerborough, Clerk 
Sir Thomas Stanley 


34 Edw. -III. 

46 Edw. III. 
51 Edw. III. 

I Richard II. 
6 Richard II. 


Chancellor of Henry, first 
Duke of Lancaster. 

Bishop of Sarum 

Created Chancellor of the 
County Palatine m the 
month of April 

November 10, pro. tent. 


Sir Thomas Scarle 


6 Richard II. 


November 2gth. 


Sir William Okey 


7 Richard II. 


October 


John de Wakering 


I Henry IV. 




William Burgoyne, Esq. ... 


I Henry IV. 


- 



* "This Court owes its origin to Henry IV., who, deposing 
Richard II., usurped the Crown, and, possessing the Duchy of 
Lancaster in right of his mother, was seized thereof as Duke, as well 
as King. But imagining his right to the Duchy better than that to 
the Crown, he resolved to secure the same by separating it from the 
Crown ; which being effected, he erected this Court for its use, 
wherein all matters of law and equity belonging to the Duchy, or 
County Palatine of Lancaster, are heard and decided by the Chan- 
cellor thereof. " Pulleyn's Etymological Compendium. 



64 



NAME. 


REIGN. 


Date of Appointment, &c. 


Sir Thomas Stanley 


6 Henry IV. 


May 1 5th. 


John Springthorpe, Clerk .. 
John Woodhouse 


1 1 Henry IV. 
i Henry V. 


March 3Oth. 
April 4th. 


John Woodhouse, continuec 
William Troutbecke, Esq 
Walter Sherington, Clerk ... 

William Tresham 


I Henry VI. 
2 Henry VI. 

9 Henry VI. 
17 Henry VI. 

20 Henry VI. 


January 2Oth. 
June loth. 

February i6th. 
May 7th Chancellor 
for lift. 

July 3rd Chancellor 


William Tresham 


26 Henry VI. 


in reversion. 
November 1st. 


John Say, Esq 


f 7 Henry VI. 


June loth. 


John Say, Esq., continued... 
Sir Richard Fowler, Knt. ... 

Sir John Say, Knt 


I Edw. IV. 
ii Edw. IV. 

17 Edw. IV. 


June 1 6th. 

June 10. Also Chancel- 
lor of the Exchequer. 

November 3rd. 


Thomas Thwaites 


1 8 Edw. IV. 


April 2. --Also Chancel- 


Thomas Metcalfe 


i Richard III. 


lor of the Exchequer. 
Tuly 1 7th. 


Sir Reginald Bray, Knt. ... 
Sir John Mordant, Knt 
Sir Richard Empson, Knt. . 
Sir Henry Marney, Knt. ... 
Sir Richard Wingfield, Knt. 
Sir Thomas Moore, Knt. .. 

Sir William Fitz Williams, 
Knt., afterwards Earl of 
Southampton. 

Sir John Gage, Knt 


I Henry VII. 
19 Henry VII. 
21 Henry VII. 
i Henry VIII. 
14 Hen. VIII. 
1 7 Hen. VIII. 

21 Hen. VIII. 
35 Hen VIII 


September I3th. 
fune 24th. 
October 3rd. 
May 1 4th. 
April 1 4th. 

December 3ist. Made 
Chancellor of England. 

November 3rd. 
May loth. 


Sir William Pagett, Knt. ... 
Sir John Gale, Knt. 


i Edw. VI. 
6 Edw VI. 


uly 1st. 
Tuly 7th. 


Sir Robert Rochester, Knt. . 


Queen Mary 





65 



NAME. 


REIGN. 


Date of Appointment, &c. 


Sir Edward Walgrave, Knt. 


4 and 5 Philip 


June 22nd. 




and Mary. 




Sir Ambrose Cave, Knt. ... 


I Elizabeth. 




Sir Ralph Sa'dler, Knt 


10 Elizabeth. 


May 1 6th. 


Sir Francis Walsingham, Knt. 


19 Elizabeth. 


June i 5th. 


Sir Thomas Henage, Knt. .. 


32 Elizabeth. 




Sir Robert Cecil, Knt 


37 Elizabeth. 


October 7th. 


Sir John Fortescue, Knt. ... 


43 Elizabeth. 


September i6th. 


Sir Thomas Parry, Knt, and 


13 James I. 


May 27th. 


John Daccomb, Esq. 




r 


Sir John Daccombe, Knt.... 


14 James I. 


June 5th. 


Sir Humphrey May, Knt.- 


15 James I. 


March 23rd. 


Edward Lord Newburgh .. 


5 Charles I. 


April 1 6th. 


William Lord Grey of Wake, 




February loth, 1644. 


and William Lenthall, Esq. 






John Bradshawe 




August 1st, 1649. 


Thomas Fell 




1655. 


Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bart. .. 




J J 

May 1 4th, 1659. 


Francis Lord Seymour 


12 Charles II. 


July gth. 


Sir Thomas Ingram, Knt. . . . 


16 Charles II. 


July 2 ist, 


Sir Robert Carr, Bart 


23 Charles II. 


February 22nd. 


Sir Thomas Chickeley, Knt. 


34 Charles II. 


November 2 1st. 


Robert Lord Willoughby, of 


I William and 


March 2ist. 


Ersby. 


Mary. 




Thomas Earl of Stamford. .. 


9 William III. 


May 4th. 


SirJohnLevesonGower, Bart 


I Queen Anne. 


May 1 2th. 


James Earl of Derby 


5 Queen Anne. 


[une loth. 


William Lord Berkley, of 


9 Queen Anne. 


September 2 1st. 


Stratton. 






Henage Earl of Aylesford . . . 


I George I. 


Movember 6th. 


Richard Earl of Scarborough 


2 George I. 


March I2th. 



66 



NAME. 


REIGN. 


Date of Appointment, &c. 


Nicholas Lechemere, Esq. . 


3 George I. 


June igth. 


John Duke of Rutland .... 


i George II. 


July 1 7th. 


George Earl of Cholmondele 


8 George II. 


May. 


Richard Lord Edgecumbe.. 


16 George II 


December 22nd. 


Thomas Earl of KinnoulL . 


34 George II 


February 27th. 


Tames Lord Strange 


3 George III 


December 1 3th. 


Thomas Lord Hyde, after 


1 1 George III 


fune I4th. 


wards Earl of Clarendon. 






John Lord Ashburton 


22 George III 


April 1 7th. 


Edward Earl of Derby 


23 George III 


August 29th. 


Thomas Earl of Clarendon. 


24 George III 


December 3ist. 


Charles Lord Hawkesbury.. 


27 George III 


September 6th. 


Thomas Lord Pelham 


(4 George III 


November gth. 


Lord Mulgrave 


14 George III. 


une 6th. 


Earl of Buckinghamshire . . . 


45 George III. 


anuary I4th. 


Dudley Lord Harrowby 


.5 George III. 


uly loth. 


Edward Earl of Derby 


46 George III. 


r ebruary I2th. 


The Right Hon. Spencer 


7 George III. 


Vlarch 3Oth. 


Perceval. 






Earl of Buckinghamshire ... 


2 George III. 


lay 23rd. 


The Right Hon. Charles 


2 George III. 


une 23rd. 


Bathurst. 






The Right Hon. Nicholas 


George IV. 


r ebruary 1 3th. 


Vansittart, afterwards 






Lord Bexley. 






Earl of Aberdeen, K. T. ... 


George IV. 


anuary 26th. 


The Right Hon. Charles 


George IV. 


une 2nd. 


Arbuthnot 






Lord Holland. 


William IV. 


fovember 25th. 


The Right Hon. Charles 


William IV. 


December 26th. 


Watkin Williams Wynn.. 






Lord Holland 


William IV. 


pril 3rd. 


Earl of Clarendon 


Victoria. 


r ,j* MB 

'ctober 3 1st, 









67 



NAME. 


REIGN. 


Date of Appointment, &c. 


The Right Hon. Sir George 


5 Victoria ... 


une 23rd. 


Grey, Bart. 






Lord Granville Charles 


5 Victoria ... 


September 3rd. 


Henry Somerset. 






Lord Campbell 


o Victoria ... 


uly 6th. 


Earl of Carlisle 


3 Victoria ... 


March 6th. 


The Right Hon. Robert 


5 Victoria ... 


Vlarch 1st. 


Adam Christopher 






The Right Hon. Edward 


6 Victoria . . . 


December 3Oth. 


Strutt, now Lord Bel per 






Earl Granville 


8 Victoria ... 


une 2 1 st. 


Earl of Harrowby .... 


1 8 Victoria ... 


Vlarch 3ist. 


The Right Hon. Matthew 


19 Victoria ... 


December 7th, 1855. 


Talbot Baines 






James Duke of Montrose . . . 




r ebruary 26th, 1858. 


The Right Hon. Sir George 




une 22nd, 1859. 


Grey, Bart., G.C.B. 






The Right Hon. Edward 




fuly 25, 1 86 1. 


Cardwell, M.P. 






The Right Hon. George 




April 7, 1864. 


William Frederick, Earl ol 






Clarendon. 






The Right Hon. George 




January 26, 1866. 


Joachim Goschen, M.P. 






The Right Hon. William 




July 10, 1866. 


Reginald Earl of Devon 






The Right Hon. Colone 




June 26, 1867. 


John Wilson Patten, M. P 






The Right Hon. Thomas 




November 7th, 1868. 


Edward Taylor, M. P. 






The Right Hon. Lord Duf 




December I2th, 1 868. 


ferin, K.P., K.C.B. (now 






Earl of Dufferin). 






The Right Hon. Hugh Cul 




August gth, 1872. 


lingEardleyChilders, M.P 




A- . ^ * 




68 
THE MANOR OF WORCESTERS. 

In the wardrobe accounts of Edward II. it is 
mentioned that " the King kept his Christmas this year 
(1318) at the palace of Westminster," and on that day 
the following knights received sumptuous presents of 
plate from the King, viz., " Sir Bartholomew de Enefeld," 
&c., &c. His son, John de Enefeld, died in 1350, seized 
of a manor in this parish, and his widow, Margaret, 
married John Wroth, who purchased the manor in 1374, 
of her son, Francis de Enefeld. John Wroth leaving no 
issue on his death, the manor descended through Sir 
John Tiptoft, to his son, 'the learned Earl of Worcester, 
Lord High Treasurer, who lost his head on the scaffold 
for his adherence to the House of York, " when (says 
Fuller) the axe did at one blow cut off more learning 
than was left in the heads of all the surviving nobility." 
His son dying without issue, the manor devolved to his 
sister Philippa, wife of Thomas, Lord Roos,-who died in 
1461, and their son Edmund (whose monument in the 
Parish Church is hereafter described) also dying childless, 
in 1508, the estate came to his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas 
Lovell, K.G., Privy Counsellor and Treasurer to Henry 
VIII. He was made Chancellor of the Exchequer in the 
first year of Henry VII., and in 1502 became Treasurer 
of the Household, and President of the Council. He was 
one of Henry VII. 's executors, and Steward and Marshall 
of the House to Henry VIII. He built the gateway of 



Lincoln's Inn, on which he placed the King's arms, along 
with the Earl of Lincoln's and his o^vn. His badge of 
the - rose and the wing, which will be more fully 
discussed in the account of the Parish Church, appears 
in the vaulting of the choir of St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, as well as on his stall-plate. 

Sir Thomas Lovell died at his house here (Elsynge 
Hall) May 25th, 1524, and was buried in the priory of 
Haliwell, Shoreditch, within the chapel founded by 
himself, with great funeral pomp. The following curious 
items occur in the records of the Herald's College, at the 
close of a long description of the ceremonies " down at 
the buryall of the most noble knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell, 
banneret, and knyght of the most Noble Order of ye 
Garter, on whose soule God pardon." 

" Item, It is remembered that the day he came from 
Enfyld to Holywell, there followed a carte with ale and 
torches, for to refresche the poore people, and the torches 
were renewen by the way. 

" Item, There was every day, while he \vas at Enfylde, 
200 poore folks, and them that had pence-a-piece, and 
bread and meat. 

" Item, There was said the day of his buryall at 
Holywell, 140 masses. 

" Item, There was served that day to people that were 
ther, 400 messes of mete and above." 

Sir Thomas Lovell, by his will, dated- October i4th, 
1522, gave the Manor of Worcesters to Thomas Manners, 



70 

Lord Ros, afterwards first Earl of Rutland, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert Lovell, his brother. 

In 1540, the Earl of Rutland gave the manor, along 
with the capital messuage of Elsygne Hall, to King Henry 
VIII., and it was settled by Edward VI. upon his sister 
Elizabeth. It was afterwards granted by the Crown to 
Robert Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury, who died seized 
of it in 1612. 

Lysons and Dr. Robinson state, that "it is not certain 
at what time it was alienated by the Cecils," but by the 
deeds at Forty Hall, it appears to have been conveyed 
by the second Lord Salisbury, (July 4th, 1616) to Sir 
Nicholas Raynton, and by " An abstract of all ye landes 
" and tenements appertaining to ye estate of N. Raynton, 
" Esq., which are in Endfield in ye Co. Middlesex, being 
" carefully collected by compairing up ye tennants, and 
"by perusing severall writeings, &c., about ye year 1656," 
The property at this time consisted of, -"Imprimis, Forty 
" Hall, one antient howse lately ^new-built, called and 
" knowne by ye name of Forty Hall, with close adjoining, 
" enclosed by a brick wall, and containing by estimation, 
" six acres," with sundry meadows and closes duly 
specified, containing 344 acres, i rood, 36 poles. " Also 
"in ye possession of ye said N. Raynton, Esq., one 
"very ancient house called ENFIELD HOUSE, (otherwise 
" ELSYNGE HALL) with ye court yards, gardens, orchards, 
" &c. adjoining, one antient tenement att " Wight-webbs 
' adjoining to Endfield Howse. And ye piece of land 




7T 

" called ye Warren, and ye close or park, called ye Little 
" Park, containing 375 acres," &c. 



FORTY HALL. 

The present mansion or manor house of Forty Hall, 
above referred to, was built by Sir Nicholas Raynton, 
from the designs of Inigo Jones, about the year 1629, as 
appears from the dates on the leaden pipes. The date 
of 1632 may also be seen near the top of the buildings 
(probably that of its completion.) 

It was at this time copyhold, but after its purchase by 
Sir N. Raynton, it was enfranchised and merged in the 
Manor of Worcesters. 

In 1787, on the death of Eliab Breton, who had 
married the heiress of the Raynton and Wolstenholme 
families,* the whole estate comprising above 1800 acres, 
and then considered the finest and most compact in 
Middlesex, was sold in sixty-five lots for ,50,000. 



* Mr. Breton died at Forty Hall, December igth, 1785, in his 
76th year, and his widow died January aoth, 1790, aged 80. " She 
"was the surviving co-heiress of the Wolstenholme and Raynton 
" families, whose estate ac Enfield (one of the finest in Middlesex) 
" she conveyed to her husband, and after his death, saw it dismem- 
bered under Mr. Christie's hammer through the misconduct of 
" their offspring." Gent. Mag., Jan. 1790. 



72 

Forty Hall, with 159 acres adjoining, was purchased by 
. Mr. Armstrong, and on his death in 1799, by James 
Meyer, Esq., for ^11,940. It is now the property and 
residence of his great nephew, James Meyer, Esq., and 
consists of above 280 acres within a ring fence. 

11 The interior accommodations of the house (says Dr. 
Robinson) are numerous and pleasant, and the rooms are 
well-proportioned and superbly decorated." The beauti- 
ful tracery work of the pannelled ceilings is especially 
deserving of notice. The fine collection of pictures 
contains " A Holy Family," by Rubens; " The Miracu- 
lous Draught of Fishes," by D. Teniers; " The Carnival 
in the Square of St. Mark's," by Canallctti; " The Three 
Marys," by Annibal Caracci; " The Toilet," by Gabriel 
Metzu; " Uriah conveying the letter from David," by 
Raphael, from the Orleans collection, erroneously as- 
cribed by Dr. Robinson to Albert Durer; " The Tower of 
St. Mark's," and "A Companion of the Doge's Palace," by 
Canaletti; " Christ purifying the Temple," by Bassano;. 
and two landscapes by Both, from the Lansdowne 
collection. There is also a fine portrait of Sir Nicholas 
Raynton in his civic robes (1643) supposed to be by 
Dobson, the pupil of Vandyke. 

The fine old gateway of the stables is still standing, 
and is a characteristic example of the effect which Inigo 
Jones could give to the simplest design by the judicious 
management of light and shadow, and the solid durability 
of appearance which distinguish all his works. 



73 

ESLYNGE HALL, 

OTHERWISE 

EN FIELD HOWSE, OT LOVELL PLACE. 



" Where throngs of knights and barons bold 
In weeds of peace high triumphs hold 
Of wit or arms, while both contend 
To win HER grace whom all commfcd." 

L'ALLEGRO. 



Great antiquarian and historic interest attaches to the 
now forgotten site of Elsynge Hall, once the scene of 
royal magnificence, and thronged with the sage counsel- 
lors and the brilliant courtiers of Elizabeth. 

Elsynge Hall was for several years the residence of 
Edward VI. and his sister during their childhood, and 
Holinshed relates how, in 1543, " on New Year's-day the 
" noble Scottish prisoners departed from London, and 
" roade to Enfield to see the Prince, and dined there 
" that day, greatly rejoicing to beholde so proper and 
" towardly an ympe." 

There can be no doubt that this was the residence of 
Queen Elizabeth after she came to the throne. It is* 
distinctly stated by Norden to have been " builded by an 
Earle of Worcester," and is described by him as being 
a "Howse or Palace of Queen Eli.," in his map of 
Myddlesex (1593)1 where it is represented as surrounded 



74 

by a park-paling enclosing the " New-park," and about a 
mile distant from the town, where he places another 
similar enclosure for the Old-park, which adjoined the 
Manor House of Enfield. Both these parks are marked 
in the same way in Saxton's map (1579), in Speed's 
(1608), and in the famous atlas of Blaeu, the pupil of 
Tycho Brahe (a sheet of which is worth its weight in 
gold). 

In the account of Sir Thomas Lovell's funeral, the 
house is stated to have been " a good myle distant from 
the Parische-churche." Weever ranks it among the 
princely houses heritable by the Crown ; and Vallance, in 
his tale of Two Swannes, calls it "Enfield House yt longs 
unto our Queene." 

In the memoirs of Carey, Earl of Monmouth, it is 
stated that in the year 1596, the Queen came from 
Theobalds to dinner to Enfield House, and had toils set 
up in the park to shoot at bucks after dinner. 

The Court was resident here in the summer of 1561, 
and went up to St. James's in July, on which occasion 
such was the state of the roads, that " the hedges and 
ditches were cut down to make the next way for her." 
The Court was again here from September 8th, to the 
'22nd, 1561, and from July 25th to 3cth, in 1564, and 
in July, 1568, as will be more particularly alluded to in 
the life of Sir Walter Raleigh. 

When the Manor of Worcesters was granted to the 
Cecils, Elsynge Hall was reserved to the Crown, but in 



75 

1641 it was sold by Charles I. along with the " Little 
Park " and " the Warren " adjoining, (part of the Duchy 
of Lancaster) to Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery. 

It was the celebrated widow of this nobleman, who 
was said by Dr. Donne, to " know well how to discourse 
of all things, from predestination down to slea-silk" and 
who wrote the spirited letter to Sir J. Williamson, 
Secretary of State, who had presumed to propose a 
candidate for her borough of Appleby : 

" I have been bullied by an usurper, I have been 
neglected by a court, but I will not be dictated lo by a 
subject. Your man shan't stand. 

ANNE, Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery." 
It is the fashion of these enlightened days to doubt 
every thing best worth believing, and the authenticity of 
this letter is doubted by Lodge, chiefly on the ground 
that " no instance can be found of the verb stand being 
used at that time in the sense to which it is here applied." 
It may be found so used in the life of Bishop Sanderson, 
at least seven times, speaking of his " standing " for the 
place of procter, in 1614. 

The baptism of five of her children is recorded in the 
parish registers. 

Elsynge Hall has long been pulled down, but its site 
is still discernable towards the bottom of the avenue at 
Forty Hall, between the house and the Maiden- 
bridge-brook. Here, in dry seasons, the outlines of an 



76 

extensive fabric may be traced on the ground by the 
withering of the grass; the remains of foundations have 
frequently been dug up, and about the year 1830, under 
a lime tree in the avenue, an unfortunate bullock fell 
through the decayed brickwork into a vault below. 

In addition to Forty Hall and the Manor of Worcesters, 
Sir Nicholas Raynton purchased "a copyhold house, 
"described in the survey of Enfield (says Dr. Robinson) 
"as sometime Hugh Fortee's, and late Sir Thomas 
" Gurney's," to which he curiously adds that Sir Hugh 
Fortee built the mansion called Forty Hall, between the 
years of 1629 and 1632, and gave name to it. Hugh 
Fortee died in the previous century, and it is certain that 
" Forty Hill " was known by this name at least as early 
as 1564. In a deed of that date (penes H. C. B. Bowles, 
Esq.) a parcel of land is described as being bounded on 
the east by the road leading from Friday Street " versus 
ffortie." 

MYDDELTON HOUSE. 

Myddelton House was purchased in 1724 by Michel 
Garnault, whose descendant, Daniel Garnault, died un- 
married in 1809, leaving the estate, together with his 
shares in the New River, to his sister Anne, wife of the 
late Henry Carington Bowles. The present villa was 
built in 1818, by this gentleman, on the site of the old 
house known as Bowling Green House, and was named 
after Sir Hugh Myddelton, the patriotic but ill-requited 



77 

projector of the New River. The estate, containing 
about 100 acres, was formerly parcel of the Manor of 
Worcesters and of Goldbeaters. * It is now the property 
of H. C. B. Bowles, Esq., J.P., and includes a site of some 
historic interest, from its connection with the Gunpowder 
. Plot. " A tradition which (says Lysons) is perhaps 
not much to be depended upon," states that White Webbs 
House was hired by the conspirators for the purposes of 
their plot. 

' This tradition is, however, fully substantiated by existing 
title deeds, and by the following extracts from the 
documents of the State Paper Office, which also identify 
the locality beyond any doubt. 

In the confession of " John Johnsonne (alias Guido 
Fawkes), he further saith that the Wednsday before his 
" apprencon he went forthe of the towne to a house in 
" Enfielde Chase on this side of Theobalds, where he 
"stayed till Sonday night following." (9 10 Novem- 
ber, 1605.) 

The report. to the council of the search of "White 
Webbs House," says, " the search ended in the discovery 
" of Popish books and relics, but no papers or munitions, 



* Goldbeaters was a reputed Manor under the Manor of 
Worcesters, and has now become extinguished and merged in 
various freeholds. In an abstract of a survey ot Enfield, 1572, 
lands called Goldbeaters are described as belonging to Dr. Huickf, 
with a quit rent of 75. 7d. to the Queen. 



78 

" and the house was found to be full of trap doors and 
"passages." In the examination of "James Johnson," 
it was stated by him that the house " had been taken of 
" Dr. Hewicke, by his master, Mr. Meaze, of Berkshire, 
"(the Jesuit father Garnet) for his sister, Mrs. Perkins 
"(alias Mrs. Ann Vaux) that Mrs. Vaux had spent a 
" month there, and mass had been said by a priest, whose 
" name deponent did not know." 

On the 25th February, 1606, Johnson described the 
taking and furnishing of the house, and said that Ann 
Vaux had kept it up at her own expense, and that Garnet 
was the man who had visited it under the names of 
Meaze and Farmer. 

On March zist, 1606, a letter written in lemon juice 
which is still in existence was intercepted from Mistress 
Vaux to Garnet, then prisoner in the Tower. It was 
accompanied by a pot of marmalade, and had the signifi- 
cant endorsement (in common ink,) " I praye you prove 
" whether these spectacles doe fytte your sight." Lysons 
states, " from some papers communicated by Mr. Gough " 
that Queen Elizabeth, in 1570, granted a mansion called 
White Webbs House, to Robert Huicke, her physician 
in ordinary (and principal of St. Alban's College, Oxford). 
And a deed in the possession of H. C. B. Bowles, Esq. of 
the same year, contains the grant of " all the vaultes and 
all the conduit * and pipes of lead laid within the said 

* Vide White Webb's Park. f p. 83,). 



79 

Chase at the charges and expenses of our servant (Robert 
Huycke) for the leading and conveying water into the 
" Nowe Howse " of our said servant, " abuttinge in parte 
'uppon the saide Chase, which mansion house is within 
the parish of Endfield in our saied co. of Midd.," 
and for supplying water to the mansion house, gardens, 
ponds, and orchards. 

Old White Webbs House, which was evidently of con- 
siderable extent, was pulled down by Mr. Garnault, in 
1790. Its site extended from the fields numbered 254, 
255 (in the large ordnance map of the parish) across White 
Webbs-lane (formerly known as Rome Road) to those 
numbered 392, 396, the property of H. Wilkinson, Esq. 
The remains of the fish ponds and orchards are still 
discernable, and the ale house known as the King and 
Tinker probably still retains some portions of the old 
out-buildings. With this little beershop is popularly 
identified the ballad of King James and the Tinker, the 
incident of which is supposed to have occurred during 
the residence of James I, at Theobalds. 

This old ballad deserves a place in the History .of 
Enfield, from having suggested the details of one of the 
most beautiful descriptions in modern poetry. 

" It has long been a favourite subject with our ballad- 
" writers (says Bishop Percy) to represent our Kings 
" conversing by accident or design, with the meanest of 
" their subjects. Besides the song of the ' King and the 
" Miller,' we have ' King Edward IV. and the Tanner,' 



80 

" ' King Henry and the Soldier/ ' King James I. and 
" the Tinker,' c." (Reliques of Ancient Poetry.) 

" The earliest of these stories (writes Professor Child) 
" seems to be that of ' King Alfred and the Neatherd,' in 
" which the herdsman's wife plays the offending part, and 
" the peasant himself is made Bishop of Winchester." 

The verses are not given in any collection of old 
ballads, though they may be found in a few chapbooks 
and broadsides. The following text has been collated 
with a reprint of the Percy Society. 

KING JAMES AND THE TINKLER. 

And now, to be brief, let's pass over the rest, 
Who seldom or never were given to jest, 
And come to King Jamie, the first of our throne 
A pleasanter monarch sure never was known. 

As he was a-hunting the swift fallow deer, 

He dropt all his nobles, and when he got clear, 

In hope of some pastime, away he did ride, 

Till he came to an ale-house hard by a wood-side, . 

And there with a Tinkler he happened to meet, 
And him in kind sort he so freely did greet ; 
" Now pray thee good fellow, what hast in thy jug, 
Which under thy arm thou dost lovingly hug?" 

" By the mass!" quoth the Tinkler, " 'tis nappy brown ale, 
And for to drink to thee friend, I will not fail, 
For although thy jacket looks gallant and fine, 
I think that my two-pence as good is as thine." 



81 

"By my soul! honest fellow, the truth thou hast. spoke," 
And straight he sat down with the Tinkler to joke ; 
They drank to the King, and they pledged to each other, 
Who had seen them had thought they were brother and brother. 

As they were a-drinking, the King pleased to say, 

" What news, honest fellow? come, tell to me, I pray ;" 

' ' There's nothing of news, except that I hear, 

The King is a-hunting the fair fallow deer, 

And truly I wish I so happy may be, 
While he is a-hunting the King I might see ; 
For though I have travelled the land many ways, 
I never have yet seen a King in my days." 

The King with a hearty brisk laughter replied, 
" I teil thee, good fellow, if thou canst but ride, 
Thou shall get up behind me, and thee I will bring 
To the presence of Jamie, thy sovereign King." 

" But he'll be surrounded with nobles so gay, 
And how shall we tell him from them, Sir, I pray?" 
" Thou wilt easily know him, when once thou art there, 
The King will be covered, his nobles all bare." 

Then up got the Tinkler, and likewise his sack, 
His budget of leather and tools at his back ; 
They rode till they came to the merry green wood, 
His nobles came round him, and bare-headed stood. 

The Tinkler then seeing so many appear, 
He slyly did whisper the King in his ear, 
Saying, "They are all clothed so gallant and gay, . 
" But which amongst them is the King, Sir, I pray?" 
F 



82 



The King did with hearty good laughter reply, 
' ' By my soul, my good fellow, its thou or its I, 
The rest are bareheaded, uncovered all round," 
With his bag and his budget he fell to the ground 

Like one that was frightened quite out of his wits, 
Then up on his knees he immediately gets, 
Beseeching for mercy the King to him said, 
" Thou art a good fellow, so be not afraid ; 

Come, tell me thy name !" "I am John of the Dale, 
A mender of kettles, and lover of ale." 
" Then rise up, Sir John, I will honour thee here, 
And make thee a knight of five hundred a year." 

This was a good thing for the Tinkler indeed, 
Then unto the Court he was sent for with speed ; 
Where store of great pleasure and pastime was seen 
In the royal presence of King and of Queen. 

Sir John of the Dale, he has land, he has fee, 
At the court of the King, who so happy as he ? 
Yet still in his hall hangs the Tinkler's old sack, 
And the budget of tools which he bore at his back. 



83 

\\HITE WEBBS PARK. 

The estate of White Webbs Park was purchased by 
Dr. Wilkinson, on the sale of the property of Mr. Breton, 
in 1787. It was then known by the name of White 
Webbs Farm, and was enclosed within the pale of Forty 
Hall Park, from which it is divided only by the New 
River and the brook. At this time 'it consisted of 134 
acres, but has been increased by successive purchases 
and allotments, to 250 acres, 100 of which are woodland, 
and covered with old oaks and underwood, the remains 
of the original Chase or forest.* 

The top of the hill is crowned by- a dark mass of 
Scotch firs, and the whole forms a conspicuous and 
beautiful object from the surrounding country. 

In an open glade at the bottom of this wood stands a 
small brick building, enclosing a circular tank or well of 
five feet diameter, always full of the purest water, and 
transparent to the bottom. This is the old " Conduit- 
house" before mentioned, as having been granted by 
Queen Elizabeth to her physician, Dr. Huicke, for the 
supply of his mansion-house at White Webbs. The 
texture and form of the bricks, which are unusually thin, 



* A fine old badger, probably the last wild one in Middlesex, was 
killed in these woods in the summer of 1848, and is preserved at 
Forty Hall. 



84 

and the peculiar " old English bond " of the brickwork 
indicate great age; and the corners of the building have 
been completely worn away by the rubbing of deer and 
cattle during upwards of three centuries. 

The present mansion was built in 1791, by Dr. 
Wilkinson, and has been much enlarged by his grandson, 
Henry Wilkinson, Esq., whose fine taste has enriched it 
by a collection of works of art of the highest beauty and 
rarity. A short descriptive catalogue is subjoined of 
some of these which are specially interesting, either from 
their associations or their intrinsic excellence. 



Outer Hall. Carved ebony cabinet, surmounted ' by 
engraved bronze tazza. Terra-cotta group of boys in 
masques by Flaxman. The Entombment, by Clodion, 
(signed). The Adoration of the Shepherds, from Verona. 
Colossal busts of Sculpture and Poetry, in white marble, 
from the Palace of the Duchesse de Bern, by Crazzia 
Marinari (1680). Two Figures in Suits of Damascene 
Armour. Triptic of the Adoration of the Shepherds, in 
ivory, with carved ebony frame. 

Inner Hall. Buhl clock finely engraved, from Straw- 
berry-hill. Marble bust of Aurelius. Bust of Cassius, 
the head of bronze, the bust in dark marble. White 
Marble Vase, with death of Hector on pedestal, with 
supporting nymphs and sphinxes in grey marble, (height 
eight feet). Two rosso antico busts on red marble 



85 

pedestals. Terra-cotta figure of Night. Two deep blue 
jewelled enamelled Sevres Jardinieres (1790 5). 

Dining Room. Gainsborough, Portraits of his 
Daughters. Sir T. Lawrence, Son of Colonel Hill, full 
length. Velasquez, Two full lengths, Dukes of Monti 
Leonii, from the Auldjo collection. Sant, St John, after 
Raphael. Plaque of the Massacre of the Innocents in 
della Robbia ware. Marble alto relief of David and his 
men eating the shew-bread, by Donatelli. Terra-cotta 
bust of Titian, taken in his life time by his friend 
Alessandrio Vittoria, the Venetian Senator. Antique 
bust of a Roman Lady, with drapery of agate. Oval 
silver Salver in deep repousse work, Androcles and the 
Lion. Brazen Wine Cooler, engraved, by Orazzia 
Fortezza di Sabenico. Table, supported by Sphinxes, 
old Florentine mosaic. 

Morning Room. Flora, by Marin. Sevres Plate, 
made for George III., companion plate from the 7 royal 
manufactory, Vienna. Limoges Enamel of Paulus III. in 
marble frame. Old Dresden Clock of. the finest white 
paste, with four caryatides. Ancient Buhl Commode. 
Ebony and Ivory Inlaid Cabinet. Three Portraits in 
Enamel, by Bone. Portrait of the Empress Catherine of 
Russia, and companion Portrait, by Rosalba. Capo di 
Monte, Dresden and Berlin Tazzas, Ivories, and Minia- 
tures, by Cosivay. Carved Ivory Tray, with the arms of 
the Dauphin, set with Turquoises. Fine Venetian Glass 
set in coral. 



86 

Library. Enamel, by Bone. Ditto of the Holy 
Family. White Marble Clock, by Clodion. Bronze of 
young Bacchus. 

Passage. Portrait of Camilla del Orto, by Tintoretto. 
Portrait of Wilson, by himself (from Wanstead-house). 
Large bronze bas relief of Hades (from the Strozza 
collection). Terra-cotta St. Andrew on the Cross (by 
John of Bologna). Black basaltic bust of a Boy (from the 
Marquis Spinola's Palace.) Terra-cotta bust, by Raphael. 

Drawing Room^ Cabinet, nine feet high of white 
China enamel. Carved ebony ditto, with Group in 
Delia Robbia ware. Two ditto, inlaid with ivory, with 
vases of early Capo di Monti (from the Duke of 
Hamilton's collection.) Bronze bust of the grand Conde 
(1621) on marble pedestal, by Thorivaldson. Buhl 
Table, from Strawberry Hill. Tazza of Rock Crystal. 
Illuminated missal from Newstead Abbey ; Ditto bound 
in embossed silver and velvet. Plate of Limoges Enamel. 
Carved Ivory Magdalen. Miniatures, by Cosway and . 
Hopner, &c. Rock Crystal Tazza, with the passage of 
the Red Sea exquisitely engraved. A Child and Parrot, 
by Greuze. Cameo of Semiramis (from Strawberry Hill). 
Louis XIV. and Madame de Chianges, by Petttot. 
Miniature of Alfieri, with autograph of Lord Byron. 
Etui, with Mounts and Enamel of the Duchesse de 
Montpensier, by Petitot. Dish of Limoges Enamel, with 
Lot and his Daughters. Ancient carved Ivory Group, 
cut out of a single tusk. Six Limoges Enamel Cups and 



87 

Saucers. Two Bronzes, from the collection of the late 
Duke of York. Castor and Pollux, in White Marble, 
from the collection of the Duke of Cambridge. Ewer 
and Basin of deep blue SevresJ Antique Cup of Cat's- 
eye, with jewelled stem. Two Miniatures, by Cos-way. 
Ditto of Charles I. and his Queen Henrietta. Ditto of 
Lady Jersey, by Sir Thomas Lawrence. Four Plates 
from the Royal Vienna Manufactory. Cups and Saucers 
of Sevres, Capo di Monti, old Dresden, Berlin, Buen 
Retiro, and Vienna. A jewelled Limoges Triptic the 
birth of Christ. Sofa and four Chairs of old Tournay 
tapestry. Embroidered ditto, with Screen and Footstool 
from the petit Trianon, fromerly belonging to Marie 
Antoinette. Twelve magnificent old Venetian Glasses, 
from the palace at Naples; six others of the suite are in 
the possession of the Duchess of Wellington. Two 
Bronze busts of Sextus V. and Clement VII., of the 
highest art and workmanship. 

Staircase. Hermandino, Duke of Mantua, by Paul 
Veronese. John Locke, by Sir G. Kneller. Elizabeth, 
Duchess of Norfolk, by Zuccharo. Madame du Deffand. 
Large Majolica Plaque of the twelve Disciples in the 
porch of the Temple, (A.D. 1525.) Virgin and Child in 
della Robbia ware. Bronze bust of Columbus. Portrait 
of the Marquis Grimani, by Tintoretto. Marble bust of a 
Roman Lady, the drapery in agate. St. Peter and St. 
Paul, della Robbia. Large Spanish Cabinet of Tortoise- 
shell and Mother-of-pearl. Lofty Ebony Cabinet, with 



88 

the arms and portraits of the Visconti family. Head of 
Charity, by Sir J. Reynolds. Landscape by Gainsborough. 
Large Limoges Enamel in Ebony Frame. The Annun- 
ciation, carved in Amber, with border of Lapis Lazuli. 
Two terra-cotta plaques, by Marin. Miniatures of 
Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, with ten Nobles, in 
Tortoise-shell frame. 

Study. Table of old Roman mosaic. Antique Desk 
of Tortoise-shell and Mother-of-pearl. Two oak Cabinets 
from FonthilU 

Japan Room. Old Dresden Clock, with Landscapes. 
Chest of rare old Marquetry, with Limoges Enamel. 

Red Dressing Room. Terra-cotta plaque Of the Holy 
Family, by Giorgio Marchioli, 1620. 

Green Dressing Room. Four magnificent plaques of 
old Capo di Monti, representing the four seasons. Two- 
oval ditto of Night and Morning, in Ebony Cabinet. 

ROSELANDS, 

The seat of James Pateshall Jones, Esq., is situated on 
the south side of Turkey-street. The estate, which is 
watered by the New River, contains upwards of fifty 
acres, and includes the house and grounds, which were 
for more than a century the property and residence of the 
late Mr. Phineas Pateshall and his ancestors, and after- 
wards of his grandson, the present owner, who purchased 
the adjoining estates in the year 1859, and blended the 
two properties. In the following year the public road, 



89 

which wound round the front of the house, was diverted, 
under an order of the Quarter Sessions, and carried in a 
direct line across Mr. Jones's land, at his own expense, 
by which a great improvement, public as well as private, 
was effected. 

The families of Pateshall and Jones (who have more 
than once intermarried), are among the oldest residential 
proprietors in the -parish. Phineas Pateshall appears 
from the Duchy Records, as quoted by Dr. Robinson, to 
have held a house and land " at Bull's Cross, near Card's 
Bridge," in 1686, as copyhold of the Manor of Enfield 
in the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Philip Jones, of Barnard's Inn, the great-grandfather of 
James Pateshall Jones, died at his house in Green-street, 
Enfield, now the residence of the Rev. Thomas Jones, 
his grandson. He was an auctioneer of great eminence 
in London, and his father, Thomas Jones, was the first 
individual who practised that profession in this country. 
(Gentleman's Magazine, -1778.,) 

MANOR OF DURANTS. 

The Manor of Durants belonged in the reign of 
Edwand I. to Richard de Plessitis, at which time it 
appears to have been valued at 21 is. n^d. 

In default of male issue it devolved to Thomas Durant, 
whose only daughter, Maude, married John Wrothe, and 
the Manor of Durants, to which that of Cartons was at 
an early period annexed, descended to their son, William 



90 

Wrothe, who died 20 March, 9 HEN. IV.* after which it 
continued in the Wrothe family for many generations. 
" Sir Thomas Wrothe was, "says Fuller, "of the Bedchamber, 
" and a favourite to King Edward the Sixth, who, (as I 
" am informed) at his death, passed out of the armes of 
" him, his faithfull servant, into the embraces of Christ, 
" his dearest Saviour. Soon after Sir Thomas found a 
" great change in the English Court, but no alteration as 
" many did (to their shame) in his own conscience, in 
" preservation of which he was fain to fly beyond the 
" seas." It was observable (he adds), that the family of 
this man who went away for his conscience, was the only 
family in Middlesex out of all those mentioned by Norden, 
which was not extinct in his time (1660). A curious 
letter from his son, Sir Robert Wrothe, who died June 26, 
1605, is preserved among the Lansdowne manuscripts, 
which vividly depicts the state of the country round 
London at the close of the sixteenth century. 

Sir Robert Wrothe to Mr. Michael Hickes. Intelligence concerning 

robbers who frequented Layton Heath in Essex. 
(M.S. Lansd. 87 Art. 60 Orig.) 

My very good frende, Mr. Hickes, I am informed that now, 
towardes these darke evenings, there are sertaine lewde fellowes, 
sumtimes horsemen, somtimes footemen, disguising themselves with 
beardes that they carry aboute them in their pockets, which doe 



* " Ex bundello Inquisitionum anno 2 Regis Hen. V. num. 4, in 
Turrc Lond. 



91 

frequente and use aboute Layton heath and at or about Snaresbrooke 
in your brother Colstone's walke. I have appoynted sum espiciali 
spyall of them to bewray them and to know them, either by theire 
horses apparell or otherwise, and I hope in time to have them 
discifared. Yet for better surety thereof, I pray you lett me intreate 
you to speake to your brother Colstone that with some secresy he 
woulde take such order with sum of the discreatest keepers he hath 
that towardes eaveninges they woulde have an eye upone the heath 
and about Snaresbrooke for suoh kinde of persons, and to discry 
them by their horses or otherwise if they can. They come not above 
one or two in company until they meete about the heath, and when 
they have obteyned that they come for, they sever themselves in the 
like maner, and sum times sum of them ride over by Temple Mill, 
where I pray you take likewise secret order with the miller that he 
woulde keepe his gate shute up in the nighte ; besides sumtimes 
they ride over by Hackney ; and yf they doe discry any of them that 
I may have notice thereof, and I double not but to have them 
quickly apprehended, for I have notice of sum of their hauntes. 
And so, with my commendations to your good wiffe, I will bid you 
farewell. 

Lucton the i6th of October, 1599. 

Your assured frende, 

ROBERT WROTHE. 

One of them usethe to ride on a whit mare. Let them have a 
diligent care if they doe see any such man. To my verie loving 
friend Mr. Michaell Hicks,* at his house at Duckett or elsewhere. 



* Mr. Hickes, afterwards Sir Michael Hickes, was Lord Burghley's secretary. 

The old Manor House of Ducketts, in the parish of Tottenham, and formerly 
said to have been in Hornsey, still remains with part of its surrounding moat ; 
a fine old stone chimney piece of the i6th century, bearing the Tudor rose in the 
centre of its frieze was removed a few years ago, and is now in the possession of 
J. W. Ford, Esq. 



92 

The family of Wrothe became extinct with Sir Henry 
Wrothe, the grandson of Sir Thomas, to whose exile, 
during the reign of Queen Mary, Fuller again refers in 
his dedication to Sir Henry of part of his Church History. 

" Hence it is that I have seen in your ancient house 
" at Durance, the crest of your armes (viz., a lion's head 
" erased) with the extraordinary addition of sable wings, 
" somewhat alluding to those of bats, to denote your 
" ancestour's dark and secret flight for his safety. How- 
" ever, God brought him home again on the silver wings 
" of the dove, when peaceably restoring him in the dayes 
" of Q. Elizabeth to his large possessions." 

On the death of this Sir Henry Wrothe, in the year 
1673, the manor was sold by his executors for the sum of 
^8,900, to Sir Thomas Stringer, whose son, William, 
dying in 1723, bequeathed the estate to his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Lord Chancellor Jeffreys. After various 
successive changes it was purchased in 1793 by Newell 
Connop, Esq., in whose family it still remains. 

The Manor House stood on the east side of the high- 
road between Ponder' s-end and Green-street, but it was 
burnt down at the end of the last century, at a meeting 
of tenants by imprudently heaping logs on the hall fire. 
The entrance was by a large gateway, with a postern, 
flanked by extensive barns and outbuildings, and 
approached by a bridge of one arch, across the moat 
which surrounded it. Judge Jeffreys is said to have 
occasionally resided here with his daughter, and two or 



98 

three portraits of him were formerly in the picture 
gallery, one of which was for many years to be seen at 
the White Hart Inn at Ponder's-end, but it has long 
since disappeared. 

ABBOT OF THORNEY'S LANDS. 

In the reign of Hen. VI. the Abbot of Thorney had 
lands in this parish known as Cranes, which were then 
valued at seven marks per ann. In 1686 they were the 
property of Sir Thomas Stringer, and they still belong to 
the Manor of Durants. 

MANOR OF ELSYNGE. 

The Manor of Elsynge, or Norris, appears to have no 
connexion beyond its name with Elsynge Hall. It is said 
to have been situated in Welsh's-lane (now Lock-lane), and 
was held of the king in capite by Stephen Wilforde, who 
died in 1547. The property was sold in 1708 by Richard 
Wilforde to Robert Mackeris, whose representatives hold 
one-third, the remainder being held by the Connop 
family of the Manor of Enfield at a fee farm rent of 
tenpence. 

MANOR OF SUFFOLKS. 

The Manor of Suffolks, also situated near Ponder's 
End, was, in the middle of the fifteenth century, held 
under ..the crown by Sir Richard Parr, comptroller of the 
household. In the year 1798, it was sold to Newell 
Connop, Esq., and became merged in the Manor of 
Durants. 



ill 

-MANOR OF CAPKl.S. 

Honeylands and Pentriches, alias Capels, are joint 
manors, and were formerly part of the possessions of Sir 
Giles Capel, who, in exchange for other lands, conveyed 
them to the crown in 1547. Capel House, the residence 
of James Warren, Esq., is situated at Bull's Cross, near 
the site of the old manor house, which along with the 
estate was sold by Queen Elizabeth in 1562 to William 
Home, merchant, and after passing through the hands of 
various successive purchasers, became (in 1793) the pro- 
perty of the late Rawson Hart Boddam, Esq., some time 
governor of Bombay. Mr. Boddam pulled down the old 
manor house, reserving little more than the stables, and 
transferred its name of Capel House to his own villa, 
which is said to occupy the site of some of the out-build- 
ings of the Palace of James I. at Theobalds. Tradition 
says that an old cross formerly stood near this spot, from 
which the name of Bull's Cross"" is derived. The old 
manor house stood near a field now called North Field, 
where there are still the vestiges of an old garden, with 
three remarkable old trees a willow, a plane, and a 
poplar. 

Capel House, with its estate of thirty-one acres, was 
purchased in the year 1840 by James Warren, Esq., the 
uncle of the present proprietor. 



* Called " Bedell's Cross" in a conveyance of land to John fforde, 
23 Ed. IV (1483). 



<J5 

ENFIELU COURT. 

Enfield Court is the residence of Colonel Alfred 
Plantagenet Frederick Charles Somerset, J.P., and 
Deputy Lieutenant. The estate, which contains about 
eighty acres, is partly freehold and partly copyhold of 
the Manor of Worcesters, and was devised to Colonel 
Somerset by his godfather, the late General Martin. At 
the Battle of Waterloo, Lord John T. H. Somerset (a 
younger son of the Duke of Beaufort), then an officer in 
the 23rd Light Dragoons, saved the life of his comrade, 
Gen. Martin, by his gallantry, and on the birth of his 
son (5 Sept., 1829), the general undertook the office of 
sponsor, and dying unmarried in 1852, left this estate 
and the bulk of his large property to his godson. 

The original structure dates from the latter end of the 
seventeenth century, since which time it has received 
many successive additions ; the southern wing having 
been rebuilt by the present owner in 1864, at which time 
the grounds adjoining the street were planted ; the public 
footpath which formerly ran between the house and the 
lawn being diverted with the consent of the Vestry, 
and under an order of the Quarter Sessions. The Riding 
House, which was erected in 1858, is a spacious building 
63 feet in diameter, and well known to the public from 
the liberality with which it has at all times been 
freely lent for their use or recreation. The garden on 
the west front of the house still bears traces of having 



9G 

been originally laid out in the time of William III., with 
its broad ten-ace walk four hundred feet in length, and 
what were once the clipped yews and hollies of the Dutch 
style of gardening. At the bottom of this walk stands 
the quaint and picturesque summer-house, a small 
building two stories high ; and an oblong fish-pond, 
crossed by a bridge, the remains of the former canal. 
The accompanying engraving is copied from a curious old 
painting taken in the last century. 

LINCOLN HOUSE. 

On the west side of the road at Ponder's-end, opposite 
South-street, stands an ancient mansion called Lincoln 
House, said to take its name from the Earls of Lincoln,* 
of whom Henry and Thomas, the second and third earls, 
resided here from 1600 to 1612. From the arms which 
were formerly in the windows it appeared to have been 
the property of Henry Howard Viscount Bindon, and 
afterwards of Sir Thomas Coventry, Lord Keeper, and of 
George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham. The house 
was a buttressed brick building, with marks of great 
antiquity. Under one of the windows between two marble 
pillars there was in 1750 a tablet inscribed R.L. 1520. 



* LYSONS. Mr. Gough, however, says that this house was the 
house of the Bishops of Lincoln, "or of that other William of 
" Wickham, Bishop of that diocese, who was born here." 

(Cough's Camden, Vol. it'., p. 107 .) 



9? 

The interior of the house, which was very irregular, 
contained several ornamental ceilings. The hall and 
other rooms were wainscoted, apparently of the date of 
James I., and the windows richly ornamented with stained 
glass. One of these contained the arms of Howard with 
seven quarterings (gules, a bend between 6 cross crosslets 
fiche'e argent) with the supporters and crest of Howard 
and a viscount's coronet motto " Quod videri vis esto" 
underneath "Henry Howard, 1584." Another shield 
bore "Sable, a fesse ermine," between three crescents, 
or, with the Coventry crest, and below " Thomas 
Coventrye Miles Dims Gustos magni sigilli Angliae 
anno 1627." On a third was the arms of Villiers 
quartered with Pakeman, Bellers, Howby, and Kirkby. 
A great part of the house was burned down a few years 
ago, and has been rebuilt. 

BRIDGEN HALL, 

Late the residence of John Smart, Esq., was built by 
William Bridgen, of an ancient family in Bridgenorth, 
Shropshire, many years Alderman of Farringdon Within. 
He contested the Mayoralty with Beckford in 1761, when 
the latter was elected. He became Lord Mayor in 1764, 
and died at Bridgen Hall, October, 1779, his death being 
accelerated by attending, at the request of his friend 
John Wilkes, the election of Recorder to the City, when 
he gave a casting vote for Serjeant Adair. He was buried 
in the Parish Church of Enfield, his pall being supported 

G 



98 

by six Aldermen, the Recorder attending as chief mourner. 
His nephew Edward Bridgen, F.R.S., was treasurer to the 
Society of Antiquaries, and married Martha, daughter of 
Richardson, whom she is said to have assisted in writing 
Clarissa.* Bridgen Hall was for many years the residence 
of William Linwood, Esq., the brother of Miss Linwood, 
so justly celebrated for her " surile pictures," some fine 
examples of which, including a Madonna della Sedia after 
Raphael, are in the possession of David Henry, Esq., at 
Forty-hill. Such was the trouble taken by Miss Linwood 
to obtain the nice gradations of tone and colour, that she 
took her worsteds over to Paris to the Gobelins manu- 
factory, and there dipped them with her own hands into 
the different vats of dye to ensure the exact shades 
and tints which her work required. These wonderful 
specimens of needlework comprised many copies from 
old masters, some of which had the highest artistic merit. 
The most remarkable perhaps was the " Salvator Mundi," 
from the original by Carlo Dolci, belonging to the 
Marquess of Exeter. For this work, said to be the finest 
copy in existence of that celebrated picture, the Emperor 
Alexander offered her three thousand guineas. It is now 
in the collection of Her Majesty at Windsor. 



* ' ' Mr. Richardson is dead of an apoplexy, and his second 
"daughter has married a merchant." 20 July, 1762. Boswell's 
Life of Johnson, vol. I. p. 359. 



99 

THE OLD ROMAN ROAD. 

The ancient Roman Road, delineated on the old 
country maps as the ancient Erm en-street, or military 
road, led through part of the Chase in its passage to 
Hertford ; coming from Cripplegate, or Moorgate, it 
passed through Newington, thence through several green 
lanes to the east of Hornsey, entered Enfield Chase, and 
proceeded thence through Hatfield to Hertford. This 
was the road by which the Londoners marched with King 
Alfred at their head against the Danes, in the year 895, 
to a strong hold or fortification built by them at Hertford. 
After the low lands towards the River Lea had been 
drained, the Lord of the Manor of Edmonton first 
made the road from Hornsey through Tottenham and 
Edmonton, and so on to Enfield, whence it was continued 
to Bull's Cross, Hoddesdon, and Ware. "After the Barons' 
war (says Camden) against King John was waxed hot, the 
town of Ware turned London highway to it, whereas 
before it was but a little village, and known by a friery." 

The public highways, staked out by the Commissioners 
under the Act of Parliament, 41 George III., chap. 143, 
called the " Enfield Inclosure Act," of the width of forty 
feet, are Ponder's-end-road, over Southbury-field, the 
East Barnet-road, the Ridgeway-road, the Hadley-road, 
Parsonage-road. New-lane-road, Theobald's Park-road, 
and East Lodge-road, &c., the expenses of their formation 
and repair for two years being defrayed by the sale of 



100 

part of the enclosed land, after which time they were to 
be kept up and repaired by the parish. Such, however, 
was the state of these roads within the last fifty years, 'that 
the late Lady Elizabeth Palk, who resided at the Rectory, 
was accustomed, when she intended to call on Mrs. 
Elphinstone, at East Lodge, to send out men two -or three 
days in advance, to fill the ruts with faggots to enable her 
carriage to pass. Within living memory it was possible 
to travel from Hadley Church through Enfield Chase, 
Epping and Hainault Forests, to Wanstead without ever 
leaving the green turf, or losing sight of forest land. 

NOTE. There are in Enfield 3 miles 4 furlongs, no yards, of 
turnpike roads which have been thrown, by the late Act, upon the 
parish, the repairs of which are estimated at 1,480 per annum. 



101 
MARKETS AND FAIRS. 

King Edward I. by a Charter, dated 1303, granted 
licence to Humphrey de Bohun, and his wife (Elizabeth, 
Countess of Holland and the King's daughter), and their 
heirs, to hold a weekly market on Mondays, at Enfield. 

James I., also, by writ of Privy Council, dated the 
1 7th of April, 1619, granted to certain parties therein 
named, and their assigns, one market in Enfield every 
Saturday. It appears that the latter grant established a 
Court of Pie Poudre, and all liberties, free customs, tolls, 
stallage, &c., a market-house, shambles, shops, and stalls, 
in trust for the poor. The site of the market-place, with 
the market-house and the profits, and the houses formerly 
standing on the west side, belong to the Parish, and 
are vested in trustees for any general use that concerns 
the Town and Parish. The market, however, from various 
causes, fell into decay; though several attempts have 
subsequently been made to revive it. 

The present Market-cross was erected by subscription 
in 1826, at a cost exceeding ^200, from the design of 
the late Mr. John Hill. 

The Market-house was formerly a wooden building of 
an octagonal form, supported by eight columns and a 
central pillar. There were also a portable pillory and 
stocks in the Market-place, both of which have been long 
removed. The present stocks are in the iron railing 
surrounding the police station. 



102 

The Charter (of which a translation is appended) also 
granted a license to hold two annual fairs, of three days 
each, beginning respectively on the i4th of August and 
the zgth of November. 

"A.D. 1303, 8th April, 

3ist Edward I., at Lenton. 

" Edward, by the Grace of God, King of England, 
Lord of Ireland, Duke of Guienne, to his Archbishops, 
Bishops, Abbotts, Priors, Earls, Barons, Justices, Sheriffs, 
Reeves, Ministers, and all his Bailiffs and faithful people, 
greeting- 
Know ye, That we have granted, and by this our 
Charter have confirmed unto our trusty and beloved 
Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and. 
Elizabeth, Countess of Holland, our very dear daughter, 
his wife, that they and the heirs of their bodies begotten 
for ever, may have a market every week, on Monday, at 
their Manor of Enfield, in the County of Middlesex, and 
2 Fairs there every year, namely, one to last three days, 
to wit : on the eve and on the day, and on the morrow 
of St. Andrew the Apostle; and the other Fair to last 
during other three days, to wit : on the eve and on the 
day, and on the morrow of the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary ; unless such markets and such fairs be a 
nuisance of the neighbouring markets and neighbouring 
fairs. Therefore we will, and strictly command for us and 
our heirs, that the said Humphrey and Elizabeth, and the 
heirs of their bodies begotten for ever, shall have the 



108 

aforesaid markets and fairs at their Manor of Enfield, 
with all liberties and free customs, to like markets and 
fairs pertaining, unless such markets and fairs be to the 
nuisance of the neighbouring fairs, as aforesaid,, these 
being witnesses : 

The Venble. Father Antony, Bishop of Durham. . 

Th omas Earl of Lancaster. 

William de Castellon. 

Robert de la Warde, Steward of our Household. 

Eustace de la Hacche. 

Phillip de Varney. 

John de Merk, and others. 

Given under our hands at Lenton, on the 8th of April, 
in the jist year of our reign, by the King himself. 

Y de BROKENFORD, relating." 

Of these the St. Andrew's Fair was once much cele- 
brated as a fair for cheese, immense quantities of which 
were brought from Essex and other places, but it is now 
chiefly resorted to by horse dealers and cattle jobbers. 

The August Fair, which, from some unknown cause, 
had latterly been held in September, had long ceased to 
answer any legitimate purposes of trade, and had become 
a source of immorality and disorder, and a growing 
nuisance to the inhabitants. This was so generally felt 
that in the year 1868 a memorial was signed by 100 of 
the leading inhabitants and tradesmen, including the 
names of all the magistrates, clergy, and ministers, stating 
the above facts, and praying that such steps should be 



104 

taken as were needful for its suppression. This memorial 
was submitted to the Duchy of Lancaster, the Secretary 
of State, and the Commissioner of Metropolitan Police ; 
in consequence of which the Commissioner applied for a 
summons to the Chief Steward to show the right and title 
of the Duchy to hold such fair. Her Majesty having 
graciously waived any claims under the supposed 
authority of the Charter, the Steward was directed (on 
application to the Duchy), to abstain from offering any 
objection which might prevent the Justices from adjudi- 
cating, and when their judgment was pronounced against 
the legality of the Fair, Her Majesty was pleased to 
acquiese in that decision. In consequence of this judg- 
ment, the following notice was posted by the directions 
of the Commissioner : 

" POLICE NOTICE ! UNLAWFUL FAIR I 

" Notice is hereby given, that, in pursuance of the Act 
passed in the third year of the reign of Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, intituled " an Act for further improving 
the police in and near the Metropolis," the Fair usually 
holden upon certain ground called Enfield Town, owned 
by the Duchy of Lancaster, and occupied by Edward 
Letchworth, Chief Steward of the Manor of Enfield, in 
the Duchy of Lancaster, and situate in the Parish of 
Enfield, in the County of Middlesex, has been declared 
unlawful, and a copy of the declaration by the Justices of 
the Peace for the district of Enfield to that effect is 



105 

hereunto subjoined ; any attempt, therefore, to hold such 
Fair in future will subject offenders to a penalty not 
exceeding ten pounds, or in default of payment to three 
months' imprisonment in the House of Correction. 

E. Y. W. HENDERSON, 
The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. 
Metropolitan Police Office, 

4, Whitehall Place, 2 ^th August, 1869." 



COPY OF DECLARATION under 2 and 3 Viet, 

cap. 47, sec. 39. 

" METROPOLITAN POLICE DISTRICT TO WIT. 
"Whereas it hath been duly made to appear to us, 
James Meyer, Edward Ford, James Whatman Bosanquet, 
and Henry Carington Bowles Bowles, Esquires, four of 
Her Majesty's Justices of the Peace acting in and for the 
district of Enfield, in the county of Middlesex, sitting at 
the office for Petty Sessions at Enfield Town, in the said 
county of Middlesex, and within the Metropolitan Police 
District, that the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis 
did direct Alexander Manson, one of the Superintendents 
belonging to the Metropolitan Police Force, to summon 
Edward Letchworth, the Chief Steward of the Manor of 
Enfield, in the Duchy of Lancaster, in the said county, 
and acting for the said Duchy of Lancaster as the owner 
of certain ground called " Enfield Town," situate in the 
Parish of Enfield in the said county and district aforesaid, 
whereon a certain Fair called the " Enfield Fair," has 



106 

been usually holden on the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th days of 
September in each year without lawful authority, to show 
the right and title of such owner to hold such Fair ; and 
whereas on this thirteenth day of August, 1869, Edward 
Letchworth, the Chief Steward of the Manor of Enfield, 
in the Duchy of Lancaster, acting as such for the said 
Duchy of Lancaster as the owner of the said ground, 
having been duly summoned to appear before us this day, 
as is now proved before us as having been duly served 
with the said summons (not less than eight days before 
this day), and now being duly called does not appear 
before us, the said Justices sitting in Petty Sessions afore- 
said, in pursuance of the said summons, and in that behalf 
issued, to show the right and title (if any) of such owner 
to hold the said Fair ; and we, the said Justices, having 
heard the case, and no sufficient cause to believe that the 
said Fair has been lawfully holden having been shown to 
us, we do hereby declare such Fair altogether unlawful. 

Given under our hands, at the office for Petty Sessions 
at Enfield, in the County of Middlesex, this thirteenth 
day of August, one thousand, eight hundred and sixty-nine. 

HENRY C. B. BOWLES. 
(Signed) JAMES MEYER. 

EDWARD FORD. 

J. W. BOSANQUET. 

Some little opposition was excited by the publication 
of this notice, and an attempt was made to hold the Fair 
as usual, when one of the booth-holders was taken into 



107 

custody. On the hearing of the case, an elaborate judg- 
ment was pronounced by Philip Twells, Esq., re-affirming 
the illegality of the Fair, as declared by the Justices, and 
committing the defendant to one day's imprisonment. 
The defendant was accordingly walked into the cell at 
the Station-house, and then liberated. 

This being the last fair in the Metropolitan district 
which was suppressed under the provisions of the Act, 
some interest may attach to this record of the proceedings, 
which we have, therefore, given in full. 



108 



THE ENFIELD RACES. 

The " Enfield Races," formerly held on the marshes at 
the bottom of Green-street, were first established in the 
year 1788, and on the 23rd and 24th of September two 
$o plates were run for. These races were carried on 
for some years, but failing in interest they were discon- 
tinued after several attempts to revive them. It was at 
these races, on September ist, 1790, that the notorious 
pickpocket, George Barrington (whose real name was 
Waldon), was apprehended for robbing Henry Hare 
Townsend, Esq., of Bruce Castle, Tottenham, of a gold 
watch. He was taken before the Bench at the Angel at 
Edmonton, and committed; tried on the i6th September, . 
and sentenced to seven years transportation. Being a 
man of some education and considerable abilities he 
became, after the expiration of his sentence, superintendent 
of the convicts, and chief officer of the police at Para- 
matta. On the opening of a theatre at Sidney in 1796, 
he composed the prologue, containing the well-known 
lines : 

True patriots all ! for be it understood 
We left our country for our country's good ! 

On Monday, October i2th, 1801, this race-course was 
the scene of an extraordinary tumult. " The intended 
battle between Belcher and Burke, which was to have 
taken place this day in Enfield-marsh, was prevented by 



109 

the very proper interposition of Mr. Ford,* who issued his 
warrant against them, and on Sunday night Belcher was 
taken into custody by Townsend, the Bow-street officer. 
At an early hour on the day appointed, the road to Enfield 
was crowded with horses and carriages of every descrip- 
tion hackney coaches, loaded within and without, and 
pedestrians without number, but more particularly the 
refuse of London, many of them armed with bludgeons, 
and by one o'clock it was supposed that no fewer than 
twenty thousand had assembled. Several magistrates of 
the neighbourhood attended with volunteer associations, 
and the yeomanry cavalry of Hertfordshire, with their 
field-pieces, who presently separated" the crowd. The 
scene of action was then shifted into Waltham-marsh, in 
Essex, the spectators being conveyed over the Lea, where 
they waited in vain, and then began to disperse. "- 
Gentleman's Magazine, p. 952. 

A fair or meeting for gambols and rustic sports is 
mentioned by Dr. Robinson as held at Easter and Whit- 
suntide (but now long discontinued), at "Bull-beggars 
Hole," near the Rose and Crown at Clay-hill. " Bull- 
beggar" is explained by Skinner as " larva manducus," 
(i.e. hobgoblin). Scot, in his (i Discoverie of Witchcraft," 
says, " They have so fraide us with bull-beggars, spirits, 
witches, &c., that we wereafraide of our owne shad owes." 

* Afterwards Sir Richard Ford, M.P., the father of "Spanish 
Ford," well known as an author and contributor to the Quarterly 
Review, as well as for his fine gallery of old masters, and his 
unrivalled collection of majolica and rare porcelain. 



110 



THE MAGISTRACY AND POLICE. 

The Petty Sessions are held weekly, on Friday, at 
eleven o'clock, a.m., at the Court-house, in Enfield. The 
Bench consists of the following Justices, any two of 
whom, acting together, have jurisdiction as a Police 
Magistrate, under the Metropolitan Police Acts: 

JAMES MEYER, ESQ. 

EDWARD FORD, ESQ. 

COLONEL ALFRED P. F. C. SOMERSET, Dep.-Lieut. 

JAMES W. BOSANQUET, ESQ. 

PHILIP TWELLS, ESQ. 

ROBERT C. L. BEVAN, ESQ. 

HENRY C. B. BOWLES, ESQ. 

The police force in Enfield consists, at the present 
time, of one Inspector Inspector Robert Gould ; four 
Sergeants, Sergeant 25, Joseph Appleford; Sergeant 441, 
Edwin Adams (Enfield Town); Sergeant 22, William 
Macnamara; Sergeant 32, William Coote, (Enfield High- 
way), and thirty-six Constables ; one sergeant and two 
constables being mounted. 

There are two Police Stations, one at Enfield, and the 
other at Enfield Highway, and also one at Potter's Bar 
which takes some of the outlying parts of the parish 
towards South Mimms. 

The Superintendent, Mr. Alexander Manson, resides 
at Kentish Town Police Station, which is the divisional 
office of the Y division, and with which telegraphic 



Ill 

communication has lately been established from the 
Enfield Station, and messages can be sent through the 
Commissioners' Office, Scotland Yard, to all parts of 
the Metropolis within a radius of fifteen miles of 
Charing Cross. 

A new Station is now building in the London Road, 
the first bricks of which were laid on the 27th March, 
J 873, by James Meyer, Esq., J.P., the Rev. G. H. 
Hodson, Vicar, Mr. John Purdey, Vestry Clerk, Inspector 
Gould, and Mr. Creed, Overseer. 

A Divisional Detective, P.C. Nathaniel Aldridge is 
stationed at Enfield. 



112 

PERAMBULATION OF THE PARISH 
BOUNDARIES. 

The custom of perambulation is said by Spelman to 
have been of heathen origin, and to be an imitation of 
the feast called Terminalia, which was dedicated to the 
god Terminus as the guardian of fields and landmarks. 
Plutarch states that it was originally instituted by Numa 
Pompilius. 

The perambulation of Enfield was made every seventh 
year (though it is doubtful if the custom is a very old one) 
the expenses, including " refreshments," being paid out of 
the Church Rates. The last perambulation took place 
in January, 1858, and after being so long in abeyance, it 
may be hoped that the practice will not be renewed. The 
publication of the large Ordnance Map which is legal 
evidence of the boundaries has entirely superseded any 
real benefit which may once have attached to this 
custom, too often resulting in drunkenness and serious 
disturbance of the peace. 

It was usual here, as in other parishes, to " bump " 
adults and to whip boys at different stations to make 
them remember the line of boundary. In 1830, the 
performers in an adjoining parish bumped an unlucky 
angler whom they found on the banks of the Lea, for 
which, however, he brought an action, and obtained ,50 
damages. In Chelsea the authorities seem to have been 
more considerate, the churchwardens' books (1679) 






113 

containing the entry, " Given to the boys that were 
whipt 45.'* 

The following details are taken from the plan in the 
possession of Mr. Purdey, the Vestry Clerk. 

I. Beginning at the bridge, near the nine-mile stone, in -the 
London Road called the red bridge: 

2. From the red bridge over the pales in a bevel line to the 
cross in Mr. Moorat's garden wall over the same, from thence 
through the garden over the second wall, and continue along the 
second garden to 

3. An oak with a cross at the edge of the New River; cross the 
river, and in a bevel line along Grove field to 

4. The oak, with a cross adjoining to the stile leading from 
the grove to the river ; from thence along the hedge of Mr. Carr's 
field and little orchard, and in front of Mr. Ford's house through 
the long pond to 

5. An old horn-beam stump, with a cross along the hedge of the 
wood to the brook ; cross the same, and along the bank to 

6 A cross in the ground, where a beech tree with a cross formerly 
stood; then westward to a small oak in the hedge with a cross: 
continue along the hedge to a sallow ; 

7- Then southward to a cross in a small oak in the brook : along 
the brook to 

8. Green Dragon-lane ; along Old Park hedge to 

9. Filcap's gate, a cross in the gate-post : continue along the 
hedge of the Old Park to 

10. The corner of Mr. Clayton's allotment of thirty acres : along 
south-west hedge to 

ii. The Edmonton fence, dividing the Enfield and Edmonton 
commons : along the fence to 

12. Cross the road to 

I3- The gate and rails parting the two commons; along the 
Enfield fence to 



114 

14- The comer of the tythe allotment in a straight line to 

15. Part of South-lodge allotment, being the cow-house, yard, 
&c. ; cross the road in a straight line to 

16. A cross in South-lodge fence ; along the north-east fence to 

17. The end of the old inclosure; along the fence of the new 
inclosure to (a cross' in post the corner offence) at 

18. From thence to the corner ; at 

19. And from thence to the old inclosure (a cross in an oak and 
a cross in post the corner offence); to 

20. Along the old fence to 

21. The beginning of the other new intake directly opposite 
the Sheep's-head, Temple ; along the new fence, and across gravel- 
pit-pond to 

22. From thence along the fence until you come opposite to 

23. The corner of tythe allotment ; cross the road to No. 23. 
(By this means the whole of the South-lodge and inclosures are, 
perambulated) ; along the tythe fence to 

24. About four feet on the outside of Mr. Bevan's park pales ; 
continue in a straight line westward along Russel's riding to 

25. From thence southward along the fence joining to Edmonton 
common, in a south direction to 

26. And from thence along the fence to 

27. The old Chase hedge ; along same to a cross in gate post by 
the side of the road leading from Southgate to Potter's-bar ; cross 
the road into Lord Feversham's shrubbery ; across same to a cross 
in an oak over the garden pales, to a cross in post of the fence over 
the same wall in a straight line to the opposite fence ; over same, 
and over the brick walls into the kitchen garden to a post E. P. 28 ; 
then cross through the kitchen garden door to an elm, and over the 
centre of the grass plat in front of Lord Feversham's house; along 
the fence of Lord Feversham's garden to a cross in the post at the 
end of the fence ; over the pales across the field in a bevil line to a 
cross in the post at the corner E P ; along the pale fence to 



115 

- 28. A bend in Mr. Barne's pales over the same in a straight line 
to the north-east corner of his house, and over the lawn to a 
post E.P. 

29. Cross over the pales, and the road to 

30. From thence in a straight line across Mr. Alexander's field to 
post E. P. 

31. Over the pales and wall, and thro'ugh 

32. His south-west corner window of his house, and out at the 
opposite one ; then in a straight line to 

33. A cross in a post No. 33 in the field ; along the field to the 
ditch ; along the same to 

34. A cross in post No. 34, from thence in a straight line over 
the hedge to No. 35 ; through the pond and yard of Mr. Wragg's to 
the garden fence and post 36 ; by a pale fence across the garden 
over the wall into the yard ; through, the same, over the wall into 
the garden, across the lawn, to a cross in the plate and through Mr. 
Frank's offices, towards a cross in a stone in the garden wall ; along 
the back front of the house over the late Mr. Idle's fences to 

37. A cross on a post by the barn in the front of the house J 
over the same, and across his yards to 

38. A cross on the shed belonging to the Cock ; over same, to a 
post No. 39 ; cross the yard, take in part of the pond, then by the 
side of Nixon's cottage fence ; along Mr. Parker's field to No. 40 ; 
to an ash tree in the corner of the garden ; along the field fence to a 
post No. 4! ; continue round the field to a post No. 42 ; cross over 
the road in a line northward to a cross in the ground by the stile 
near to Mr. Cater's park (by which you take in a piece of ground 
which lays open to Hadley common, which is also claimed by that 
parish); along the fence westward to the bend 

43. Then over Mr. Cater's park pales, in a bevil line, to a stake 
by the corner of the pond 

44. A cross the great pond north-westward to the grip 

45- Then in the contrary direction to a post in a hedge to 



116 

46. The park pales ; continuing along the same to the point 
47- Then by the gate to 

48. Adjoining the north of Camlot way (part of Enfield is sur- 
rounded by Mimms and Hadley parishes); from 48 continue along 
the east part of the south fence of the allotment to the Minister of 
Hadley (which is in Hadley parish), to the south-east corner of 
Mount-pleasant inclosures at 
49. Here the parish of Enfield begins again. 
From thence to 50, 51, and 52, which are the different angles 'of 
the fences belonging to Mount-pleasant inclosures, the whole of 
which are in the parish of Enfield. You now go along the west part 
of the south fence of the allotment to the Minister of Hadley (which 
is in Hadley parish), till you come to 

S3- The east corner of the south fence of the late Mr. Nutting's 
field ; along the garden, from thence to a post ; then to 
54. The pond ; cross the same, and in a straight line to 
55- The drain along the hedge through the late Mr. Nutting's 
second garden, the late Rev. Mr. Garrow's, and Colonel Dury's 
fields to 

56. The garden wall of the late Colonel Dury ; over the same, 
and in a bevil line to 

57. The north wall of the garden ; over the same to 
58. Cross the line to a barn (now nearly clown), cross the garden 
where the mill formerly stood, to the corner of the garden at 

59. Along the footpath in the front of the Windmill and Two 
Brewers alehouses to 

60. The corner of the old fence now adjoining to the allotment 
for Old Fold Manor ; along the fence to 
61. Round the corner to the angle at 
62. Then along the fence adjoining to an allotment to 
63. The end of that allotment ; round the fence adjoining to the 
Minister of Hadley's allotment to No. 53 (where you begun); this 
and Dr. Green's are all that are in the parish of Enfield, and are 



117 

wholly surrounded by the parishes of Hadley and South Mimms. 
From 53 you come to 52, along the south fence to Mount-pleasant, 
back to 48, the north corner of the gate of Camlet way, across the., 
field northward to 

64. Along the fence to 

65. And from thence along the fence to the road leading to 
Gannick corner, at 

66. Along the fence adjoining the road to the gate. 
67. Cross at the gate to a cross in an oak tree. 
68. Along the bevil fence to 
69. Then in a straight direction to 

70. In the road from Cattle-gate ; cross the road eastward to the 
angle at 

71. From thence along the north side of the road by 
72. Near Cooper's-lane to 73, to the late Mr. Hammond's, 
Potter's-bar ; from 

73. The small garden, cross the yard and garden to a cross in 
his pales 

74. Then to the corner of the field at 

75. An old oak pollard tree in the county ditch along the ditch 
to Cooper's-lane gate ; cross the road and down the ditch to 71 ; 
from thence along the ditch to 
76. Cattle-gate. 

A cross in Cattle-gate, over the hedge and across the pond ; along 
the shire ditch to a post under the window of Mr. Millard's stable, 
through same, over a shed, through the second shed, along the fence 
to a post E.P., into a field along the same. 

A cross in an oak, then across a little pond, a post E.P., to the 
lane leading to Mr. Pulley's fields, to 

A cross in an oak along Shire-ditch to the straight lane to 
A cross in Mr. Pulley's wall by the front door ; in at the door, 
and out at the opposite door, over the corner of the wall to 



118 

A cross on an elm tree stump at the bottom of Mi. Pulley's field, 
a post No. 57 to 

A cross in an ash pojlard, to a pos.t E.P., 

A cross in an horn-beam over the hedge ; continue along same to 
a post, and 

A cross in an oak ; from, thence in a bevil line across the field to 
a post in the hedge, and a cross in an oak pollard over the same 
hedge ; across the lane to a cross on an elm tree in fence, into Mr. 
Gray's first field in a straight line to a post at the bottom thereof, by 
a small ash over the hedge across the meadow to 
, A cross on a small oak post over the fence ; along the fence to a 
cross in the oak pojlard in the fence to 

A cross on a small oak in late Sloman's field, to a post. 

A cross in a small oak in the straight row to 

A cross in the same row to a mark on an oak pollard going into 
the lane ; cross the lane over the hedge to 

A cross in an oak to 

A cross in a post, and along in a straight line to an oak in lat c 
Mr. Goring's first field, to 

A cross in post, in second field, to 

A cross in post in the said field, at the corner, over- the hedge in 
a bevil line to a post in the field, by the gate at the bottom of the 
lane leading from White-webbs to Mr. Goring's. 

A cross in the gate-post ; cross the lane to a post in the opposite 
field to 

A cross in an horn-beam in a nook, to 

A cross in the post at the end of the field over the hedge, to 

A cross in the post ; cross the field in a bevil line to 

A cross in the post, and at a cross in an oak pollard ; then turn 
to the right about ten yards, and then turn to the left, continue 
along the south side of the fence of the field to 

A cross in a post ; then along the fence to a post at the comer of 
the field over the hedge, along the fence to 



A cross in the ground to a post. 

Along the fence to a cross in an oak pollard in the fence ; along 
the same to 

A cross in an oak pollard, and 

A cross in post at the corner of the field over the hedge, along the 
fence to 

A cross iiv an elm tree over the little pond to 
. A cross in post in the next field, along the fence to 

A cross in an elm tree in the corner. 

A cross in the pales in Hullock's lane near by the stile, up the 
ditch across the river to the sluice, along the county drain, the 
middle of the shire ditch field, or Rushey meadow to 

A cross in the post by the waste gate near a bridge, dividing Mr. 
Prescott's and Mr. English's fields, to a post with 

A cross, then to 

A cross in a post, to 

A cross in a post over the hedge, and along the fence to 

A cross in an oak pollard j continue along the fence to 

A cross in an ash, along the ditch to 

A cross in an elm near the corner of the house to 

A cross on the wall of the farm buildings of the late Richard 
Dyson, south of and near to the Waltham-cross turnpike gate. 

A cross in a post in the road near the garden pales j cross the 
road through the late Mr. Plume's premises to corner of the house 
and garden to a post E. P., 

A cross in an elm tree in the fence, along the same to a cross on a 
tree in the second field ; along the fence to a cross in an oak pollard 
over the hedge j along county ditch to a dyke j cross over the same j 
along shire ditch to Cheshunt boundary post by the side, of Ches- 
hunt mill river ; over river into Ramney-marsh, then northward 
along the eastern bank of the said river to the north fence of the late 
Mr. Johnson's allotment adjoining Cheshunt parish ; along the said 
fence eastward to the new cut ; cross over same into Little Ramney 



120 

Marsh, and round the same to the entrance of the new cut into the 
river Lea ; across the new cut, along the western bank of the river 
Lea in a southward direction to the union of the Cheshunt and 
Enfield mill rivers with the river Lea ; cross same and continue along 
the western bank of the river Lea to the Government foundery of 
small arms ; through the same in the direction of the Old Barge- 
river, by the back part of Mr. Gunner's residence, and continue 
along the said river, taking in a small island, No. 1422, to a house 
formerly the King's Head, now belonging to Mr. Beckett, continuing 
southerly along the said river to the south boundary fence of the 
marsh, dividing Chingford-marsh from the allotment to Trinity 
College in South marsh ; along the said fence westwardly and south- 
westwardly to Mar Dyke ; along Mar Dyke (which is taken into the 
parish), to the Mill river over the same ; along the fence of land late 
belonging to Mrs. Nash to the lock of the new cut over the same ; 
along the fence of the allotments of the late Mrs. Nash and the late 
Matthew Robinson, and the old inclosure of Mr. William Allington, 
into the turnpike-road from London to Ware (which fence from the 
Mill river to the said turnpike-road is bounded on the south by 
Edmonton), cross the turnpike-rood, along the fences of the allot- 
ments of the late William Mellish, Esq., in west field and Haydon's 
field to the old inclosure of the late Mr. Mellish, called Bradley 
Moor ; along the fence of the same to the allotment of the late Mr. 
Mellish in Joan Potter's field ; along the fence into the park of the 
late Mr. Mellish ; cross the great pond ; then to the red bridge in the 
London-road, 



121 
ANTIQUITIES, TRADITIONS, &c. 

There are fewer antiquities and traditions of interest 
connected with Enfield than might have been expected 
in a place of such ancient repute, whose annals record so 
many distinguished and historical names. 

In addition to those given in the general history, the 
following may be briefly mentioned. 

On the south side of Nag's Head-lane, near Ponder's- 
end, is a deep well, probably the brick conduit noted in 
Ogilby's roads 1698, and known by the name of Tim 
Ringer's Well (King's Ring Well, 2076 in the ordnance 
map), which was formerly considered infallible as a 
remedy for inflammation of the' eyes. Dr. Robinson 
alludes to a tradition that a convent or old religious 
house once stood here, but he was unable to obtain any 
-accurate information. 

There is a small square moat (1876 in the ordnance 
map) surrounding a mound covered with trees, about 
half-an-acre in extent, to the south-west of the town, near 
Old Park Farm, but its history is unknown. A coin of 
Antoninus Pius was found here. 

In September, 1820, an earth ern vessel containing 
about seventy silver and brass coins of different Roman 
emperors, was ploughed up in Carterhatch-lane. In a 
gravel pit in Broomfield, human bones, nails, coins, and 
small earthenware vessels, have been frequently found, 
and in 1816 several Roman urns and skeletons were 



122 

discovered. The fragments of a Roman As, a fibula or 
buckle, and some nondescript pieces of bronze, were dug 
up about twenty years ago in cutting a drain through the 
fosse of the old encampment at Old Park, and at the 
same time a broken " quern," or handmill for grinding 
corn, made of a fine breccia, or " pudding stone." 

In Windmill Field large painted tiles have at different 
times been turned up by the plough, and also some 
sepulchral urns, in one of which were found three gold 
coins. 

In 1755 Sir P. Thompson sent to the Society of 
Antiquaries a supposed Pyx* for the Host, curiously 
enamelled, which was found in digging a pond. A few 
years ago a beautiful and very perfect bottle of Roman 
glass was found at Forty Hill, in making some excavations 
in the grounds of David Henry, Esq. 

THE STORY OF CANNING AND THE GYPSY. 

Above a century ago a very mysterious affair happened 
in that part of Enfield known as the Wash, which 
caused great excitement in the country. The circum- 
stances are here briefly stated : Elizabeth Canning, 
a servant girl, had been on a visit to her uncle, and on 



* Possibly the "pyxt" mentioned in the subsequent inventory of 
Church goods. 



123 

her return in the evening was attacked, in Moorfields, 
by two men, who robbed her, and gave her a blow 
which made her insensible ; they aftenvards dragged her 
along the high road until they came to the house of one 
Mother Wells, at Enfield-wash, where, she said, one Mary 
Squires, an ugly old gypsy, confined her in a room 
after being shut up there twenty-eight days, and fed upon 
nothing but bread and water, she at length effected her 
escape. On arriving in London she told her tale to two 
gentlemen, with whom she had lived as servant ; she 
made a deposition before a magistrate, but omitted many 
circumstances she had mentioned before, and added many 
others, stating that she had been robbed in Wells's house 
by a travelling gypsy, and that Virtue Hall, a young 
girl, stood by while her stays were cut off. 

In consequence of these charges, Squires, Wells, and 
Hall were apprehended. Hall was discharged, but 
Squires was committed for the robbery, and Wells for 
aiding and abetting. Hall was again apprehended on a 
warrant obtained from Mr. Justice Fielding, who, after six 
hours' examination, not giving credit to her story, was 
about to commit her, when she begged to be heard, and 
said she would tell the whole truth, the substance of 
which was that Canning had been robbed at Wells's 
house, as she declared. On this Squires and Wells were 
brought to trial at the Old Bailey, and convicted on the 
evidence of Hall. Wells was sentenced to be burned in 
the hand and imprisoned, and Squires to be hanged. 



124 

Canning's story was considered so extraordinary and 
inconsistent in so many points, that many persons were 
of opinion that it was an imposition altogether. After the 
trial, new matter of suspicion arose, and in the course of 
further inquiries, before the Lord Mayor, ample evidence 
was obtained of the innocence of Squires, and the guilt of 
Canning for perjury. The result of these enquiries was 
laid before the King, who referred the whole matter to 
the Attorney and Solicitor-General (Sir Dudley Ryder 
and the Earl of Mansfield, then William Murray, Esq.) 
and, from the weight of evidence adduced, they obtained 
His Majesty's pardon for Squires, and Wells was dis- 
charged. Canning was then arraigned at the Old Bailey, 
and took her trial on a charge of wilful and corrupt 
perjury, which lasted seven days, when the alibi of 
Squires was proved by one of the most extraordinary 
chains of evidence ever brought before a court of 
justice. Canning was found guilty and sentenced to one 
month's imprisonment and seven years' transportation. 

Such is the summary of a story which divided the 
country into two parties, called the Egyptians and the 
Canningites. Canning's was, however, the popular party, 
and the mob was zealously attached to her interest ; 
violent outrages occurred ; the Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas 
Rawlinson, was insulted, and his windows broken, and 
even his life threatened. Several hundred pounds were 
subscribed by the friends and partisans of Canning pre- 
viously to her leaving for America, whither she was 



125 

allowed to transport herself, which enabled her to form a 
very advantageous matrimonial alliance with a planter 
there ; she died about the year 1773. 

The proceedings in this extraordinary trial lasted from 
January 2, 1753, to May 30, 1754, and such was the 
public interest excited, that upwards of 40 volumes and 
pamphlets were published on the subject. 

It is singular that there should have been no haunted- 
house in the parish. " Formerly (says Bourne in his 
antiquities) almost every place had one. If a house was 
built in a melancholy situation, or in some old romantic 
manner, or if any particular accident had happened in it, 
a murder or a sudden death, or such like, to be sure that 
house had a mark set on it, and it was afterwards 
esteemed the habitation of a ghost." The most diligent 
enquiry has been unsuccessful in tracing the vestige of 
one here, though the Chase was formerly notorious as 
the residence of witches. 

The Witch of Edmonton, in the fine drama of Ford 
and Dekker, was a true story, and the unfortunate old 
woman, who was condemned and executed for witchcraft 
in 1622, was a denizen of the Chase. 

It is a pity that the name of the sensible and kind- 
hearted magistrate* who endeavoured to save her, and 
whose better judgment puts the good Sir Matthew 
Hale to shame, should not have been preserved. 

* Perhaps " Mr. Justice Clark," who took bail for the "conjurer." 



126 

In the year 1590 a gang seems to have been discovered 
"squatting" on the south borders of the Chase, when they 
were dislodged by a hue and cry. The constable having 
" comraaunded " the servants of Sir Humphrey Weld 
(afterwards Lord Mayor, and the father of Sir John 
Weld, of Arno's-grove, who built and endowed the 
Church at Southgate), and being accompanied 
with bloodhounds, " and many moe, made serche 
"for certen men which were about the arte of 
" witchcrafte or conjuringe." The descriptive catalogue 
of their apparatus is too curious to be omitted. Having 
succeeded in capturing one of them, " with certen lattyn 
"boqkes aboute him, which are to be sene, and he being 
" carried to the constable's house and there kept, we, with 
" divers others, retorned to their cabbyn, which they had 
" made under a great tree, with certen cirkells on the 
" ground within the said cabbin, and one of the said 
"cirkells was laid about with parchment written uppon 
" with crosses, and by the said cabbyn we found a stoole 
" with divers pottes by the same stoole, and a redd cock 
" beinge dead by it, and againste the said stoole a fayre 
" cristall-stone with this word (j$aih<Ut) written on yt. 
" Also a parchment writinge with three or four scales of 
" yellowe waxe at the same. We founde also in the same 
" cabbyn a cope, a sirpler, a crowne, a scepter gilt, and a 
"fair broad sword ready drawen, being set upp against 
" the tree, and diverse other bookes and writinges, and a 
" pece of brasse gilded, with diverse letters graven uppon 
" it, and powders and rattes-bane, whiche the parti e that 



127 

" fled strawed in the waye, disappointinge thereby our 
" bloudd-hounde. And the partie which we tooke, had 
" about him the picture of Christe on the Crosse, 
" hanginge behinde his back under his doublet, and on 
"the same stringe before him, the picture .of serpentes or 
" such like. And the said partie was brought by the 
" constable before Mr. Justice Clark, to be examined, and 
" we understand that the said conjurer is let goe, uppon 
" suerties to answere the same at the next Sessions." 

[" Information taken touchinge certeine conjurers. 
" Septem. 21, 1590." From the Domestic Series, State 
Paper Office.] 

The following inventory of Church goods is taken from 
the Public Records in the Augmentation Office. 

[Church Goods, Middlesex, Miscellaneous Book, 
No. 498. Hundred de Ossulstone.] 

The certificate and presentment of the jury of all the 
goods, plate, ornaments, Juells and Bells, belonging and 
appteyning to the Churche of Enfylde, w'hin the Countie 
of Middx, as well conteyned w'hin the Inventory taken 
by the King's Maties Comyssyoners, as also other -goods 
belongyng to the same Churche at this present third daye 
of August in the vj th yere of the reigne of o r sovereigne 
Lorde King Edward the vj th by the grace of God King 
of England ffraunce and Ireland, defender of the faith, 
and in erthe of the Churche of England and also of 
Ireland the Supreme head. 

Enfylde. 



128 

Imprimis one Crosse of sylver and gilte p'sell of berall, 
conteyning in weyght liiij. ouncs. 

Item, in other platte as chalessis, sensers, ^ the number 

a pyxt and a paxe, conteyning in weight > chahsses 
1 ' I and censers 

vnj owncs and v. J uncerteine. 

Item, a vestment deacon and subdeacon w th the cope 
of tynsall coller yellow, the forest of imagery worke 
wrote w th the nedle with sylke and gold. 

Item, a vestment decon and subdeacon w lh the cope of 
crymsen velvet the offerace* of blevve velvet. 

Item, a vestment of blacke velvet the deacon and sub- 
deacon of blacke sylke w th blewe bokelyd gartyers. 

Item, a vestment of blewe damaske, wrought w l tynsall, 
and a cope of blewe damaske, the offeras redd velvet. 

Item, a cope of sade yellowe sylke, full of ymagery 
Worke of golde. 

Item, a vestment of redde sylke and one deacon w lh 
twoo copes of the same full of flowers. 

Item, a cope of white sylke and a vestment of the same 
w th out any abbe, stoll or phanell.t 

Item, a blewe velvet vestment. 

Item, a cope of blewe velvet. 

Item, a cope of blewe satten of Bryghes vv h flowers. 

Item, a vestment of blacke chamlett. 

* Orfrays, gold embroidery (Chaucer). 

t Fannel a maniple, a scarf worn about the left arm of a 
priest, \Phillips, World of Words.'} 



129 

Item, t\voo vestments of \vhyte bustyen. 

Item, a vestement of deacon and sub-deacon of sylke 
of dyvers colors, the offeras of redde velvet. 

Item, a vestment deacon and subdeacon of sylke and 
dyvers colors, the offeras of grene, redde, and whyte velvet 
w th barrys of gold. 

Item, a vestement of blewe chaungeable sylke the offeras 
of redd satten of Bridgs. 

Item, a clothe to hange before the Aulter of satten of 
Brigs collo r grene and rede. 

Item, a nother hanging of whyte damaske w h paynes of 
tysull. 

Item, two Corperasis casis of tynsull and velvet. 

Item, a crosse clothe of redde sylke w h ymagery worke. 

Item, a payer of orgonse, and foure bells in th steple. 

Item, the weyght of the fyrst bell by estymacion, eight 
hundred, the second bell xii hundred, the third bell xvj 
hundred, the iiijth xxij hundred. 

Item, a cloke streking on the greate bell. 

Item, a sawnce* bell of twoo hundred weight. 

Item, vj pounds of redye money in the churche box of 
Enfeld." 



For the two following curious documents we are 
indebted to the courtesy of Arthur Sawyer, Esq. 

* " It is, perhaps, that sauncing bell 
That tolls all in to heaven or hell. " 

Sir Walter Raleigh. 
I 



130 

Copy of William Aylviartfs Will of 1582, by which he 
leaves 20 pence to the parish of Enfield to buy a Bible. 

" In the name of god amen anno dom primo de 
mensis decembris. I william aylward of Endfield in ye 
counte of midde, maltman, being sike in bodiebutin mynde 
perfect and in good reaymembrance Thanks be given 
to god for yt. Doe -ordaine and make this my laste will 
and testamente in manner and forme followinge thereto. 
I doe comitte my soulle into the hands of Allmightie god 
the Father and to Jesus Christe his sonne and my redemer, 
by whome 1 doe acknowledge all my synnes to be 
foregeven and pardoned, and my bodie I doe give unto 
the yerthe at the tyme appointed, and as for those worldlie 
goodes which god hath lente me I doe in this manner of 
wise bestow them, (viz) I doe geve unto the cherche of 
Endfelld to the byinge of a Bible xxd. Itm I doe geve 
unto Agnes Redlington one litle Featherbed, one cheste, 
and two pewter platters, and also I doe geve her xxd. 
Item I doe geve unto Alice Sansome one Featherebedd. 
The residue of all my goodes and chattells as v well 
moveable as unmoveable whatsoever, I do geve unto 
margerette my wife, whom I dooe orddane constitute and 
make my only lawfull and sole executrice of this my laste 
will and testamente, and she to retreave and take as well 
all mye debts as are owyinge unto me, otherwise all those 
debts as I doe owe, and to se my ffuneralles dischardged 
acordinge to the true meaninge therein expressed, in 
witness whereof I have sette my hand the dale and yeare 



131 

above written william aylward his marke witness myself 
(leonard Thickedimy minister.") 

Presentation of Endowments and Church Expenses 
(about A.D. 1500,). 

We, Willm. Bull, Robert Curtes, John Hodge, and John 
Cordell, Gardians and Churchwards of the parish Churche 
of Enefelde in the Countie of Midd. Doe present and 
certifie what Chauntreys, Hospitals, Colleges, Free 
Chapells, fraternities, Brother hodds, gwyldes, and 
stipendary preestes be within the said Churche and by 
what name they and any of them are known or called as 
hereafter p'ticulerlry shall appear. 

First we the said gardians doe present and certifie that 
there is within the said churche a Brotherhood founded 
by the pa'ssh'es of the said parish called ye lady Brother- 
hood, of the mere devosion of the said [ . . . ] to 
the intent to maynteyne the [ . . . ] of God w't'n 
the said C [ . . . ] to kepe a preest there to syng the 
[ . . . . ] of God to the glorye of him and other the 
holy company of heaven, towerds which maynteyning 
there is given to the said Churche as hereunder ensueth. 

Item we present that there is given to the said brother- 
hood by John Ford late of the said parish yeoman, one 
close three acres of groune, as by the deade by the said 
John Forde bearing date the daye of November in 
the second year of King Richard the thirde, appears 
the yerely extent whereof extendeth to n'^-rrrrtj. xjs. 



132 

Further there is given to the said Brotherhed by Maude 
Hamond late of the same par'he Widowe, one tenement 
situate in -South Strete in the said par'he, as by her last 
will and testament more planyly apperethe, the yerely 
extente wherof amounteth to vijs. 

Item there is also given by one Walter Forde late of 
the same par'he yoman, one tenement, to the intent to 

kepe one obit for ever for the same Walter, as by the 

last will and testament of the same Walter, bearing Date 
the xij of September in the iiij year of the reigne of King 
Edward iiij appereth, the yerely extent whereof ex- 
tendeth to xiiij.iiij. 

Item there is given by one Rotherhm of the same 
pa'h deceased one tenement "to kepe an 



NOTE. "Chanteries consisted of salaries allowed to one or more 
priests to say daily masse for the soules of their deceased founders 
and their friends ; these were adjectives not able to stand of them- 
selves, and, therefore, united to some parochial, collegiate, or 
cathedral church. 

" Free chappells, though for the same use and service, were of a 
more substantiall and firm constitution, as independent of themselves. 

" Colledges were of the same nature but more considerable in 
bignesse, building, number of priests, and endowments." 

These were all abolished by Act of Parliament, I Ed. VI. cap. 14, 
" that the said lands might be altered for better uses viz, erecting 
grammar-schools, &c., &c. , the Parliament bestowed them on the 
King by his councell to dispose of the same accordingly." 

Fuller's Church History, &c., p. 350. 



133 

obitt" (this passage obliterated and inserted in another 
hand), the yerely extent whereof is xs. 

Item, there is also given by one Thomas -Aylward late 
of the said par'he maltman, 4 acres and [ . . . ] of meade 
as obytt, as by his last will more plainly appereth, the 
yearly extent whereof extendeth to vs. 

Ther is given by John Forde to the said brotherhedd, 
one tenement with a garden, which one Robert Brown 
hathe taken from same brotherhed, about iiij yeres last 
past, the yerely extent wherof can not [ . . . . ] 

Item, ther is given to the said by one Mystres Wheler 
late of London, widdowe, one maser w th a band of silver 
and gilt, worth vis. viijd. 

Item, there is purchased by the Prsshns of the said 

Par'he, one hous called the churche hous w th a croft 

behynd the same, the yearly extent wherof is xv. [. . .] 

There is given by Hugh Forde ij croftes of lande and 

i acre of land, the yerely extent amounteth to iiijs. 

SUMMA iijl. xiijs. 

Deductions and paymente going oute of the said 
fundes and rente, as hereafter ensueth. 

First there is paid and going oute of the said one 
close and iij acres of grounde, for quite rent to the chief 
lorde by the year ijs. 

Item, paid for an obyte to be kept for the said Walter 
Forde every year ijs. id. 

Item, paid for an obyte to be kept for the said [. . .] 
rotherum by yere ijs. id. 




Item, paid for an obite to be kept for the said Thomas 
Aylward by year ijs. id. 

Item, paid for an obyte to be kept for the said Hugh 
Forde by year ijs. id. 

Item, paid to John Obredyman prest, for his wages by 
ere vil. xiiis. iiijd. 

Item, paid to Edmond Godesman for his wages, synging 
for the said brotherhood by yere vil. xiiis. iiijd. 

So remayneth, De claro towards the repdtions of the 
said Church and maynteyneing of Devyne service. 

Item, as touching other lends, tents, juelle, plate, or 
ornamente other than these before . expressed we have 
none. 

So that the said pr'sshen's pay and disburse of their 
devocon over and above the said iijl. xiijs. . . . 

[N.B. The Chantrey lands above-mentioned appear 
to have been sold after the Reformation to John Hulson 
and Bartholomew Broxey, and the lands and tenements 
for obits to John Hulson and William Pendrede.] (Sale 
of Chantrey lands, Augmentation Office.) 



' A Book of Surveys of Enfield," among the records 
at Hadley, gives some interesting particulars of the 
"Survey of the Manor and Chace of Enfield," 26 March* 
2 Chas i (1635), an d again 8 Oct., i Jas. n (1685). 

It is stated in the first of these that there was " no 
perfect and exact survey now extant," and from the pre- 
sentments it would appear that Charles I. suffered much 
loss from the malfaisance of his officers and tenants, every 



135 

ne seeming disposed to help himself to the Royal 
property, as if he scented the "grim feature" of the 
coming rebellion, 

" Sagacious of his quarry from afar." 

"John Withering, Esq., hath a grant from His Majesty 
" of a water mill in His Majesty's Chace of Enfield, at 
" New Pond, for which he payeth, or ought to pay, per 

" annum xxvs And there is two windmills 

" . . . . whereof the one .... at Bacon's- 
" hill is pulled down and carried away by one Michael 
" Grigg, of Hadley, Esq., and that there is or ought to be 
"paid to His Majesty for the same twenty shillings per 
"annum." The fences which "ought to be repaired" by 
sundry tenants, are "in much decay," and "Charles 
" Crosby, deputy to John West, Esq., keeper of ye West 
" Bailey walk, doth use to fell and sell all ye wood 
" within ye new rails, for his own benefit, contrary to ye 
" lease, to ye great prejudice of His Majesty's tenants 
" there." 

It is also presented, that besides the King's Majesty's 
tenants and the inhabitants of Enfield, various interlopers 
" there commoned and so still do, but by what right we 
" do not justly know," and it is recommended that " their 
" pretended rights of common be examined in ye Duchy 
" Court." 

The boundaries of that part of the Chase, now annexed 
to the parishes of Edmonton and Hadley, are thus 
described : " From thence to High Wood Gate als 



136 

Winchmore Hill Gate, and so by ye ring ditch to a 
tenement of Sir John Moore's, Kt, in ye occupation of 
Charles Tanner,* then to a tenement of Sir Lewis Palmer,* 
Kt, and so to a new brick tenement of ye said Sir John 
Moore's, then to a tenement of Basil Firebrace, .... 
by the ring ditch to Southgate, and from thence taking in 
ye cottage in ye occupation of John Petts .... to 
ye ash tree where the three parishes meet at ye lane end, 
and so along ye ring ditch to ye lane leading to East 
Barnet, where a gate formerly stood leading into ye 
Chace, taking in ye Bush Fair house and four more 
tenements, by the house of Wm. Peck, Esq., .... 
ye house of Robert Norris, .... by the hedge of 
East Barnet, to a cottage formerly Sir Roger Wilbraham's, 
parcel of Ludgraves, in Hadley parish, . . . thence 
to the Blew House, .... the New Pond Head, 
. . . . by the hedge of Hadley unto ye house of 
Will. Nicholls, called Capon's House, . . . and so 
to Hadley Church-yard, and so north and west to ye 
Windmill, belonging to ye Lordship of Enfield, and so 
by ye Highway to Summer Pool, als Sugar Well, from 
thence along a great bank to Gannick Corner." 



* Probably " Tanner's-end " and " Palmer's-green. " 



137 



NATURAL HISTORY. 

The neighbourhood of Enfield is richer in its ornitho- 
logy and botany than might have been expected, from 
its close vicinity to the metropolis. The following lists 
have been compiled from actual observation, and may 
be depended upon for accuracy. 

BIRDS. 

' ' The ousel-cock, so black of hue, 

With orange-tawney bill, 
The throstle with his note so true, 

The wren with little quill ; 
The finch, the sparrow, and the lark, 

The plain-song cuckoo gray. " 

Midsummer Ni%h($ Dream. 



FALCONIDJE. 

Falco haliaetus. Osprey. In 1865, a pair of Ospreys 
were seen almost daily for many weeks, at Forty-hill. 
These birds frequented, at the time, the lake in the 
grounds of J. D. Taylor, Esq., at Southgate, where they 
were often seen to catch fish, which they carried to the 
mast-head of the pleasure boat, and devoured. Another 
specimen was seen at White Webbs, in September, 1867, 
and about the same time at Forty-hill. 



138 

Falco per egr inns. Peregrine Falcon. A fine female 
was shot at Trent-park, in the autumn of 1871, and 
is in the possession of Wilfred Bevan, Esq; this is 
the true falcon of falconry. The male, or " tercel," is 
much smaller. 

Fako tinnunciilus. Kestrel. Of not uncommon occur- 
rence, and breeds in the district. 

Falco nisus. Sparrow-hawk. Still occasionally seen, 
and rarely breeds. 

STRIGIDjE. 

Strix Otus. Long Eared Owl. Very rare. A specimen 
was obtained a few years since, by W. S. Parker, Esq. 

Strix flammea. Barn, or White Owl. Breeds in 
several places. 

Strix ahtco. Tawney Owl. 

LANIADjE. 

Lanius Coilurio. Redbacked Shrike. A common 
summer visitant. 

MUSCICAPID^E. 

Musticapa grisola. Spotted flycatcher. The last to 
arrive of our summer visitors. An egg of the cuckoo 
was found in the nest of this bird some years since, 
by ]. W. Ford, Esq. Its occurrence in the nest of this 
species has not hitherto been recorded. 

MERULIDJE. 

Turdus viscivorus. Missel Thrush. 

Muscicapa pilaris. Fieldfare. The Fieldfare, or Red- 
wing, roosts in very large flocks in some of our young 
plantations during the winter months. 



139 

Turdus musicus. Throstle, or Mavis; Song thrush. 
iliacus. Redwing. 
merula. Blackbird, or Ouzel. 
torqtiatus. Ring Ouzel. An occasional au- 
tumn visitant. 



Accentor modularis. Hedge Sparrow. 
Sylvia mbecula. Robin Redbreast. 
cinerea. White-throat. 
curruca. Lesser White-throat. 
phcenicurus. Redstart. 

locustella. Grasshopper Warbler. Not very 
numerous, and from its retiring habits, rarely observed. 
A specimen was noticed in the grounds of Alderman 
Chain's, Sep., 1870. 

Sylvia phragmitis. Sedge Warbler. 
arundinacea. Reed Warbler. 
luscinia. Nightingale. This bird was until 
lately so common that one of the lodges on the Chase, 
taken for the season by a well-known M.P., was given 
up after a few weeks' tenancy, on the ground that his 
family could get no sleep "for the singing of the 
nightingales." 

Sylvia atricapilla. Blackcap. 

hortensis. Garden Warbler. More plentiful in 
some seasons than others. 

Sylvia sibilatrix. Wood Wren. Of rare occurrence in 
the woods. 



140 

Sylvia trochilus. Willow Warbler. 

ntfa. Chiff Chaff. 
Saxicola rubicola, Stonechat. 

rubetra. Whinchat. The nest of this species 
is occasionally found. 

Saxicola cenanthe. Wheatear. 

Regulus cristatiis. Golden Crested Wren. 

PARIDJE. 

Parus major. Great Tit, or Titmouse. 
carulcus. Blue Tit, or Tomtit. 
ater. Cole Tit. 
,, palustris. Marsh Tit. 
caudatus. Longtailed Tit. 

AMPELID^:. 

Bomby cilia garrula Bohemian Waxwing. A very rare 
winter visitant. A specimen was shot at Cockfosters, 
Dec. 29th, 1866, in which season several flights of 
this bird were recorded. 

MOTACILLIDJE. 

Motacilla yarrdlii. Red Wagtail. 

boarula Grey Wagtail. A winter visitor. 
eampestris. Ray's Wagtail, or Yellow 
Wagtail. 

ANTHIDJE. 

Anthus Arboreus. Tree Pipit. 

pratensis. Meadow Pipit, or Titlark. 






141 



ALAUDIDJE. 

Alauda arvensis. Skylark. 

arborea. Woodlark. Far from common. 

EMBER IZIDJE. 

Emberiza miliaria. Common Bunting. The rarest of 
these species. 

Emberiza schxniclus. Blackheaded Bunting. 

citrinella. Yellow Bunting, or Yellow- 

hammer. 

FRINGILLHXE. 

Fringilla cxlebs. Chaffinch. 

montifringilla. Brambling. In autumn and 
winter, one occurred at Enfield-lock, in 1871. 

Fringilla montatta. Tree Sparrow. A casual straggler. 
domestica. House Sparrow. 
chloris. Greenfinch. 

coccothraustes, Hawfinch, or Grosbeak. 
This species is perceptibly on the increase. Though 
one of the shyest of British birds, it has three times 
built in yew trees on the lawn at Old-park, within 
twenty yards of the house. The nests were composed 
of dry maple twigs, or roots, with a. few stray fragments 
of white lichen in the lower part, and so open and 
loose in construction that the eggs could be seen through 
from below, yet so firmly were the materials inter- 
woven, that a nest, in sawing off the branch, received 
no injury. 

Fringilla cardudis. Goldfinch. Much rarer than 
formerly. 



142 

Fringilla spinrts. Siskin, or Aberdevine. 
cannabina. Linnet. 

linaria. Lesser Redpole. An autumn and 
winter visitor, coming in small flocks. 

Fringilla montium. Twite. Of rare occurrence. 
Pyrrhida Tiilgaris. Bullfinch. Not uncommon. 
Loxia cun'irostra. Crossbill. A rare and uncertain 
visitor, always occurring in flocks. Five were seen at 
Clay-hill, October, 1868. 

STURNID^E. 

Sturnus vulgaris. Common Starling. 

CORVIDjE. 

Corvus corax. Raven, or Corbie. Bred for many 
years, before 1840, in the " Raven Elm," at Bush-hill 
Park, and subsequently in one of the group of Elms 
called " The Sisters," on the banks of the New River, 
below Old-park, being the latest record of the bird's 
nesting in Middlesex. 

Corvus corone. Carrion Crow. 

comix. Hooded, or Grey Crow. An oc- 
casional winter visitor. 

Corvus frugilcgus. Rook. 
monedula. Jackdaw. 
pica. Magpie. 
,, glandarius. Jay. 

PICIDJE. 

Picus viridis. Green Woodpecker. The " laugh " of 
of this beautiful bird may still occasionally, though 
very rarely, be heard. 



143 

Picus major. Great spotted Woodpecker. Very rare. 
minor. Lesser spotted Woodpecker. Very rare. 
Yunx torquilla. Wryneck. 

CERTHIAD^E. 

Certhia familiaris. Common Creeper. Tolerably 
common, though seldom observed. 

Troglodytes vulgar is Wren . 

Upupa epops. Hoopoe. A single bird was observed 
and shot from the window, at Forty-hall, by Mr. Meyer, 
in the year 1841. 

Sitta Europea. Nuthatch. Somewhat rare. 

CUCULID^. 

Cuculus canorus. Cuckoo, or Gowk. 

HALCYONIDiE. 

Alcedo ispida. Kingfisher. Resident and breeds, but 
it is not desirable to indicate the locality. 

HIRUNDINID^E. 

Hirundo rustica. Swallow. 

,, urbica. Martin. 

riparia. Sandmartin. 
Cypselus apus. Swift. 

CAPRIMULGID^E. 

Capr'unulgus europczus. Nightjar,. Goat-sucker, or Fern 
Owl. Formerly common on the Chase. The reversible 
. hind claw of this bird, and the serrated or toothed 
structure of the middle claw, have been supposed to 
enable them to carry off their eggs when disturbed. 
"Some naturalists (says Bishop Stanley) assert that they 



144 

have such a power, and have been seen in the act of 
flight with eggs in their claws, but the fact has been 
denied by others." The writer, however, saw one of 
these birds (in the year 1845) fly up from a tuft of 
grass at his feet, carrying two eggs in her claws. These 
she dropped within about a dozen yards of the spot 
where she rose, and they are now in the collection 
of J. W. Ford, Esq. 

COLUMBID^:. 

Columbapalumbiis. Ring-dove, or Wood-pigeon. 

anas. Stock-dove. 

turtur. Turtle-dove. Breeds in the woods. 
One was picked up at Old-park with the head completely 
severed from the body by a hailstone, whilst sitting on 
her nest, after the destructive storm of July, 1859. 

PHASIANID.33. 

Phasianus colchicus Pheasant. 

TETRAONID^;. 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus. Pallas's Sandgrouse. During 
the summer of 1863, great interest was excited by the 
appearance of considerable numbers of this rare wanderer 
from the Steppes of Tartary. A specimen was shot on 
the borders of this* parish near South Mimms, being 
the only one obtained in Middlesex. 

Perdrix cinerea. Partridge. 

rubra. Red-legged Partridge. Breeds on 
the Chase. 

Perdrix cfffufnix.QasaL Of very rare occurrence. 



. 145 

CHARADRIIDJE. 

Charadrius pluvialis. Golden Plover. Occasionally 
in autumn. 

Vanellus cfistatus. Lapwing, or Peewit. On the 
Chase. 

ARDEID^E. 

Ardea cinerea. Heron. Occasionally frequents all 
the larger sheets of water. 

SCOLOPACIDJE. 

Tetanus hypoleucos. Common Sandpiper, or Summer 
Snipe. On the borders of the brooks. One was ob- 
served for ten days on the New River, at Chase-park, 
1869. Never remains to breed. 

Scolopax rusticola. Woodcock. Formerly common. 
A few still come every season to Trent-park. Seven were 
bagged on one day during the late winter. 

Scolopax gallinago. Common Snipe. Tolerably com- 
mon in autumn and winter. 

Scolopax gallinula. Jack Snipe. 



Gallinula Crex. Landrail, or Corncrake. 

porzana. Spotted Crake. A specimen of 
this very shy bird was shot June, 1869. 
Gallinula chloropus. Moorhen. 
Rallus aquaticus. Water Rail. Very occasional, 

LOBIPEDID^E. 

Fulica atra, Coot. Very rare. 

K 



146 



ANATID.E. 

Anser ferus. Greylag Goose, or Wild Goose. A 
" skein " of wild geese may occasionally be seen passing 
over in winter, but there is no record of a bird being 
killed. 

Anser segetum. Bean Goose. 
Anas acuta. Pintail. 

boschas. Wild Duck. Breeds in several places. 
crecca. Teal. 
penelope. Widgeon. 

COLYMBID^. 

Podiceps cornutus. Sclavonian Grebe. Graves, in his 
" History of British Birds," records a female of this grebe, 
as killed on the New River, at Clay-hill, in 1822. 

Podiceps minor. Little Grebe. Breeds occasionally 
at Bush-hill Park. Occurred on the water at Chase-park, 
in 1871. 

LARID^E. 

Larus tridactylus. Kittiwake. An immature speci- 
men,, or " Tarrock," was picked up dead on the banks of 
the New River, in the autumn of 1871. 



147 



BOTANY. 

' Behold O man, that toilesome paines dost take, 

The flowers, the fields, and all that pleasant grows, 
They spring, they bud, they blossome fresh and faire 

And decke the world with their rich pompous showes; 
Yet no man for them taketh paines or care, 
Vet ne man can to them his carefull paines compare." 

FAERIE QUEENE. 



In the following list of phgenogamous plants, those 
only are inserted which are thought rare or beautiful, or 
interesting. The localities are purposely omitted. The 
Latin names are those adopted by Sir J. E. Smith, and 
used in Sowerby's " English Botany."* It was found 
hopeless for unlearned writers to attempt to grapple with 
the restless changes of modern science, and its " barba- 
rous binomials." 

Adoxa moschatdlina - - Tuberous moschatel. 
Anagallis tenella - Creeping pimpernel. 



* Sir J. E. Smith's preface to the 4th Vol. of " English Botany " 
is dated Nov. 1st, 1795. The Times of this clay (May Ijth, 1873), 
records, "Yesterday, at Lowestoft, the hundredth birthday of Lady 
Smith, widow of Sir James Edward Smith, once President of the 
Linnsean Society, was celebrated by a dinner to 100 of the oldest 
people of both sexes." 



148 



Angelica sylvestris 
Anemone nemorosa 
Antirrhinum ma jus 
Aristolochia dematitis - 
Asperula odor at a 
Atropa belladonna 
Butomns umbellatus 
Caltha palustris - 
Campanula rotundifolia 
,, rapu'ncidus 
Car ex pendula . - 
Chriranthus fruiiculosus 
Clematis vitalba - 
Colchicum antumnale - 
Convallaria majalis 
Convallaria multiflora 
Cuscnta epithymum 
Daphne laureola 
Digitalis purpurea 
Dipsacus sylvestris 
Epilobium angusti/olium 
Epipactis latifolia 
Euphrasia odontitis 
Fritillaria meleagris - 
Fumaria capreolata 

qfficinalis 
Habenaria bifolia 



- Wild Angelica. 

- Wood anemone. 

- Great Snapdragon. 

- Birth-wort. 

- Woodruff. 

- Deadly Nightshade. 

- Flowering-rush. 

- Marsh Marigold. 
Blue-bell. 

- ' Rampion. 

- Great Sedge. 

- Wallflower. 

- Wild Clematis. 

- Meadow Saffron. 

- Lily of the Valley. 
Solomon's Seal. 

- Small Dodder. 

- Spurge Laurel. 

- Foxglove. 
Teazel. 

- Rose-bay Willow-herb. 
Broad-leaved Helleborine. 

- Eye-bright. 

- Dead-man's-bell. 
Ramping Fumitory. 
Common Fumitory. 

- Butterfly Orchis. 



149 



Hicracium muronim -. (Obtained by Dr. Uvedale 

from the North of England, and naturalised 
here where it still flourishes.) \ 



Humulus lupulus 
Hyacinthus non-scriptus 
Hyoscyamus niger 
Hypericum androscemnm 
,, hirsutum . 
, x pulchrum . 
Inula Hdenium 
Iris fatidissima 

,, pseiidacorus - 
Lamium amplexicaule - 
Lathyrus aphaca 
nissolia 
Lonicera caprifolium - . 
,, periclymenum - 
Lilium martagon 
Lithospermum arvense - 
'Lysimachia nummularia 
Menyanthes trifoliata - 
. Myosurus minimus 
Narcissus pseudonarcissus, 
Nuphar lutea 
Nymphcca alba - 
Ophioglossum vitlgatum 
Orchis mascula - 



Hop. 

Hare-bells. . 

Henbane.. 

Tutsan. 

Hairy St. John's-wort. 

Upright St. John's-wort. 

Elecampane. 

Stinking Iris. 

Flower-de-luce. 

Henbit. 

Yellow vetchling. 

Crimson Grass-vetch. 

Yellow Honeysuckle. 

Woodbine. 

Turn-cap Lily. 

Corn Gromwell. 

Money- wort. 

Buckbean. 

Mouse-tail. 

Common Daffodil. 

Yellow Water-lily. 

White Water-lily. 

Adder's Tongue. 

Early Purple Orchis. 



150 



Ophrys monorchis 

nidus avis 

spiralis - 

Orobanche elatior 

Oxalis acetosella - 

Reseda lutea 

luteola 
Ruscus aculcatus 
Sagittaria sagittifolia - 
Scutdlaria galericulata 
Senccio jacob&a - 
Solatium dtilcamara 

nigrum 
Solidago virgaurea 
Spartium Scoparium - 
Stratiotes aloides 
Symphytum officinale - 
Tanacetiim vulgar e 
Typha Latifolia 
Valeriana dioica 
Verbascum thapsus. 
Vinca major 
minor 
Viola odorata 



Musk Orchis. 
Bird's-nest Ophrys. 
Lady's Traces. 
Tall Broom Rape* 
Wood Sorrel. 
Wild Mignonette. 
Dyer's Weed. 
Butcher's Broom. 
Arrow-head. 
Common Skull-cap. 
Large Ragwort. 
Bitter Sweet. 
Black Nightshade. 
Golden-rod. 
Common Broom. 
Water Soldier. 
Comfrey. 
Tansey. 

Great Cat's-tail. 
Valerian. 
Great Mullein. 
Large Periwinkle. 
Small Periwinkle. 
Sweet Violet. 



* This singular plant lias been found in great abundance for 
several years, growing upon brooms on a gravelly hill, at Old-park, 
now cut away to obtain ballast for the Great Northern Railway. 



151 

The Lavender plant (Lavandula spica) was formerly 
grown here in large quantities as an article of commerce, 
principally in fields by the side of Newrlane and 
" Lavender-hill." 

Rhubarb (Rheum palimtum) was also- cultivated with 
great success for medicinal purposes, soon after its first 
introduction into- this country. Mr. Thomas Jones, of 
Fish-street-hill, received the gold medal of the Society of 
Arts, in 1793, for 420. plants grown at Forty-hill, and 
again in 1797, for 935 plants; and in the following year 
he obtained a premium from the sockty of thirty guineas, 
for raising and growing 3040 plants, and giving a full 
account of his method of culture. 

Enfield was long ago celebrated for its gardens, an 
interesting account of which " upon a view of them in 
1691," was communicated to the Society of Antiquaries, 
by the Rev. Dr. Hamilton, vice-president, from an 
original M.S. in his possession, and printed in their 
Archseologia, vol. xii. p. 181. 

"Dr. Uvedale, of Enfield, is a great lover of plants, and 
having an extraordinary art in managing them, is become 
master of the greatest and choicest collection of exotic 
' greens ' that is perhaps any where in this land. His 
' greens ' take up six or seven houses or roomsteads. His 
orange trees and largest myrtles fill up his biggest house, 
and another house is filled with myrtles of a less size, 
and those more nice and curious plants that need closer 
keeping are in warmer rooms, and some of them stoved 



152 

when he thinks fit. His flowers are choice, his stock 
numerous, and his culture of them very methodical and 
, curious; but to speak of the garden, in the whole, it does 
not lie fine, to please the eye, his delight and care lying 
more in the ordering particular plants, than in the 
pleasing view and form of his garden." 

" Dr. Tillotson's garden near Enfield is a pleasurable 
place for walks, and some good walks there are too ; but 
the tall aspen trees, and the many ponds in the heart of 
it are not so agreeable. He has two houses for 'greens,' 
but has few in them, a.11 the best being removed to 
Lambeth. The house is moated about." 

' Mr. Raynton's garden at Enfield is observable for 
nothing but his greenhouse, which he has had for many 
years. His orange, lemon, and myrtle trees, are as full 
and furnished as any in cases. He has a myrtle cut in 
shape of a chair, that is at least six feet high from the 
case, but the lower part is thin of leaves. The rest of 
the garden is very ordinary, and on the outside of his 
garden he has a warren which makes the ground about 
his seat lye rudely, and sometimes the coneys work under 
the wall into the garden." 

" Mr. Richardson, at East Barnet, has a pretty garden 
with fine walks and good flowers, but the garden not 
being walled about, they have less summer fruit, yet are 
therefore the more industrious in managing the peach 
and apricot dwarf standards, which they say supply them 
plentifully with very good fruit. There is a good fish 



153 

pond in the middle of it, from which a broad gravel 
walk leads to the highway, where a fair pair of broad 
gates, with a narrower on either side, open at the top to 
look through small bars, well wrought and well painted, 
are a great ornament to the garden. They have orange 
and lemon trees, but the wife and son being the managers 
of the garden (the husband being gouty and not minding 
it) they cannot prevail for a house for them other than a 
barn end" 

" Mr. Watt's house and garden made near Enfield are 
new, but the garden, for the time, is very fine, and large 
and regularly laid out, with a fair fish pond in the middle. 
He built a green-house * this summer, with three rooms 
(somewhat like the Archbishop of Canterbury's) the 
middle with a stove under it, and a sky-light above, and 
both of them of glass on the foreside, with shutters within, 
and the roof finely covered with Irish slate. But this 
- fine house is under this fault, they built it in summer and 
thought not of winter; the dwelling house on the south 
side interposing betwixt the sun and it, now when its 
beams should refresh the plants." 



* " Greenhouses, houses built in gardens, and necessary for 
many choice greens that will not bear the winter's cold." 
( Philips' s World of Words. ) 

[The derivation, which seems to have escaped our lexicographers, 
is noteworthy.] 



154 



FERNS AND FUNGUSES. 

The district produces but few ferns, and those of the 
commonest kinds, but it abounds in fungi, many of them 
of great beauty, and some of rare occurrence. Among 
the most remarkable of these is one figured by Bulliard 
(pi. 499) as " Tremella violacea." This is not, as sug- 
gested, the "ferruginea" of Sowerby and Sir J. E. Smith; 
nor the "sarcoides" or "amythystea" of Berkeley, 
and it has perhaps never been figured or described in 
this country. A specimen was found some years ago in 
the neighbourhood of Northaw, and another in the wood 
at Old-park. It was of a rich violet purple, and resem- 
bled a bunch of puckered or " gauffered " velvet. The 
larger specimen measured above six inches by five, and 
nearly two inches in height, the surface finely pubescent 
and glossy, and giving out a rich purple tinge when 
steeped in water, as mentioned by Bulliard. It was sent 
to one of our learned societies for examination, where it 
fell a prey to scientific " acquisitiveness," but a careful 
drawing of it has been preser/ed. 

The beautiful " Peziza Aurantia "* may be frequently 



* The "Peziza Epidendra" of Sowerby (coccinea of Berkeley), 
with its brilliant carmine cup (the most elegant, says Sir J. E. 
Smith, of the whole tribe of fungi), has never been seen in Enfield 
by the writer, but it may be interesting to some botanists to hear 
that after various attempts during twenty years he has succeeded in 




155 

found on the shady banks of hedges, generally on the 
northern side. It is sometimes as much as three inches 
across; variously cup-shaped or convoluted; whitish 
externally, and of a rich orange within. When mature, 
the slightest vibration of the air or ground, in attempting 
to gather it, will frequently cause it to explode with a 
slight report, in a cloud of smoke. 

Amongst others may be shortly mentioned, Byssus 
phosphorea,' covering decayed posts or rails, with a 
velvety surface of deep ultramarine blue, sometimes edged 
with white; the disgusting Phallus Impudicus, with its 
sickening smell of carrion ; Agaricus Cantharellus, richly 
fragrant of apricots,' and, according to Dr. Badham, one 
of the most delicious of funguses, though the secret has 
been confined to the Freemason's Tavern, where they 
have been used for years on state occasions, and are 
always highly paid for; Agaricus Oreades, the little buff 
coloured " champignon," which produces the " fairy 
rings " on pastures, and which gives an exquisite flavour 
to soups and gravies; Lycoperdon Epidendron, some- 



raising a young colony of them. The parent plants were sent by a 
friend from the neighbourhood of Selborne last autumn, and were 
placed in moss under a bell-glass, in a greenhouse, where the little 
scarlet cups are now springing up in profusion. Last year a similar 
experiment had been made, but on lifting up the glass to exhibit the 
funguses to a visitor, they blew up like an alchemist's crucible, and 
the hopes of the year were dispersed in empty air. ( Nov. 1872^. 



156 

times covering half the stump of -a dead tree with its 
clusters of vermilion balls; Xylostroma Giganteum, 
which in a few years will spread its ravages through the 
largest oak; Agaricus picaceus, singularly beautiful both 
in form and colour, a delicate grey, flecked with white ; 
and the various species of Clavaria, like branches of 
coral, white, shaded with every tint of yellow, red, green, 
and violet. 

The common puff-ball, so abundant everywhere, is 
compared by Dr. Badham, to sweetbreads, for the delicacy 
of its unassisted flavour, the agaricus deliciosus to tender 
lamb kidneys, and the agaricus heterophyllus to crawfish, 
when grilled. 

So strong is the prejudice in this country against fungi, 
that hardly any of them are eaten, except the common 
mushroom, which, strange to say, is the only one prohibited 
from being brought into Rome, where any basket con- 
taining a single mushroom is condemned by the inspector, 
and sent under escort to be thrown into the Tiber.* 

The fact is, that the great majority of fungi are both 
wholesome and excellent. The Rev. J. M. Berkeley 
mentions a friend, who, being a detenu in Poland, 
made a large " hortus siccus " of the fungi to which he 
had access; and one day found, to his great surprise, that 
his whole collection had been devoured by his guard, 
including many which he had considered of the most 
dangerous nature. 

* Regulations of the " Congregazione Speciale di Sanita." 



157 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

" Things are not now quite so bad, as when Lady Glanville's will 
was attempted to be set aside on the ground of lunacy, 
evinced by no other act than her fondness for collecting 
insects, and Ray had to appear at Exeter on the trial as a 

witness of her sanity." 

HARRIS'S AURELIAN. 



A short summary of the entomology of Enfield must 
necessarily be confined to the Lepidoptera, omitting such 
as are of universal occurrence. 

The following tabular statement may be interesting as 
showing the relative numbers of species found in Enfield, 
and in England generally: 





Total 
number 
known. 


Inserted 
in 
following 
List. 


Omitted 
as of 
general 
occurrence 


Total 
in 
Enfield. 


Diurni 


6z 


Q 


M 


22 


Nocturni 


IO7 


26 


18 


A A 


Geometrse 


27 1 ? 


12 


JQ 


71 


Drepanulae 


6 




I 


I 


Pseudo-bombyces 


27 


C 


A 


o 


Noctuse 


108 


T\ 


6t 


1*6 


Deltoides 


14 


I 


2 


} 


Aventiae 


I 


I 


o 


I 


Pyralides 


60 


3 


1 1 


T/l 















8 7 2 


150 


151 


301 



158* 

LEPIDOPTERA FOUND IN ENFIELD. 

DIURNI. 

GONEPTERYX, 'R.KtMm.Brimftone Butterfly. 
COLIAS, EDUSA. Clouded Yellow. 
VANESSA, POLYCHLOROS. Large Tortoiseshell. 
ANTIOPA. Cambenvell Beauty. * 

1 ,, CARDUI. Painted Lady. 

SATYRUS, TlTHONUS. Large Heath, 
LYC^ENA, ALSUS. Small Blue. 

,, ARGIOLUS. Azure Blue. 

HESPERIA, LINKA. Small Skipper. 

NOCTURNI. 

SMERINTHUS, OCELLATUS Eyed Hawk Moth. 

,, POPULI. Poplar 

TlLl,. Lime 

ACHERONTIA, ATROPOS. ZkaA&'j Head 

SPHINX, CONVOLVULI. Convolvulus 

,, LIGUSTRI. Privet ,, 

DEILEPHILA, GM.u.Bedstraw ,, 

CH^EROCAMPA, PORCELLUS. Small Elephant 

,, ELPENOR. Elephant 

MACROGLOSSA, STELLATARUM. Humming Bird 
SESIA, MYOP^EFORMIS. Red Belled Cleansing. 
,, Tiri'LlFORMls. Currant ,, 

APIFORMIS. Hornet ,, 

ZEUZERA, ^ESCULI. Wood Leopard. 
HEPIALUS, HECTUS. Gold Swiff. 
LIMACODES, ASELLUS. Triangle. 



* In 1872, this butterfly made its periodical appearance in many parts of the 
kingdom, and a specimen was seen by J. C. Catling, Esq., in his garden. 



159 

LITHOSIA, COMPLANULA. Scarce Footman. 
,, STRAMINEOLA. Pale Footman. 

ARCTIA, FULIGINOSA. Ruby Tiger. 

,, URTICVE. Water Ermine. 

LIPARIS, CHRYSORRH/EA. Brown Tail. 

,, SALICIS. Satin. 

ORGYIA, FASCELINA. Dark Tussock. 
PCECILOCAMPA, POPULI. December Moth. 
ERIOGASTER, LANESTRIS. Small Eggar. 
LASIOCAMPA, QUERCIFOLIA. Lappet. 

GEOMETR/E. 

METROCAMPA, MARGARITATA. Light Emerald. 
PERICALLIA, SYRINGARIA. Lilac Beatify. 
ENNOMOS, TILIARIA. Canary Shouldered Thorn. 

,, ANGULARIA. August Thorn. 

HIMERA, PENNARiA.FeatAered Thorn. 
PHIGALIA, PILOSARIA. Pale Brindled Beauty. 
BISTON, HIRTARIA. Brindled Beauty. 
AMPHYDASIS, PRODROMARIA. Oak Beauty. 
,, BETULARIA. Peppered Moth. 

HEMEROPHILA, ABRUPTARIA. Waved Umbet. 
BOARMIA, CONSORTARIA. Pale Oak Beauty. 
NEMORIA, VIRIDATA. Small Grass Emerald. 
EPHYRA, PORATA. False Mocha. 
ACIDALIA, SCCTULATA. Single Doited Wave. 

IMITARIA. Small Blood Vein. 

,, EMARGINATA. Small Scallop. 

TIM AND R A, AM ATARI A. Blood Vein. 
CORYCIA, TEMERATA. Clouded Silver. 
FIDONIA, ATOMARIA. Common Heath. 
EMMELESIA, AI.BULATA. Grass Rivulet. 
BLANDIATA. Pretty Pinicn. 



100 

EUPITHECIA, VENOSATA. Netted Pug. 

,, LlNARlATA. Toadflax Pug. 

LOBOPHORA, HEXAPTERATA. The Seraphim. 
MlNUTATA. Ling Pug. . 

PHIBALAPTERYX, TERSATA. The Fern. 
SCOTOSIA, DUBITATA. The Tissue. 
CIDARIA, MiA.TA.Auti(itt Green Carpet. 

,, DOT AT A. The Spinach. 

EUBOLIA, CERVINARIA. The Mallow. 

,, BIPUNCTARIA. Chalk Carpet. 

ANAITIS, PLAGIATA. Treble Bar. 

PSEUDO-BOMBYCES. 
DICRANURA, BIFIDA. 'Poplar Kitten. 
PETASIA, CASSINEA. The Sprawler. 
PTILODONTIS, PALPINA. Pale Prominent. 
NOTODONTA, DICIYEA. Swallow Prominent. 

DlCT^OlDES. Little Swallow Prominent. 

NOCTU>E. 

THYATIRA, DERASA. Buff Arches. 
,, BATIS. Peach Blossom. 

CYMATOPHORA, DUPLARIS. Lesser Satin Moth. 

DlLUTA. Lesser Lutestring. 

BRYOPHILA, GLANDIFERA. Marbled Green. 
ACRONYCTA, TRIDENS. Dark Dagger. 
,, LEPORINA. The Miller. 

,, ACERIS. The Sycamore. 

,, LIGUSTRI. The Coronet. 

SIMYRA, VENOSA. Powdered Wainscot. 
LEUCANIA, PUDORINA Striped Wainscot. 

,, COMMA. Shoulder-striped Wainscot. 

GORTYNA, FLAVAGO. Frosted Orange. 



IIYDR/ECIA, NICTITANS. Ear Moth. 
,, MlCACEA. Rosy Rustic. 

AXYLIA, PUTRIS. The Flame. 
XYLOPHASIA, SUBLUSTRIS. Reddish Light Arches. 

, , H EPATICA. Clouded Brindle. 

NEURIA, SAPONARI/E. Bordered Gothic. 
IIELIOPHOBUS, POPULAR I <=. Feathered Gothic. 
CERIGO, CYTHEREA. Straw Underwing. 
MAMESTRA, FURVA. The Confused. 
,, PERSICARI/E. The Dot. 

MI ANA, FASCIUNCULA. Middle-barred Minor. 

,, LITEROSA. Rosy Minor. 
CADRARINA, ALSINES. The Uncertain. 

,, BLANDA. The Rustic. 

RUSINA, TENEBROSA. Brown Rustic. 
AGROTIS, PUTA. Shuttle-shaped Dart. 
,, TRITICI. White-line 

,, AQUILINA. Streaked 
,, SAUCIA. Pearly Underwing. 
CORTICEA. Heart and Club. 

TRIPH/ENA, FIMBRIA. Broad-bordered Yellow Undenving. 

INTERJECTA. Least Yellow Underwing. 

NOCTU A, TRIANGULUM. Double-spotted Square-spot. 

,, UMBROSA. Six-striped Rustic. 
TRACHEA, PINIPERDA. Pine Beauty. 
TjENIOCAMPA, RUBICOSA. Red Chestnut. 

POPULETI. Lead-coloured Drab. 

,, GRACILIS. Poivdered Quaker. 

,, MUNDA. Twin-spotted Quaker. 

ANCIIOCELIS, RuiKA.F/ou>i<:e<t Chestnut. 
,,- LUNOSA. Litnar Undenving. 

,, LITURA. Brown-spot Pinion. 

HOPORINA, CROCEAGO. Orange Upperwing. 

L 



162 

X ANTHI A, '-CERAGO.- The 'Saliva. 

ClTRAGO. Orange Sallow. 

,, SlLAGO. Pink-barred Sallmo. 

COSMIA, &\vf\KVa. White-spotted Pinion. 

,, AFFINIS. Lesser ,, ,, 

DIANTH^ECIA, CARPOPHAGA.-- Tawny Sheet*. 

CUCUBAU. The Campion. 

HECATERA, DYSODEA; Small Ranunculus. 
,, SERENA. Broad-barred White. 

POLIA, FLAVOCINCTA. Large Ranunculus. 
APLECTA, TINCTA. Silvery Arches. 

,, AUVENA. Pale Shining Brown. 

HADENA, CHENOPODII. The Nutmeg. 
CALOCAMPA, VETUSTA. Red Sword Grass. 
XYLINA, RIIIZOLITHA. Gray Shoulder Knet. 
CUCULLIA, VERBASCI. -The Mullein. 
UMBRATICA. The Shark. 

HELIOTHIS,* ARMIGEKA. Scarce Bordered Straw. 
IIELIODES, ARBUTI.--6V/// Yellnv Undemving. 
BREPHOS, PARTHENIAS. Orange Underwing. 

,, NOTIIA. Light Orange Undenting-. 

^.BROSTOLA, URTIC^E. Light Spectacle. 

,, TRIPLASIA. Dark Spectacle. 

PLUSIA, IOTA. Plain Golden Y. 

Y- AUREUM. Beautiful Golden Y. 
AM PI I IP Y R A, P Y KAMI DKA. Copper Underwing. 
CATOCALA, NUPTA. Red Undenoin-. 

DELTOIDES. 
HYPENA, ROSTRALIS. Buttoned Snout. 

* The wings of this rare moth were found by Mr. Wilson in a summer-house at 
Clay-hill. 



163 

AVENTI/E. 
AVENTIA, FLEXULA. Beautiful Hook-tip. 

PYRALIDES. 

PYRALIS, FIMBRIALIS. Gold Fringe. 
SCOPULA, FERRUGALIS. Rtuty Dot. 
SCOPARIA, CRAIVEGALIS. Whitethorn Bar. 



164 



METEOROLOGY. 

The following table shows the mean rainfall for each 
month in the year at Enfield, from observations of sixteen 
years, viz., 1849 1864 inclusive, made at the Vicarage- 
house, by the Rev. J. M. Heath: 

INCHES. 

January, i '90 
February, i 1 5 
March, i '64 
April, 1-55 

May, 2*26 

June, 2 '04 

July, 2-36 

August, 1-95 
September, 2-42 
October, 2-51 
November, 1-87 
December, 1-55 

Whole year ... 23-20. 



The year 1854 was the driest, and 1860 the wettest, 
within this period, giving respectively 16-46 and 34-57 
inches in twelve months. 

The mean rainfall for ten years, 1863 to 1872, both 
inclusive, as taken at Old-park, by Alfred L. Ford, Esq., 
was as follows : 



105 

INCHES. 

January, 275 
February, 1-62 
March* i '68 
April, 1-32 

May, i'99 

June, i '9 2 

July, 1-86 

August, 2 1 7 
September, 2 '86 
October, 276 
November, 1,71 
December, 2-54 

Whole year, 25-18. 

The driest year during this period was 1864, and the 
wettest, 1872, when the respective rainfall was 16-38 
inches, and 35-90 inches. 

The average given in the last ten years corresponds 
very exactly with the observations taken at Tottenham 
by the late Luke Howard, during a period of thirty-three 
years, from 1797 to 1830, giving an average of 25*13 
inches, that at Old-park being an average of 25-18 inches. 
The great discrepancy between these results and those 
observed by Mr. Heath, arises from the rain-gauge at the 
Vicarage being placed at the top of the house, whilst 
those at- Old-park and at Tottenham were on the ground. 
It is a well-known and curious fact that the elevation of 



1G6 

a gauge will diminish the amount of rain* collected, and 
the currents of air on a roof materially affect the accuracy 
of the register. 

The mean temperature at Old-park for ten years, 
from 1863 to 1872, was, 

January, 34o5 

February, 38o5 

March, 40^5 

April, 4 845 

May, 528 5 

June, 596s 

July, 6245 

August, 6o2o 

September, 56oo 

October, 4695 

November, 4820 

December, 3595 

The highest temperature during this period being 93 
July 2ist, and July 22nd, 1868, and the lowest, 2 Jan. 
3rd, 1867. 



* Dr. Dalton found that the rain in a gauge fifty yards above the 
ground was in summer only two-thirds, and in winter only one-half 
of that in a gauge on the surface. 



167 



TREES 

Worthy of record for their antiquity, magnitude, or beauty. 
(BY j. w. F.) 

"Much can they praise the trees so straight and hy, 

The sapling pine, the cedar proud and talle, 
The vine-propp elme, the poplar, never dry ; 

The builder oake, sole king of forests all ; 
The eugh, obedient to the bender's will, 
The birch for shafts, the sallow for the mill ; 
The warlike beech ; the ash for nothing ill. 

The Faerie Queene, Canto l. 



There being many " old patrician trees" in the parish 
of Enfield which are, perhaps, without their equals in the 
county, a notice of them may be interesting for the 
purpose of future comparison, or as a record of such as 
may soon disappear. The measurements have all been 
made personally by the writer, and are in each- case taken 
where they most fairly represent the size of the tree. 

ACACIA. Robinia Pseud-acacia. 

There are two magnificent specimens at the Rectory, 
and a third at Bohun Lodge, possibly the oldest in the 
country. No trees of such size are recorded by Loudon. 
The respective measurements are at 3 feet from ground. 
Girth, i6-ft. 8-in., spread of branches, 69-ft.; girth. 
i4-ft. 2-in., spread, 66-ft. At ground, i8-ft. 4-in.; at three 
feet, i3-ft n-in. Height, 7o-ft. 



168 

The acacia was one of the first North American trees 
introduced into Europe. The oldest, which is in the 
Jardin des Plantes, was planted in 1635, and destroyed 
in the late revolution. It was raised from seed sent over 
to Jean Robin, the professor of botany, from whom the 
tree takes its generic name. It was introduced into 
England in 1640, 

ASH. -Fraxinus Excelsior. 

A grand old shell in the park at Forty Hall may well 
have been a sturdy tree when Elizabeth lived here at 
Elsynge Hall. It still supports a few vigorous branches. 
Measurement at ground, girth, z6-ft. lo-in. At 
3 feet, i8-ft. 

Another tree in the wood measures at 5-ft., n-ft. 6-in., 
and has a clean stem to the first branch of more than 4o-ft.; 
the height close on loo-ft. 

"The leaves of this tree," says Gerard, "are of such 
virtue against serpents as that they dare not so much as 
touch the morning and evening shadowes of the tree, but 
shun them afar off." " We write" says he, " upon 
experience," 

BEECH. Fagus Sylvatica. 

Many noble beeches still remain in Trent Park, 
the lingering relics of the ancient Chase of Enfield. 
The finest specimens are not far from Camlet- 
moat, to the right and left of the drive, soon after entering 



169 

by the lodge on the Camlet way. The following are par- 
ticularly worthy of notice. To the right of drive, a tree 
with seat round it At i-ft. 6-in., girth 2o-ft. g-in.; 
at 4-ft, 15-ft. 3-in.; at i4-ft., 12-ft. 3-in. Height, 
io2-ft. The stem is estimated to contain 2ii-ft. of 
timber. 

To the left of drive a magnificent tree At i-ft. 6-in., 
girth, ig-ft. 8-in.; at 4-ft, i5-ft. lo-in. Height, gS-ft. 
The stem is estimated to contain i68-ft. of timber, and 
the top i8o-ft. 

This tree at 1 2-ft. from the ground divides into five 
mighty stems, the branches from which weep to the ground 
on every side, and cover an area of io7-ft. diameter. 

Many splendid beeches in this park have of late years 
been, unhappily, felled. Especially worthy of record was 
one near the Camlet-road, which rose for 4o-ft. without a 
branch, and with a bole as large as the foregoing. 

COPPER BEECH. Fagus Purpurea, 

There are three copper beeches in the grounds at Capel 
House, which, from their great size, must have been 
among the earliest planted in this country, and may vie 
with those at Enville and Sion as the largest and loftiest 
in England. i. At 3-ft, girth 8-ft i-in.; spread of 
branches, 8i-ft. 2. At ground, 2o-ft.; at 3-ft., Q-ft. 
lo-in. 3. At 3-ft., lo-ft. 8-in. 

The original tree from which all the others in Europe are 
derived was discovered in a wood in Germany, in the 
middle of the last century. 



170 

BIRCH. Bdula Alba. 

A very fine one at South Lodge is unapproached in 
size by any hitherto recorded, or probably existing in the 
neighbourhood of London. At ground, girth, i6-ft. 
7-in.; at 7-ft., 7-ft. 8-in. The spread of branches is 7 7 -ft; 
the height 65-ft. 

CEDAR. Cedrus Libanl. 

The oldest cedar in England is undoubtedly that still 
flourishing in the Palace Garden of Enfield, which was 
planted by Dr. Uvedale between 1662 and 1670. The 
next in age were those planted in the Chelsea Physic 
Garden by Sir Hans Sloane, which, when measured by Sir 
Joseph Banks in 1784, were fast going to decay, and 
were then far behind the Enfield cedar in size and beauty. 
The largest was blown down in the autumn of 1853, 
when the interior was found to be almost entirely 
perished. 

One other besides the Palace cedar was traditionally 
reported to have been planted by Queen Elizabeth. 
This stood in the grounds at Hendon-place, and was 
blown down in 1770. Its spread of branches was ioo-ft., 
and it was then considered to be the finest tree in England. 

" The great cedar," at Combe Bank, near Sevenoaks, 
measures, at 6-in. from the ground, iQ-ft. 6-in.; at 6-ft., 
1 7-ft. 5-in. We give the measurements of nine trees in 
the parish, all of which are of exceptional size, and as 
the cedar at the Palace has increased in girth several 



171 

feet in the course of fifty years, these statistics "may 
hereafter be of interest. 

i. The Palace Cedar. Measurement at ground, in 
1821, iQ-ft. 9-in.; in 1873, 25-ft. 3-in.; at i-ft. 6-in., in 
1821, i6-ft. i-in.; in 1873, ig-ft. 7-in.; at 3-ft., in 1821, 
i3-ft. 6-in.; in 1873, i6-ft. 2-in. 

A seedling from the above, planted by the writer at Old 
Park in 1846, measures 5-ft. 7-in. in circumference. 
Another planted there in 1851, is now 33-ft. high. 

2. At Bohun Lodge. Measurement at i-ft. 6-in., 
i8-ft. 6-in. 

3. At East Lodge. Measurement at ground, i8-ft; 
at 3-ft. 6-in., n-ft. 9-in. This, the larger of two sister 
trees, is remarkable for its height, which is upwards 
of go-ft. 

4. At South Lodge, i, measurement at 3-ft. 6-in., 
i4-ft. io-in.; spread of branches, 8 4-ft. 2, the companion 
tree, at 3-ft. 6-in., i4-ft. 8-in. 

5. At the Mount, Hadley. Measurement at 3-ft. 6-in., 
1 4-ft. It is remarkable that this fine old house and 
grounds are in the parish of Enfield, although entirely 
surrounded by that of Hadley. 

6. At Belmont. Measurement at ground, i4-ft. 7-in; 
at 3-ft. 6-in., n-ft. lo-in. This, the finer of two trees, 
is 7 5-ft. high. 

7. At Forty Hall, i, Measurement at i-ft. 6-in., i5-ft. 
at 4-ft, i3-ft. 8-in. Diameter of spread of branches, 92-ft. 
2, Measurement at i-ft. 6-in., i5-ft. 7-in.; at 4-ft, 15 -ft. 



172 

Diameter of spread of branches, loo-ft. There are three 
other fine specimens on the lawn, one of which is 
remarkable for preserving a timber-like stem for upwards 
of 6o-ft. 

The following measurements are worth recording, as 
the date of planting can, in each case, be fixed with 
certainty. 

i. The father of Mr. Taylor, of Grovelands, Southgate, 
planted a cedar there in the year 1770, the measure- 
ments of which, as now taken, are: At ground, i6-ft. 6-in.; 
at i-ft. 6-in., i3-ft. 8-in.; at 4-ft, i2-ft. 4-in. Diameter of 
spread of branches, 77-ft. 

2. Peter Collinson, the well-known botanist, and 
friend of Linnaeus,' planted with his own hand, in 1768, 
on the estate of Osgood Hanbury, Esq., at Coggeshall, 
two cedars. 

Memorandum : 

" In token of the love and friendship which has for so 
" many years subsisted between myself and my dear 
" friend John Hanbury and his family, and as a lasting 
" memorial of that friendship, I desire that one guinea 
" may be given to my sincere' friend Osgood Hanbury to 
" purchase of Gordon, two cedars of Lebanon to be 
" planted in two places of the new part of the park last 
" taken in. Let the occasion of the said cedars and of 
" their ages be registered in the great Bible at Coggeshall, 
" that succeeding generations may know our friendship, 
" and the antiquity of these trees. To my worthy friend 



173 

" Osgood Hanbury and his son I recommend their care 
" and protection." P. Collinson. 

For the present dimensions of the larger of these trees 
we are indebted to the courtesy of O. Hanbury, jun., Esq. 
Measurement at ground, i8-ft. io-in.; at i-ft. 6-in., 
i5-ft. 3-in.; at 3-ft., i5-ft. The largest branch extends 
65-ft. from the main stem. 

The data here given show that, with one or two 
exceptions, the cedar of Lebanon is more rapid in its 
growth than any tree in cultivation. 

A short note may be added respecting the far-famed 
cedars on Lebanon. 

Miller, in his dictionary, gives the spread of the 
largest tree then remaining as 1 1 i-ft. The girth of the 
largest, according to Maundrell, was, in 1696, 36-ft. 6-in. 

The original trees are constantly decreasing in number. 
In 1550, 28 were counted; in 1575, Ranwollf saw 24 
sound trees ; in 1600, there were but 23 ; in 1696, 
Maundrell found only 16 remaining ; in 1810, Burckhardt 
counted n or 12 ; in 1818, Dr. Richardson found that 
" the old cedars, the glory of Lebanon, were no more than 
seven in number." And a friend, who visited the district 
in 1872, saw three of these y^ing on the ground. Four 
trees only remain of the mighty forest which once 
employed eighty thousand hewers.* 



i Kings, v. 15. 



174 

The Maronites have a curious tradition that no sooner 
do the snows begin to fall than these cedars change their 
figure. The branches, which before spread themselves, 
rise insensibly, gathering together, and turn their points 
upwards towards heaven, forming a pyramid. Nature, 
they say, inspires this movement, without which they could 
never sustain the immense weight of snow remaining for 
so long a time. 

"It was a cedar tree ; 

Its broad round-spreading branches, when they felt 
The snow, rose upwards in a point to heaven, 
And standing in their strength erect, 
Defied the baffled storm. " Thalaba. 

" The Gentiles were wont to make their divels ^or 
images of this kind of wood that they might last the 
longer." Gerard. 

CHESTNUT (HORSE). sEsculus Hippocastanum. 

A very fine tree near the entrance lodge at Forty Hall. 
Measurement at ground, i8-ft. i-in.; at 4-ft. 6-in., 
lo-ft. lo-in. Greatest spread of single branch, 4 2 -ft; 
height, 8o-ft. This tree was selected by Loudon, and 
figured in his, Arboretum as a magnificent specimen of a 
chestnut in its prime. 

A remarkably picturesque chestnut at Chase Park has 
no main trunk, but immediately throws out branches, 
which resting on the ground cover an area, the diameter 
of which is 8i-ft. 



175 

Loudon records a tree in Enfield ico-ft. high, but this 
we have been unable to trace. Mr. St. Hilaire states that 
the chestnut was brought to England from the mountains 
of Thibet in 1550. It was not known in England before 
1615. The chestnut was brought from the mountains of 
Thibet to Constantinople, in 1850, and thence obtained 
by Clusius from the Imperial Ambassador at the Porte in 
1576. It is first mentioned in this country by Parkinson 
in 1629, who placed it in his orchard as a fruit tree, and 
describes the nut as superior to the ordinary sort. 

CHESTNUT (SPANISH). Castanea Vesca. 
An old tree at South Lodge measures at 5 -ft., i5-ft. 7 -in. 
Another in the wood at Forty Hall, upwards of Qo-ft. 
high; measures at ground, ly-ft. 7 -in.; at 5 -ft, n-ft. The 
stem is timber for upwards of 7o-ft, below which height 
it throws out no important branches. 

CORNELIAN CHERRY. Cornus Mas. 
A very old example of the Cornelian Cherry, which 
rarely reaches the dignity of a tree, died at Old Park a 
few years since. The tree was upwards of 4-ft. in 
circumference, and was by estimation larger than the 
famous trees in the castle at Heidelberg, long noted as the 
most remarkable in Europe. The tree was introduced 
into England in 1596, and is the only English grown wood 
which, from its weight, will sink in water. Pliny speaks 
of it as nearly equal to iron in hardness, and as such " fit 
for making wedges." 



176 

CRAB. Pyms Afalus Acerbus. 

An extraordinary crab tree in White Webb's Park, 
measures at i-ft., 8-ft. 2-in., and is 149-11. in circumference, 
covering upwards of a quarter of an acre of ground with 
its dense circular head. This is, as far as can be ascer- 
tained, unequalled by any other known specimen. 

DECIDUOUS CYPRESS. Taxodium Distichum. 

There are two exceptionally fine trees on the banks of 
the lake at South Lodge, i. Measures at ground, 
i6-ft. 7-in.; at 5-ft., lo-ft. 4-in. Height, upwards of 
7o-ft. 2. Measures at 5-ft., 8-ft. 4-in. This tree was 
introduced from America before 1740. In damp places 
the roots throw up remarkable conical protuberances, 
from i to 2-ft. high, and as much as 4-ft. thick, always 
hollow. Michaux says, "They are cut off, and made use 
of by the negroes for beehives." 

ELM. Ulmus Campestris. 

Of the well-known specimens on Forty-hill, the largest 
unfortunately lost its head in a great storm in 1863. This 
tree measures at the ground, 26-ft.; and at 4-ft., i8-ft. 6-in. 
A fine engraving of these trees, now very scarce, 
was published August loth, 1818, by J. C. Lewis, the 
author of " The Rivers of England," and engraver of 
Claude's Liber Studiorum. 

The keel of " The British Queen" was cut from an elm 
tree felled at Forty Hall. She was the largest vessel that 



177 

had then been built, being 35-ft. longer than any ship in the 
navy. At the time of the Crimean war the central 
portions of five keels, upwards of 4o-ft. long, were cut 
here for dispatch-boats. 

An extraordinary elm, known for generations as " The 
Raven Elm," was cut down in Bush Hill Park, in 1839. 
This tree was so thick that the largest cross-cut-saw in the 
district was found too short for the purpose, and three 
extra feet were joined on to it, making the saw i2-ft. long. 
Two planks, each 32-ft. long, 7-ft. wide, and i2-in. thick 
through their entire length, were cut out of it, and were 
made into a dining-table for an old baronial hall. The 
trunk contained 13 loads, or 650 cubic feet of timber. 

On Hadley Common the portion of the Chase allotted 
to that parish under the Enclosure Act are two gigantic 
and interesting relics. The one known as " Larimer's 
Elm," and so marked on the Ordnance Map, measures at 
ground, 36-ft. Q-in.; at 4-ft, 2o-ft. 4-in. Under this tree 
tradition hands down that Latimer once preached, and 
from its venerable age it was probably a stately tree even 
in his time. Its situation is on a level with the dome of 
St. Paul's, and on a clear summer's day the spectator at 
its foot may watch the ships gliding down the distant 
Thames. 

The other tree, or rather barkless shell, stands on the 
verge of the common opposite to Hadley Church. It 
measures at the ground, 3o-ft.; at 5-ft., 2o-ft. From a 
limb of this " gaunt and lifeless tree," Lord Lytton, in the 

M 



178 

concluding chapter of the last of the Barons the closing 
scene of the Battle of Barnet hangs the wizard Adam 
Warner. 

EVERGREEN OAK. Quercus Ilex. 

A beautiful tree at Old Park rests its branches on the 
ground in every direction, and has a spread of upwards 
of 70- ft. diameter. 

Two lofty examples at Capel House measure at 3-ft, 
9-ft. 7-in., and g-ft. g-in. respectively. 

The first notice of the evergreen oak in this country is 
of one growing " in the king's privie garden at Whitehall," 
where it was observed by Clusius in 1581. Evelyn, 
referring to the same specimen in 1678, speaks of it as a 
" sickly imp of more than fourscore years growth." 

FIR, SILVER. Pitta Pectinata. 

A remarkably fine tree for this county, 98-ft. high, 
formerly stood in the grounds at South Lodge. It was 
struck by lightning in the summer of 1868, and a large 
piece, several feet long and a foot in width, torn out of 
the main stem at 75-ft. from the ground, at which height 
daylight was distinctly perceptible through the trunk. 

The loftiest trees recorded by Loudon in the neigh- 
bourhood of London were, one at Whitton, 97-ft., and 
another at Sion, Q2-ft. high. 

HAWTHORN. Cratagus Oxycantha. 

A tree at Trent Park measures at i-ft. 6-in., 7-ft. ic-in. 
A picturesque old thorn at Old Park measures 8-ft. 8-in. 



179 

HOLLY. Ilex Aquifolium. 

There are many fine hollies in the rough, tmcleared 
Chase at Trent Park, measuring from 6 to 7 -ft. in cir- 
cumference, and 4o-ft. in height ; one now little more 
than a vast ivy bush, is at 5-ft., 7-ft. g-in. in girth; 
There is a very large tree at Gough Park, and 
another in Bush Hill Park, remarkable for its clear 
stem and wide-spreading head and branches. 

Cole, in his Paradise of Plants, states that he knew a" 
tree which the owner " cut down, and caused to be sawed 
" into boards, and made himself thereof a coffin ; and, if I 
" mistake not, left enough to make his wife one also, 
" Both the parties were very corpulent, and, therefore, you 
"may imagine the tree could not be small." Sylva 
Florifera, \., p. 283. 

HORNBEAM. Carpimis Betutus; 

Two -at Trent Park are of great size and spread, i, 
measures at i-ft. 6-in., i3-ft.; at 4-ft., lo-ft. 6-in. 2, 
measures at i-ft. 6-in., i4-ft. 6-iri. One at Old Park 
measures at 3-ft, 6-ft. 6^-in. 

LARCH. Larix Europcea. 

Two died at Old Park of extreme old age before 1850. 
The girth at i-ft. from the ground was g-ft., and 8-ft. 3-in. 
respectively. It was difficult to trace the rings of the 
section, but the trees could hardly be much less than 200 
years old. The timber, which was of great beauty, was 
sawn into boards, and used in fitting-up a billiard-room, 



180 

The larch is first mentioned in Parkinson's Paradisus, 
1629, as " rare, and nursed up but with a few, and thosfc 
only lovers of variety." 

Those at Dunkeld are supposed to be the oldest now 
living in the country; the largest measured in 1825 was 
at 3-ft, J5-ft. in circumference. Referring to these, 
Headrick, in his Survey of Forfarshire, says, " They 
were brought by the celebrated Lockhart of Lee (who had 
been Ambassador from Cromwell to France), about 1660. 
After Cromwell's death, thinking himself unsafe on 
account of having served a usurper, he retired for some 
time into the territories of Venice ; he there observed the 
great use the Venetians made of larches, and when 
he returned home he brought a number of plants in pots. 
He nursed them in hothouses and in a greenhouse until 
they all died, except three ; these, in desperation, he 
planted in the warmest and best sheltered part of his 
garden, where they now stand." The wood of the larch 
is perhaps the most durable known. The piles upon 
which Venice is built are, after upwards of a thousand 
years, as sound as when first driven, and hard and black 
as ebony. It is not liable to become worm-eaten, as may 
be seen in many of Raphael's pictures, which are painted 
on this wood. 

LAUREL, PORTUGAL. Cerasus Lusitanica. 

At Old Park, one 3o-ft. high, and io5-ft. diameter. 
Loudon records the largest known trees in England, but 



181 

mentions none of this size. It was introduced about 
1648, being first grown at Highgate by Mr. James Cole, 
who, as Parkinson informs us, used to cover it in winter 
with a blanket. 

LIME. Tilia Europcea. 

There are four magnificent limes in Bush Hill Park, 
i, measures at ground, 26-ft. Q-in.; at 3 -ft, 15 -ft. i-in. 
2,. measures at ground, 26-ft. 3, measures at ground, 
25-ft 4, measures at ground, 23-ft. 6-in.; and at 
5 -ft. 8-in., i4-ft. 8-in., at which height it throws out three 
remarkable limbs at right angles to the main stem; 
the largest measures 6-ft. i i-in. in girth. This tree is 
io6-ft. high. 

The noble double avenue at Forty Hall was probably 
planted by Sir Nicholas Raynton in the time of Charles I. 
when the fashion of so planting this tree was introduced 
by Le Notre, in accordance with the prevailing custom in 
France. 

MULBERRY. Morus Nigra. 

There are two very ancient trees in the parish. One 
at Owl's Hall measures at i-ft. 6-in., 6-ft. 8-in.; at 4-ft, 
6ft. lo-in. The other in the old garden of the house said 
to have been the birthplace of Isaac D'Israeli, measures 
at i-ft. 6-in., 7 -ft. 2-in.; at 4-ft., 7-ft. 7-in. It is 
believed that the mulberry was brought to this country by 
Cardinal Pole in 1555, when he planted it at Lambeth. 
Palace. 



182 

Its frequent occurrence in many old gardens is due to 
the attempt made by James I., in 1609, to introduce the 
cultivation of the silkworm, when the King, by letters to 
the Lords Lieutenant of the several shires, gave order for 
the planting often thousand mulberry trees in each shire. 

It is curious that the trees of the above date are all 
black mulberries, whereas of the white kind (morns alba), 
the true food of the silkworm, very few exist. 

However promising or early the season, the mulberry 
never bursts its buds until all danger of frost is over. 

" Cumgerminare viderismorum, injuriam posted frigoris 
timere nolito" PLINY. 

OAK. Quercus Robur. 

The following are selected from among the many trees 
for which Enfield has long been noted. 

A venerable pollard at Trent Park swells out into a 
vast stool at the base, where it measures 45-ft. 8-in. in 
circumference. 

A noble tree by the drive of the house is io6-ft. high, 
and 2Q-ft. to the first branch. Measurement at 2-ft, 
iQ-ft. n-in.; at i4^ft, i5-ft. 6-in. It is estimated to 
contain 52y-ft. of timber, 407 in the stem, 120 in the top. 

A very ancient tree at Old Park measures at 2-ft., 
2o-ft. 4-in.; at 4-ft., ly-ft. i-in., and the diameter of spread 
of branches is io7-ft. (The spread of the Minchenden 
Oak at Southgate which covers the largest extent of 
ground of any tree in England is now i26-ft, having 
increased 8-ft. since 1820. This, however, is a pollard.) 



183 

Another tree at Old Park, in full vigour, which Sir 
Samuel Cunard pronounced to be the finest grown tree 
he had seen in this country, measures at 3-ft., 14- ft., and 
has a spread of i xo-ft 

A tree in the Warren Field at Forty Hall, measures at 
i-ft. 6-in., 2o-ft.; at 4-ft., i6-ft. 4-in., and the diameter of 
spread of branches is io2-ft. 

The well-known weeping oak in front of Dr. Collyer's 
house measures at 4-ft. from the ground, i5-ft. i-in., which 
will give the reader a scale of comparison for the size of 
the foregoing. 

POPLAR, BLACK. Populus Nigra. 

A large tree with a noble head at South Lodge measures 
at 4-ft, 1 3-ft. lo-in. 

A row of fine Lombardy poplars populus dilatata 
(the last of which was blown down about three years ago) 
formerly stood in the grounds in front of Col. Somerset's 
house. " The poplar never dry," is the most incom- 
bustible wood known, on which account it is in great 
request for the floors and wood-work of engine-rooms. 
As it is a tree of rapid growth and thrives well in this 
neighbourhood, it would be found a profitable investment 
to the planter. 

TULIP TREE. Liriodendron Tulipifera. 

There are two very old trees at Capel House. 

1, measures at 3-ft., g-ft. i-in., and is fast dying from age. 

2, measures at 3-ft., loft. 2-in. Other fine specimens are 



184 

growing at Enfield Court, Gough Park, and D'Acre 
Lodge. The tree was introduced about 1660. The 
original still survives in the grounds at Fulham Palace. 
Farmer, in his History of Waltham Abbey, mentions a 
tree there as " the largest and biggest that ever was seen." 

WILLOW. Salix Alba. 

There are two very fine willows growing on the banks 
of the New River in White Webbs Park. The finest 
measures at 3-ft., i5-ft. 6-in. East Lodge was formerly 
famous for great willows ; the remains of several still 
survive. 

A specimen of the Weeping Willow, Salix Babylonica, 
at Old Park was brought from the tomb of Napoleon 
at St. Helena, in 1835. Its height is a little above 4o-ft. 

YEW. Taxus Baccata. 

There is a tree in the Vicarage garden remarkable for 
its great spread, upwards of 4o-ft, and for the amount of 
timber in the stem. 

The ancient yew tree in the Church-yard is noticeable 
as having been clipped for centuries into a pyramid, of 
which shape it still retains traces, although the preserva- 
tion of this formal style has probably been neglected for 
more than a hundred years. 



185 



BIOGRAPHY. 



SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 

" He 'gan to hope of men to be received 

For such as he him thought, or fain would be, 

But as in court, gay pourtance he perceived, 

And gallant show to be in greatest gree, 

Eftsoones to court he cast, t'advance his first degree." 

T7ie Faery Queene. 



An old and generally accepted tradition claims for a 
cottage at Chase-side, (the property of Colonel Somerset, 
and situated between the Workhouse and the Gordon 
Estate) the distinction of having been formerly the 
residence of Sir Walter Raleigh ; and the authorities of 
the Ordnance Survey have endorsed the popular belief 
by so naming it upon their map of the parish. 

It has evidently been, at one time, a house of more 
pretension than its present appearance might at first 
indicate, and the woodwork and the old panelling of the 
rooms are indisputably of the i6th century. 

Some confirmation is given to the common tradition 
by the discovery, about thirty years ago, of a small recess 
in the wall, near the fireplace, which was concealed by a 



186 

movable pannel, and contained a curious tobacco-pipe, 
apparently of Mexican design. 




This pipe (which was purchased by the late James 
Spencer Bell, Esq., then M.P. for Guildford), was made 
of a close-grained fragrant wood, and mounted with a 
silver rim and lid ; the bowl i ^2 inches in diameter, 
being quaintly carved with three faces the eyes of the 
middle 1 face being borrowed from its neighbours. Its 
whole length was about nine inches. 

It is certain that Sir Walter Raleigh came up from 
College in hopes of obtaining promotion at Court, at the 
very time when Queen Elizabeth was residing in Enfield, 
and as he never came to court again till after the lapse 






187 

of thirteen years, when he had obtained wealth, promo- 
tion, and renown, it must have been on this occasion 
that the romantic incident of the cloak occurred, to 
which history ascribes his first introduction to the 
Queen's notice, and the commencement of his brilliant 
career. 

There seems no good reason to question the truth of 
the story which presents a scene so picturesque and so 
much in harmony with the character of both actors as to 
make every one reluctant to doubt its reality. 

Some modern writers, indeed, suffering under the 
enlightened intellect of the age, have thought fit to treat 
the tale as apocryphal, but there is perhaps hardly any 
fact in English history which, as we hope to show, rests 
upon better evidence, or of which both the time and 
place can be more probably identified after the lapse of 
three centuries. 

The original narrative is given in the " History of the 
Worthies of England, endeavoured by Thomas Fuller, D.D., 
London, 1662," and is as follows : 

" He was bred in Oriel Colledg, in Oxford, and thence 
" comming to Court formed some hopes of the Queen's 
" favours reflecting upon him ; this made him write in 
" a glasse window, obvious to the Queen's eye, 
" ' Fain would I climb, yet fear to fall.' 

" Her Majesty, either espying, or being shown it, did 
" under write, 

" ' If thy heart fails thee, climb not at all." 



188 

So far the statement of Fuller is substantiated by the 
fact (which will be more fully detailed) that Raleigh 
abruptly left Oriel College and came up along with his 
cousin, to his relations the Dennys, who lived at Ches- 
hunt ; of which, as well as of Waltham-abbey, they were 
the proprietors ; his aunt, Lady Denny, was in attend- 
ance on the Queen, to whom she" was related through 
the Boleyns, and who at this time was holding her court 
at Enfield. 

Here, however, a slight difficulty arises in the narrative 
of Fuller, who proceeds to say, " However, he at last 
"climbed up the stairs of his own desert, but his intro- 
duction to the Court bare an elder date, from this 
" occasion. This Captain Raleigh coming out of Ireland 
" to the English court in good habit (his cloaths being 
" then a considerable part of his estate) found the Queen 
" walking, till meeting with a plashy place she seemed to 
"scruple going thereon. Presently Raleigh cast and 
" spred his new plush cloak on the ground, whereon the 
"Queen trod gently, rewarding him afterwards with 
" many suits for his so free and seasonable a tender of so 
"fair a foot-cloath. Thus an advantageous admission 
"into the first notice of a Prince is more than half a 
" degree to preferment." [Fuller's Worthies, folio edition, 
p. 262.] 

There is certainly some confusion in this statement, 
which it must be remembered was written long after the 
occurrence which it relates. The construction is some- 



189 

what ambiguous, but it seepis to imply, and no doubt, 
correctly, that the incident of the cloak occurred at an 
earlier date than that of the window, and it is distinctly 
said to have been Raleigh's first introduction. His 
return from Ireland however, was thirteen years after the 
exchange of rhymes on the " glasse," if that took place 
on his first coming to court; and by this time Raleigh had 
become equally distinguished for valour and ability, and 
his exploits were so conspicuous as to be particularly and 
circumstantially recited by the historians of the period. 
He had then obtained not only his " first preferment," but 
had been appointed along with his cousin, Sir Edward 
Denny, to the government of Munster, a post of the 
greatest importance, shortly afterwards followed by the 
substantial reward of 12000 acres of the forfeited princi- 
pality of the Earls of Desmond, whose rebellion he had 
assisted to quell. 

Some error is therefore patent in the consecutiveness 
of Fuller's narrative, but as he himself says, " It is im- 
possible for an author of a voluminous book, consisting 
of several persons and circumstances, to have such 
ubiquity of intelligence, as to apply the same infallibly to 
every particular." 

It is well known that Gibbon had proposed to write a 
biography of Raleigh, which, after much research and 
hesitation, he finally abandoned, from finding it hopeless 
" to obtain accurate information as to the most important 
"events of his public and the whole of his private life;" 



190 

and such was the destitution of biographical detail, that 
the old lives by Oldys (1733) and by Birch (1751) were 
prefixed without alteration or amendment to the edition 
of Raleigh's works, published in 1829, by the directors 
of the Clarendon press. 

It must always be a matter of regret that Sir Walter 
Raleigh himself did not spend some of the time consumed 
in writing his " History of the World," on his own 
biography. The few allusions to his own knowledge of 
the scenes which he describes are touches of genius, and 
are full of interest. In default, however, of such a 
narrative, a summary of known facts and dates will be 
the best guide to the reader's judgment. 

Sir Walter Raleigh was born at Hayes, in Devonshire, 
in 1552, being the second son by his father's third 
marriage with "Catherine, daughter of Sir Philip Champcr- 
nown, of Modbury, and widow of Otho Gilbert, of 
Compton." 

He was entered at Oriel College, Oxford, about his 
sixteenth year, but he soon left it along with his cousin 
Champernown, who had been his fellow-student, to join a 
company of volunteers, which was then enlisting under 
the auspices of Queen Elizabeth for the assistance of the 
Huguenots in France. 

Sir Anthony Denny, of Cheshunt and Waltham Abbey, 
had married Raleigh's aunt, " Dame Joan, daughter of 
Sir Philip Champernon, of Modbury ;" he had been 
gentleman of the bed-chamber and privy counsellor to 



191 

Henry VIII. , who made him one of his executors. 
"Nor (adds Fuller) was it the worst piece of service he 
" performed to his master, that when all other courtiers 
" declined the employment, he truly acquainted him with 
" his dying condition, to dispose of his soul for another 
" world." 

Their second son, Sir Edward Denny (who afterwards 
accompanied Raleigh to Ireland, " where, by God's 
" blessing, Queen Elizabeth's bounty, and his own valour, 
" he achieved a fair estate in the county of Kerry") was 
five years the senior of Raleigh, and they were both 
seeking enrolment in the troop of gentlemen volunteers 
which shortly afterwards joined the French expedition 
under the command of Henry Champernon. 

It is clear that during these preparations Raleigh 
must have been living on the spot, and at this time Queen 
Elizabeth was holding her court at Elsynge Hall, where, 
as we learn from Sir William Cecil's letters, she came in 
July, 1568, and it must, therefore, have been here that 
the young student " comming to court from Oxford" 
formed some hopes of the Queen's favours "reflecting 
upon him," which we are told " made him write in a 
glasse window" his line of budding ambition. 

In the following year, 1569, he went with his company 
to France, where he is said to have narrowly escaped the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. He did not return to 
England till 1576, when he proceeded to the Low 
Countries, where he served for a year under the Prince of 



192 

( )range, and in 1578 finding his half-brother Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert engaged in a design for making discoveries in 
North America, he embarked in it with eagerness. 

On his return from this expedition in 1579, the rebellion 
in Ireland had broken out, and having obtained a 
captain's commission he joined the Queen's army there 
along with his old companion, Edward Denny, when they 
both rapidly obtained promotion and wealth,* Raleigh 
himself being made Governor of Cork. 

It could hardly have been at this time that a consider- 
able part of Raleigh's estate consisted of " his new plush 
coat," and it certainly could not have been now that he 
obtained that " first notice of a prince which is more than 
" half a degree to preferment." If his " introduction to 
" the Court," and to the " first notice" of the Queen was 

* " Sir Edward Denny was buried in Waltham Abbey, under a 
"curious marble monument, supported by large marble pillars 
"where lies the portraiture of the said Sir Edward and Dame Joan, 
' ' his wife, and underneath are six sons and four daughters kneeling. 
' ' This tomb is of a curious piece of workmanship ; the epitaph is in 
"gold letters on a black marble, and is thus : 

" An epitaph upon the death of the Right Worthy Sir Edward 
' ' Denny, Knight, son of the Right Hon. Sir Anthony Denny, 
" counsellor of estate and executor to King Henry VIII. and of Joan 
" Chamnon, his wife, who being of Queen Elizabeth's Privy 
"Chamber, and one of the Council of Munster in Ireland, was 
" governor of Kerry and Dismondy, there departed this life about 
"the 52 year of his age, the 2ist Feb., 1599." 

Farmer's I fist, of Waltham, 1735- 



193 

owing to his tender of the " fair foot-cloath," this must 
have been on his coming from Oriel (not Ireland) to 
Enfield ; and the action itself is much more like the 
impulsive enthusiasm of a boy than the more sober loyalty 
of the Governor of Cork. 

In Sir Walter Scott's graphic description of these events 
he, with much natural probability, represents the incident 
of the cloak as occurring just before the inscription of the 
couplet : but it need hardly be added that the time and 
place which he assigns to them are wholly imaginary and 
inconsistent with history.* Every native of Enfield may 
be excused if, with the evidence before him, he should 
with more likelihood place the scene of action on an 
autumnal day of 1568, in one of the forest walks of 
Forty Hall (then Elsynge Hall) leading along the banks 
of the " MAIDEN BRIDGE BROOK." Tradition is silent as 



* The date assumed in Kenilworth (1575) is some six. years after 
Raleigh embarked for France, and six years before he returned from 
his campaign in Ireland. Perhaps no work of Sir W. Scott's is so 
full of anachronisms, arising probably from a wish to introduce all 
the celebrated characters of the age into his brilliant picture. Lord 
Southampton is addressed by Queen Elizabeth as the patron of 
Shakespeare, when that nobleman was not two years old, and the 
poet was acquiring his small Latin and less Greek in the grammar- 
school at Stratford. The "Tempest" is quoted, which was not 
written till a quarter of a century later, after the Queen's death ; and 
Raleigh himself receives the honour of knighthood in July, I57S> 
which was not conferred till 1584, after his return from Virginia. 

N 



194 

to the origin of this name, but in the earliest survey of 
the Chase the stream has the less romantic appellation 
of " OLD POND GUTTER." In one of the Forty Hall 
deeds (temp. James I.) the bridge which crosses it is 
called " Cole's Bridge, otherwise Maiden's Bridge." 

THE EVIDENCE OF FULLER. 

"Right well I wote 
" That all this famous antique history 
" By some the abondance of an ydle braine 
" Will judged be, and painted forgery ; 
"Rather than matter of just memory." 

The Faery Queene. 

One by one, the most picturesque incidents in English 
history, to which tale and song have conceded renown, 
have been consigned by " modern progress" to the limbo 
of myths ; and the latest biographer of Raleigh, Mr. 
Edwards, pronounces Fuller's anecdotes to be too well 
known and too apocryphal to need repetition, giving, 
however, no better reason than that Raleigh died whilst 
Fuller was a schoolboy. 

It may be worth while then to inquire from what 
sources Fuller is likely to have obtained his information, 
and what probable reliance he could place upon his 
authorities. His own truthfulness has never been 
questioned, and his memory is well known to have been 
wonderful. As to his fitness to weigh evidence, he shall 
speak for himself : 



195 

"The causes of books being farced with fauxities are 
(he says) : 

" i. Want of honest hearts, which betrayed their pen 
" to untruths. 

"2. Want of able heads to distinguish reports from 
"records not choosing but gathering; or rather not 
" gathering, but scraping what could come to their hands. 

"3. Want of true matter to furnish out those lives in 
" any proportion as cooks are sometimes fain to lard 
" lean meat, which otherwise would hardly be eatable for 
" the drynesse thereof. 

" For my own part I had rathef my reader should arise 
" hungry from my book, rather uninformed than misin- 
" formed thereby rather ignorant than having a falsehood, 
"or at best a conjecture for a truth obtruded upon him." 

He tells us further on " to give the particulars whence 
" I have derived my information first, printed books ; 
" secondly, records in public offices ; third, manuscripts in 
" the possession of private gentlemen ; fourth, instructions 
" received from the nearest relations to those whose lives 
" we have presented" 

" Now let us see how far Fuller had access to Raleigh's 
near relations. In 1634 he was collated to the rectory of 
Broad Windsor, in Dorset. Here he was on the most inti- 
mate terms with the family of the Drakes ; Henry Drake, 
who is called in his life of Sir Francis Drake "his dear and 
" worthy parishioner," was married to " Amy, widow of 
Sir Arthur Champernoun." In 1648 (Newcourt dates the 






196 

preferment 1640), he was presented to the perpetual 
curacy of Waltham Abbey, within four miles of Elsynge 
Hall. Here he was the intimate friend of Sir Henry 
Wrothe, to whom he dedicated one of the books of his 
Church History, and a 'visitor at his house at Durants, 
which was only two miles distant. 

The Dennys were still the proprietors of Waltham ; 
the magnificent tomb of Sir Edward Denny, Raleigh's old 
friend and relation, had lately been erected in the Abbey 
directly before Fuller's eye as he officiated at the com- 
munion table. Sir Edward Denny's son (Baron of 
Waltham and afterwards Earl of Norwich), had " settled 
" upon the curate of Waltham, to whom abare stipend of but 
" eight pounds a year did belong, one hundred pounds. per 
" annum, with some other considerable obligations, without 
" which the minister thereof must have kept more fasting 
" days than ever were placed in the Roman calendar." 

It is certain then that Fuller had the opportunity of 
obtaining his information direct from Raleigh's relations, 
as well as from those living on the spot, and of whose 
evidence we know that he availed himself in other 
matters. One old servant -of the Dennys, whom he else- 
where quotes as his authority, may have brushed the very 
cloak of Raleigh when he was a boy.' 

If " the most honest and laborious author of the i7th 
century" had the means of obtaining " true matter to 
" furnish out " any of his lives he must have had them 
here ; and if the events recorded ever happened at all, 



197 

they must have happened when Raleigh first left Oriel 
with his cousin to come to Court, which was at that time 
at Enfield. 

One difficulty still remains to be considered the 
evident confusion as to the dates and order of the two 
events. The wonderful tenacity of Fuller's memory has 
been mentioned above ; but it was a memory of a very 
peculiar kind it was one more of isolated facts than of 
logical sequence. 

It is said that he could repeat a series of five hundred 
strange and unconnected words after hearing them twice, 
and that, on one occasion, after walking from Temple Bar 
to the conduit at the end of Cheapside, he could repeat 
the sign of every shop on both sides of the street, either 
backwards or forwards. 

Equally singular was Fuller's method of composition. 
We are told that " he wrote near the margin the first 
" words of every line down to the foot of the paper, after- 
" wards filling up the lines and connecting the beginning 
" and ends." He also " left blank spaces for the dates, 
" or sometimes filled them up conjecturally, without any 
"supposed need of nice method, as he designed to be 
" more exact upon better opportunity." " A stranger to 
" my method," he himself tells us, " would hardly rally 
" my scattered and posthumous notes." 

Now this contingency is exactly what occurred: 
Fuller died Aug. 15, 1661, and his Worthies of England 
was not published till the following year. A part of the 



198 

work was in the printer's hands at the time of his death, the 
remainder, including the Worthies of Dewnshire, among 
whom Raleigh is placed, being edited by his son John, 
(then a young student at Cambridge), from his father's 
'* scattered and posthumous notes," and under circum- 
stances which added still further to the chances of acci- 
dental error. " The discounting of sheets (concludes the 
" original preface), to expedite the work at severall presses, 
"hath occasioned the often mistake of the folios. 
" Whatever faults else occur in this impression, it is my 
" request that thou would'st score them on my want of 
" care or skill in correcting the same, that they may not 
" in the least reflect on the credit of my dead father." 
JOHN FULLER. 

The easily-made mistake of a transcriber or printer in 
substituting " Ireland" for "Oriel," or a very slight confusion 
of memory, or of posthumous papers, would account for 
the discrepancy of dates which certainly exists. 

There is just the erf or that might arise from a volumi- 
nous collection of notes imperfectly posted up or assorted ; 
but the mistake of a bookbinder in misplacing a page of 
a work does not affect the credit of the author. 

" I have given you my tale and my tale-master." 

"I have it 

" Upon his own report, and I believe it ; 
"He looks like sooth." 

(WINTER'S TALE.) 



199 

WILLIAM WICKHAM. 

William Wickham was born in the Manor House of 
Honeylands or Pentriches, of which his father was lessee, 
in the reign of Henry VIII. He was educated at King's 
College, Cambridge, was made Dean of Lincoln, in 1571, 
Bishop of Lincoln, 1584, and was translated to Win- 
chester, in 1595, where, says Fuller, "he may be termed 
William Wickham, junior, in distinction of his namesake 
and predecessor, one equal to any of his order in piety and 
painfulnesse." He preached the funeral sermon for 
Mary Queen of Scots, at Peterborough, 1587, and died 
at his house, in South wark, in 1596. 

He married Antonine, daughter of William Barlow, 
Bishop of Chichester. She had four sisters married to 
four Bishops, viz., Margaret to William Overton, Bishop 
of Coventry and Lichfield ; Anne to Herbert Westphaling, 
Bishop of Hereford; Elizabeth to William Day who 
succeeded Wickham, at Winchester; Frances, married 
first to Matthew Parker, son of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and secondly to Matthew, Archbishop of 
York. Thus her father was a Bishop and her father-in- 
law an Archbishop, she had four Bishops her brothers 
and an archbishop her husband. She died May loth, 
1629, aet 78. (Epitaph on Agatha, wife of William 
Barlow, Bishop of St. David's and of Chichester). 

It is to this Bishop that the dilapidation of the once 
magnificent Cathedral, College, and Palace of St. David's 
is attributed. It is said that his " lady longed for the gay 



200 

" world, and wanting more than all the revenues of the 
" see for himself and his family, he first raised the wind 
" by selling off the lead from the roof of the buildings, 
" and then obtained permission to remove from the palace 
" on the plea that it was not watertight." In consequence 
of this sacrilege the aisles of the cathedral are roofless, 
and the cloisters are mere heaps of ruins. The palace, 
built by Bishop Gower, in the i4th century, formed a quad- 
rangle 1 20- ft. square, of which only parts of two sides 
remain. Of St. Mary's College, founded by John of 
Gaunt in 1365, the only relic is a chapel, bare like the 
rest, and rapidly hastening to decay. 

ROBERT UVEDALE. 

He was born in 1642, and was a Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he was a competitor with Sir 
Isaac Newton for the law fellowship. Barrow gave his 
decision in favour of Uvedale as being the senior in age 
and equal in attainments. About 1660 Dr. Uvedale, 
who was then Master of the Enfield Grammar School, 
took a lease of the Palace for educating private pupils. 
He was considered one of the first botanists in Europe, 
and after his death his hortus siccus was purchased for a 
large sum by- Sir Robert Walpole, and is now in the 
British Museum. He married the grand-daughter of Sir 
Matthew Hale, and died in 1722. He was the lineal 
descendant of Peter de Uvedale, of Wykeham, in Hamp- 
shire, a peer of the realm, 6-8-9. Edward III., by whom 



201 

he was summoned to Parliament as baron. Nicholas 

Uvedale, his son, was the first great benefactor of the 

celebrated William of Wykenham, having in 1334 placed 

him at school at Winchester, as is recorded by a tablet 

placed conspicuously in the front of the chapel at 

Winchester, inscribed, "UVEDALLUS WYKEH AMI PATRONUS." 

Some interesting letters of Dr. Uvedale's are printed by 

Nichols in his Lit. Hist, of the eighteenth century, in 

which he complains bitterly of the irregularity of the 

Enfield Post-office, and desires his correspondents to 

direct his letters " to be left at the Bull, in Bishopsgate, 

" without mentioning Enfield, for our post letters are re- 

" turned to the general post; from London to a post-office 

" set up here, and frequently stay three or four days and 

" sometimes longer before we receive them, which yet the 

" gentlemen of the neighbourhood can get no redress for." 

(May 29, 1701.) This grievance seems to be unabated 

in 1710, when he again writes: "The post-house in 

"Enfield is near two miles from me, so they think good 

"to send them when they have enough to make a 

" perquisite of ; and our complaints either to them or 

" their masters signify not, for we cannot help ourselves." 

In August, 1700, he writes to a correspondent: "I am 

"now to thank you heartily for your kind present of 

" heathcocks (grouse). The pye came very well, 

" undamaged in the least, but the fowl, by the length of 

" the journey, were injured ; we could taste by the flesh 

" on the breasts that they must certainly be very delicate, 



202 

" wholly new to us in these parts, and will be here wished 
" for again," and the worthy doctor proceeds to state how 
they might be preserved by judicious potting, " as I have 
" had woodcocks from a great distance a standing cold 
" dish in the family a month after received." The receipt, 
he states, he had " from the learned in the kitchen, and 
" they tell me it is authentical." 

ROBERT UVEDALE, 

Of Trin. Coll., Camb., B.A. 1662, M.A. 1666, L.L.D. 
1682, was the son of the above ; Vicar of Enfield 
from 1721 to 1731. He was born May 25, 1642, and 
educated at Westminster under Dr. Busby. He assisted 
Dryden in his translation of Plutarch, for which he wrote 
the Life of Dion. His son, Robert Uvedale, D.D., 
married the daughter of Bennet Langton, and became 
Rector of Langton and Vicar of Svvinehead, co. Lincoln. 

ISAAC D'ISRAELI. 

Isaac D'Israeli was descended from one of those 
Sephardim-Hebrew families who had been long 
settled in Spain, where they had become almost an order 
in the State. " Prosperous and wealthy (says Milman) 
" they were cultivators and possessors of the soil, not 
" seldom ministers of finance, and the most enlightened 
"class in the kingdom, which' they had fertilized with 
" their industry, enriched with their commerce, and 
"adorned with their learning." Above 600,000 of the 



203 

race were expelled from the country towards the close of 
the fifteenth century, at the dictates of Torquemada ; and 
the ancestors of Isaac D'Israeli took refuge in the more 
tolerant territories of the Venetian Republic. Here 
" they dropped their Gothic surname," and assumed that 
of Disraeli (a name never borne before or since by any 
other family), and here, under the protection of the lion 
of St. Mark, they flourished as merchants and bankers for 
more than two centuries, when Benjamin Disraeli, the 
younger of two brothers, migrated to this country, and 
became a denizen of England in 1748, and having 
acquired a competence in the midway of life, he settled 
in Enfield, where his only child Isaac was born May, 1766. 
" Here," says his grandson, " he formed an Italian garden, 
" entertained his friends, played whist with Sir Horace 
" Mann, who had known his brother at Venice as a 
" banker ; ate maccaroni which was dressed by the 
" Venetian Consul,* and lived till he was nearly ninety," 
leaving an only child, Isaac Disraeli. 

Conflicting traditions assign more than one house in 
Enfield as having been his residence, but the probabilities 
are in favour of that used as the Great Eastern Railway 
Station, which, with its beautiful facade and tracery work 



* The allusion here is to the late John Charles Lucena, Esq. , who 
was for thirty years agent of affairs and Consul General from the 
Court of " Portugal," and who died June 2nd, 1813, aged 61. 
Cent. Magazine, p. 286. 



204 

of carved brick (probably unrivalled in England), is 
doomed to destruction by the march of mechanics. 

Such a garden as that alluded to was certainly attached 
to this house at the end of the last century, and many of 
the statues with which it was adorned,* some of them of 
great beauty, were for many years to be seen standing in 
the stonemason's yard adjoining. The only vestige now 
remaining is a part of the boundary wall and iron pali- 
sading behind the National Schools. 

The identity of the house is further supported by Mr. 
Disraeli's statement, that his father was sent to a school 
in the neighbourhood kept by a Scotchman, one Peter 
Morison, " but his delicate health was an excuse for con" 
" verting him into a day-scholar, and finally the solitary 
" walk home through Mr. Mellish's park was found 
" dangerous to his sensibilities." 

The school alluded to was near PonderVend, to which 
the footpath through Mr. Mellish's park led, and there 
was some cause for the boy's nervousness, as Mrs. 
Mellish was stopped and robbed by foot-pads in this very 
walk through her own park. 

It would be difficult to point out any other house to 
which the above details would apply. 

Isaac Disraeli remained here till his 38th year, when he 
married Maria, daughter of George Basevi, of Brighton, 



* Several of these are now in the grounds of David Henry, Esq., 
by whom a beautiful young Bacchus was given to the writer. 






205 

Esq., a member, like himself, of a Sephardim- Jewish 
family, his celebrated eldest son being born in 1805, 
shortly a/ter which he settled at Bradenham, in Bucks., 
where he resided till his death in 1848, and was buried 
there in the vault of the chancel amongst the descendants 
of the Hampdens and the Pyes. 

The Jewish Chronicle, writing in April, 1868, says, 
" There seems to be a singular mistake as to the relation 
" of the Premier to Judaism. Some Jews censure him as 
" an apostate, some Christians scoff at him as a Jew, with 
" a singular disregard of all they owe to the Hebrew race. 
" Now, the fact is that Disraeli is neither an apostate nor 
" a Jew. Benjamin Disraeli was admitted into the com- 
" munion of Israel, but his father, thinking fit to quarrel 
" with his synagogue, failed to teach his child Judaism. 
" One day Rogers, the celebrated banker-poet, happening 
" to visit at Isaac Disraeli's house when Benjamin was 
" about five or six years old, and regretting to find so 
"intelligent a youth without religious instruction, took 
" him to Hackney Church. From this event dates his 
" absolute and complete severance from the Jewish com- 
" munion he became a Christian, and a great genius 
" was lost to us." 

The accompanying illustration has been engraved from 
a drawing made in 1 848, and verified by a photograph 
lately taken by Mr. Farr. Since the above account was 
written, the building has been cleared away to make room 
for the new station of the Great Eastern Railway, and the 



206 

central part of the fagade has been purchased for the sum 
of ^"50 of Messrs. Patman by the Directors of the South 
Kensington Museum, where it has been erected as a 
screen in the structural division. It was taken down 
brick by brick, with the greatest care, all being numbered 
and packed in boxes of sawdust for carriage. Nothing 
could exceed the beauty of the workmanship, the bricks 
having been ground down to a perfect face, and joined 
with bees- wax and rosin, no mortar or lime being used. 
In this manner the whole front had been first built in a 
solid block, the circular-headed niches, with their carved 
cherubs and festoons of fruit and foliage, being afterwards 
cut out with the chisel. The arches were built without 
Toussoirs, the lines of the brickwork running straight across 
the work, with the joints so fine as scarcely to be per- 
ceptible to the nicest scrutiny. The date of the building 
is about the end of Charles IL's reign, and it bears all the 
characteristics of Sir Christopher Wren's design. The 
similarity of its elevation to that of Temple Bar cannot 
but strike the most inattentive observer, and the arched 
recesses and their enrichments recall the beautiful blank 
windows towards the western end of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

LORD GEORGE GORDON. 

The notorious Lord George Gordon was the third son 
of Cosmo Duke of Gordon, who resided in Enfield at a 
house on Chase-side, known as Gordon House, and after- 
wards the residence of Sir Thomas Halifax. He was born 



207 

December igth, 1750, and represented the borough of 
Ludgershall during several sessions. In 1780 he was 
committed to the Tower for his complicity in the riots. 
Some years after, he was convicted of a libel on Marie 
Antoinette and the Empress of Russia, when, to avoid 
punishment, he fled the country, but was shortly after- 
wards discovered at Birmingham in the garb of a Jew, when 
he was committed to Newgate, pursuant to his sentence 
for the term of five years. Here he continued to profess 
the Jewish religion, having (says Walpole) undergone its 
extreme rites, and died November 28, 1793. His last 
moments were embittered by the refusal of the Jews to 
allow his interment in their burial-ground, and it 
accordingly took place in a vault at St. James's, Hamp- 
stead-road. The mob, at the time of the Gordon riots, 
having threatened to destroy the wooden aqueduct at 
Bush Hill, with the intention of burning London, the 
proprietors of the New River made an application to 
Government for its protection, in consequence of which 
the 62nd regiment of foot was sent down and quartered 
in Enfield till the danger was over. 

RICHARD GOUGH. 

At the upper end of Baker-street stands a handsome 
red-brick house formerly the residence of Harry Gough, 
Esq., M.P. for Bramber, who purchased it in the year 
1723. After the death of his widow in 1774 it descended 
to his son Richard Gough, well known as the editor of 



208 

Camden, and the author of sepulchral monuments and 
other archeological works. Mr. Gough improved the 
estate by the purchase of some adjoining property, and 
also made considerable additions to the house, the 
eastern wing being built for the reception of his curious 
and extensive library, the whole of which was sold 
by auction in 1810, with the exception of his 
collection of British topography and his MSS., which he 
bequeathed to the Bodleian Library. Mr. Gough resided 
in Enfield* till his death, February 20, 1809, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Wormley, in Hertfordshire. 
A Latin epitaph, written by himself more than fifteen 
years before his decease, was inscribed pursuant to his 
instructions on a plain marble tablet on the south side of 
the chancel near the communion table. After the death 
of Mr. Cough's widow, August 18, 1833, set 93, the estate 
was purchased by Mr. Rees Price, and is now the 
property and residence of Miss Child. At the time of 
the alteration of the course of the New River, the iron 
gates and skreen, which stood close to the house, were 
removed to their present position, where they form a 
characteristic example of the beautiful old iron-work, 



* "Where," he says, "he can with pleasure, from his earliest 
' ' life, review many pleasing hours of retirement and antiquarian 
" research spent in this parish, so happily situated as a centre of 
"many curious monuments in the adjacent counties." Cough's 
Camden, v. 2, p. 107. 



209 

which is so striking a feature of Enfield and its neigh- 
bourhood. 

A curious fragment has been preserved of the 
"Diary of Master R. Gough: 1752 April 17, I went 
"to school for last time ; we came to Enfield. April 22, 
" The red cow calved. May 5, A man killed at Bushill. 
" May 20, A court held by Mr. Bowles ; went to it and 
"to Mr. Bridgen's. June i, Mrs. Breton and her sister 
" came ; I played at cricket. -July 8, Job at Jervis's 
" married the woman at the Goat." 

MAJOR CARTWRIGHT. 

Major Cartwright, a noted politician and writer, was 
for many years an inhabitant of Enfield. He was born 
on the 1 7th September, 1740, at Marnham, in Nottingham- 
shire. .He was descended from a family who had been 
long established in the county, and who had suffered 
great loss of property by their adherence to the cause of 
Charles I. during the civil wars.* He was an elder 

* A curious note in the Cartwright pedigree relates the manner in 
which their estates came into the possession of the family. "Hee 
" (Edmund Cartwright) was a scholer and Master of Artes of Jesus' 
" College, Cambridge, where hee was intimately acquainted with 
"Thomas Cranmer, son of Thomas Cranmer of Aslacton, whose 
"only daughter Cartwright married, which Cranmer, becoming 
" afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, tooke his brother Cartwright 
" and sister into his house, and at the dissolution of the abbeys 
" provided for him the Abbey of Mauling, in Kent ; Rowney, in Bed- 
fordshire; and Ossington, in Nottinghamshire, which are worth 

O 



210 

brother of the Rev. Edmund Cartwright, D.D., the 
inventor of the power-loom. Though somewhat 
impracticable and extreme in his opinions, he was a 
man, said Fox, " whose enlightened mind and profound 
" constitutional knowledge placed him in the highest 
" rank of public characters, and whose purky of prin. 
" ciple and consistency of conduct through life com- 
" manded the most respectful attention." He died at 
the advanced age of 85, and was buried at Finchley, 
September, 1824. 

REV. DANIEL CRESSWELL, D.D. 

The Rev. Daniel Cresswell, D.D., was vicar of Enfield 
from March 6, 1823, till his death, 21 March, 1844, 
set 68. He was well known both as an accomplished clas- 
sical scholar, and a profound mathematician, arrd for nearly 
twenty years a most efficient magistrate and chairman of 
the Enfield Bench. He was tutor at Trinity College to 
Dr. Blomfield, the late Bishop of London, with whom in 
after life there existed some mutual antagonism which led 
to frequent contests, in which the vicar always came off 
victorious. Dr. Cresswell was a great valetudinarian, and 



" three thousand a-year ; and married his heir, Hugh, to one of the 
"Lord Cobham's daughters." "It is lamentable to observe, 
(says Miss Cartwright, in quoting this passage), that Archbishop 
" Cranmer should have made the spiritual reforms he laboured to 
" establish subservient to the interests of his own connexions." 



211 

very punctilious as to his meals, particularly his dinner, 
which was invariably at three o'clock. On the occasion 
of the consecration of St. James's Chapel, at Enfield 
Highway -^jTily T), 1-835), he wrote to the Bishop of 
London, particularly begging him to be punctual, so that 
he might not be detained beyond his usual dinner-hour. 
The Bishop, however, was not disposed to be accommo- 
dating, and came provokingly late, when Dr. Cresswell, 
instead of reading the morning service, began the shorter 
form for evening prayer. The Bishop, after several 
ineffectual attempts to call his attention, sent his chaplain 
to stop him, when the Doctor, quietly taking out his well- 
known accurate chronometer, bowed to his lordship, and 
proceeded with the evening service, on the conclusion of 
which the Bishop made a full apology for the unseemly 
interruption. The last "Essay of Elia" (written only a 
month before Lamb's death), " Thoughts on presents of 
game," was suggested by the attentive kindness of " the 
worthy Vicar of Enfield," from whom "he acknowledges a 
tithe contribution of extraordinary sapor." The essay 
appeared in the Athenaeum, Nov. 30, 1834. Dr. Cresswell 
was buried in Enfield Churchyard, where his epitaph, 
written by himself, is alike beautiful for its pure Latinity 
and its exposition of Christian faith. 
Hoc sepulchrum 
sua ossa recepturum condi voluit 
Daniel Cresswell, S.T.P.* 



* Sacrae Theologiae Professor i.e., Doctor of Divinity. 



-. 



212 

Coll. S.S. Trin. apud Cant, olim socius 

Ecclesiae de Enfield inde vicarius 
Qui quanquam ad bonas literas incubuerat 

Ad bonos mores animam intenderat 
Ad sapientise Christianse fontem accesserat 

Optatum tamen ac propositum 

(Tantum interest inter velle et posse, scire et facere) 
Longe abfuit ut assequeretur 

Nee nisi in Dei dementia 
Jesu Christ! morte conciliata 
v Spejn ullam salutis habuit 

, */* Laudes ergo ^aJfeTltas quas hseres aut amicus 

Nimia facilitate mortuis largiri solet 

detrectans 
Ipse sibi hunc lapidem inscripsit 

Tu vero lector 

Nam quoe de alio hie nammtur 
Ad te fortim spectant 

Nosce teipsum 
Sancti spiritus ope tui victor evade 

Christo te committe 

Pectore et vita triunum Deum venerare 

Obiit xxi Martii die A.D. MDCCCLIV. 

./Etatis suae LXIX. 

The classical and mathematical tastes of Dr. Cresswell 
led him, when a young man, to cultivate the acquaintance 
of the celebrated Person, with whom he was in the 
habit of interchanging riddles. Some of these, copied 
thirty years ago, from the originals, in Person's hand- 
writing, are of great beauty and will probably be new to 
most readers. 




213 

I. 

Totum pone, fluit ; caput aufer, splendet in armis ; 
Caudam deme, volat ; viscera tolle, dolet. 



II. 

Te primum, incauto nimium propriusque tuenti 

Laura, mihi furtim surripuisse queror. 
Non tamen hoc furtum tibi condonare recusem, 

Si pretium tali solvere merce velis. 
Sed quo plus candoris habent tibi colla secundo, 

Hoc tibi plus -primum frigoris intus habet. 
Scepe sinistra cava cantavit ab ilice totum 

Omina, et audaces spes vetat esse ratas. 



III. 

My first, though the emblem of chastity reckoned, 
All her character lost in becoming my second ; 
And yet I rejoiced, for her ruin gave room 
For my whole mid the desert of nature to bloom, 
Who forth from her covert with modesty burst, 
And in exquisite purity rivalled my first. 



IV. 
My first, though your house from the thief it defends, 

You scurvily treat as a wretch you despise, 
My second, I speak it with grief, comprehends 

All the great, all the good, all the learn'd, all the wise. 
Of my whole I have little or nothing to say, 
Except that it marks the departure of day. 



214 

JOHN ABERNETHY. 

John Abernethy was born in London, in the parish of 
St. Stephen, Coleman-street, on the 3rd of April, 1764. 
He received his first education at a day school in 
Lothbury, kept by a Mr. Fuller,* afterwards a well-known 
banker, but was sent, while very young, to the Grammar 
School at Wolverhampton, of which he became the head 
before he was fifteen; when (in 1779) he was apprenticed 
to Sir Charles Blicke, surgeon to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital. On the resignation of Mr. Pott, he became 
assistant surgeon to the institution, and afterwards 
succeeded that gentleman as lecturer on anatomy and 
surgery. Soon after he appeared as an author, and 
published lectures and a Hunterian Oration, giving an 
account of Hunter's labours and opinions, and he also 
wrote the articles in Rees' Cyclopaedia on anatomy, &c. 
His most celebrated work, which he used to recommend 
to his patients, was on local diseases, aneurisms, and 

* "Died March 2nd, 1800, at his house on Scotland Green, 
Enfield, in his ninety-fifth year, William Fuller. Esq., banker of 
Lombard-street, he was son of William Fuller who kept an 
academy in Founders' Court, Lothbury, to which, on his death, his 
son succeeded, and having (by qualifying in writing and accounts 
many now eminent merchants of London, besides many others who 
served the East India Co., both at home and abroad), accumulated 
the sum of ^30,000, he engaged in a banking house about the year 
1756, but continued his employment of teaching for some years 
after he commenced banker." Gent. Magazine. 



215 

disorders of the digestive organs. His practice and 
reputation now rapidly advanced, and on the death of 
Sir C. Blicke, he was elected surgeon to the hospital which 
was considered the first in the metropolis. Mr. Abernethy 
was said to be frequently abrupt in his manner, and 
impatient to a complaining sufferer; and pages might be 
filled with anecdotes which have been told of his ec. 
ceniric behaviour. Many of these, however, were greatly 
exaggerated, and he often offended by saying what were 
very salutary though very unpleasant truths. His- rough- 
ness was only on the surface, and he was invariably and 
unaffectedly kind to the hospital patients, whilst his 
generosity was as unbounded as it was delicate. He has 
been known to return his fees to a poor officer's widow 
with a cheque of ^50, to enable her to give her child a 
daily ride. A young officer in the army having been 
thrown from his horse, received a fracture of the skull and 
other severe injuries. Abernethy, being the nearest surgeon, 
was sent for, and attended him daily for some months, 
at the end of which the poor patient enquired what he 
was indebted to him for his professional care. Abernethy 
enquired, with a smile, who the young woman was who 
had nursed him so tenderly. " She is my wife." "What 
is your rank in the army? " " I am a half-pay lieutenant." 
" Oh, very well, come and see me when yoaare a general, 
and we'll talk about it." 

Feeling the wear and tear of his laborious life, 
Abernethy took a house in Enfield,* to which he used ta 

* Now the residence of Mr. Alderman Challis. 



216 

go down on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Here he might 
be seen in drab kerseymeres and top boots, riding his 
favourite mare, "Jenny," which he had for five-and-twenty 
years. In the spring of 1831, he gradually grew weaker, 
and died on the 2oth of April, in that year. He was 
buried in Enfield Church, where a plain tablet is placed 
on the wall over his vault. 

CHARLES BABBAGE. 

Charles Babbage was born December 26th, 1792, and 
was educated by the Rev. Stephen Freeman, whose school 
was at the red brick house, at the upper end of Baker- 
street, in Enfield, " He was much loved," says a fellow 
pupil, " by dear old Freeman who first taught .him 
mathematics." Here he and a studious schoolfellow were 
in the habit of getting up in the morning at three o'clock, 
lighting a fire in the schoolroom, and studying surrep- 
titiously until five or half-past five. Frederick Marryat 
proposed to join them, not so much from a desire to study 
as for the sake of doing what was forbidden. So, at least, 
Babbage interpreted the request, and he refused to let 
Marryat join them. One night, in trying to open the 
door of his bedroom, Babbage found that Marryat's bed 
had been pulled up against it He gently pushed it back, 
without waking the >. future captain, and pursued his way 
to the schoolroom. This happened on several successive 
nights; but at length Marryat improved the plan by 
fastening a string from his hand to the door lock 



217 

Babbage detected the trick, and untied the knot. A few 
nights later, so stout a cord was used that he could only 
free the lock by cutting it. Presently a chain took the 
place of the cord, and for one night Babbage was kept 
from his studies ; however, the end of the matter was 
that Marryat was allowed to prevail, when the conse- 
quences predicted by Babbage presently followed. Others 
joined them, play took the place of work, fireworks were 
let off, and of course the delinquents were discovered. 

From Enfield he was transferred to Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, and aimed at the senior Wranglership, but 
Herschel being in the year, he would not contend with 
him, but abandoned all honours, coming out as Captain 
of the Poll. Babbage was originally destined for the law, 
which he studied under the late Mr. Brodie (brother of 
Sir Benjamin), but making no progress in so uncongenial a 
pursuit he turned his attention to science, by the advice of 
his fellow student, the late John Walker, Esq., Q.C., and in 
1828, his mathematical eminence obtained his election to 
the chair of Newton as Lucasian Professor in his university. 
This he held for ten or eleven years, though, it is said, he 
never lectured. His chief celebrity, however, he owes to 
his project of a calculating engine for the computation of 
tables,* founded upon the method of differences and 



* Mr. Babbage was the first to introduce the use of " toned 
paper " in printing his tables of logarithms, having found by a series 
of careful experiments that it gave greater distinctness to the type. 



218 

essentially the same in principle as that of Pascal. - The 
invention was considered of such importance that the 
Government, under the advice of the Royal Society and 
a committee of the most eminent mathematicians, 
determined upon constructing a machine at the expense 
of the country, and Mr. Babbage was engaged to super- 
intend the work. It was accordingly commenced in 1821, 
when it was supposed that two or three years would be 
sufficient for its completion. Nothing could be more 
certain in theory, or more perfect in workmanship than 
this wonderful engine, by which mathematics were 
reduced to mechanism. But after twelve years had been 
spent in its construction, the complication of details 
became so great that the work was suspended and the 
workmen dismissed; a quarrel also ensued with the 
engineer, who withdrew his tools, and it remains to this 
day unfinished. It should be added that though the 
Treasury paid the whole of the expenses, Mr. Babbage 
himself derived no 'advantage, either direct or indirect, 
from the invention. Mr. Babbage took an active part for 
many years in scientific institutions ; he was one of the 
oldest Fellows of the Royal Society, and one of the 
founders of the Royal Astronomical Society, and of the 
Statistical Society, of which he was considered the father. 
He died on the 2oth of October, 1871. 



219 

THE RIGHT REV. CONNOP THIRLWALL, D.D., 

(Bishop of St. David's). 

This distinguished scholar and theologian was the son 
of the Rev. T. Thirlwall, Rector of Bowers Gifford, 
Essex, who was formerly a resident in this parish. He 
was born in 1797, and educated at the Charter House. 
In 1814 he entered at Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
the next year he obtained the Bell and Craven University 
Scholarships. In 1818 he was Senior Optime and Senior 
Chancellor's Medallist; elected Fellow of Trinity, 1819; 
M.A., 1821. He was called to the Bar, at Lincoln's Inn, 
in 1823, but afterwards took Holy Orders, and became 
assistant tutor of his college. He was formerly one of 
the Examiners of candidates for degrees at the London 
University. In 1840 he was presented by the Lord 
Chancellor to the living of Kirby Underdale, in York- 
shire, and the same year was consecrated Bishop of 
St. David's, where he acquired the Welsh language with 
extraordinary rapidity. In 1825 he translated, in con- 
junction with Julius Hare, Niebuhr's History of Rome, 
and between 1835-40 published his History of Greece, 
in eight volumes. Since that time he has written many 
sermons, charges, and controversial pamphlets. 

A volume of compositions in prose and verse, some of 
them written at the age of eight years, was published by his 
father in 1809. It is now extremely rare. " Primitise, 
or Essays and Poems, on various subjects, by C. T., 
eleven years of age. The preface by his father, 1809." 



220 

CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

Captain Marryat, the naval novelist, was born in 1792, 
the second son of Mr. Joseph Marryat, of Wimbledon 
House, M.P. for Horsham and Sandwich, and Chairman 
of the Committee of Lloyd's. Of his boyhood there is 
little to tell, except that, like most children of precocious 
minds and strong passions, he was very troublesome. 
He learnt easily and forgot quickly, preferred play to 
lessons, and was constantly flogged for idleness and inat- 
tention. His school days were passed in company with 
Babbage, under the Rev. Stephen Freeman, and furnished 
a record of pranks, tricks, and runnings-away, whilst his 
master pronounced that he would never come to any 
good or turn out otherwise than a dunce. It was at this 
school that he was one day found by his master standing 
on his head with a book in his hand, and when 
Mr. Freeman asked him why he chose so strange a 
posture, the answer he got was, " Well I've been trying for 
three hours to learn it on my feet but I couldn't." At 
last he took to running away from school, and when 
taken to task for this at home, he replied that it was all a 
mistake to suppose that he ran away from books and 
work, it was because he did not like to wear the cast- 
off clothes of his eldest brother. When he was fourteen 
years old he was removed from Mr. Freeman's school, 
" having," writes one of his old schoolfellows, " run away 
again, and been captured in the horse-pond, at Edmonton, 
by a party of the boys and old Bunn, the usher." He 



221 

was now transferred to a tutor, from whom he very soon 
escaped, and his father, finding it useless to oppose his 
inclinations, made arrangements for his going to sea, and 
he started on his first voyage in the Imperieuse, com- 
manded by Lord Cochrane, for the Mediterranean. 
Marryat's active service ended in 1830, after he had been 
twenty-four years afloat. Between 1839 and 1843 he 
lived in London, in Duke-street, and Spanish-place, 
mixing in society and writing novels. His health now 
began to fail, and in 1847, having twice broken a blood- 
vessel, he removed to Hastings for a milder climate, and 
when there, received the terrible news of the loss of the 
Avenger, in which his eldest son perished. After this 
shock, all chance of recovery faded away; he lingered on 
till August, 1848, and on the gih of that month died 
peacefully, having been heard to murmur a sentence of 
the Lord's Prayer just before he breathed his last. 

He was a brave, energetic spirit, and whether on sea or 
land was ever foremost in the redress of wrong or 
injustice. Succeeding generations have to thank Captain 
Marryat if his fictions have helped to make the 
barbarities of the old service impossible; and in some of 
the reforms which he worked, he served his country with 
his pen as signally as with his sword. 

CHARLES LAMB. 

Charles Lamb first came to Enfield in 1825, where he 
says, in a letter to Sou they, " we are on a half visit at a 



222 

Mrs. Leishman's." This visit was a long one of five 
months, and ended in Lamb and his sister leaving 
Islington and becoming constant residents. Writing to 
Patmore, he says, " we are dawdling our time away very 
idly and pleasantly at a Mrs. Leishman's, Chase, Enfield, 
where, if you come a hunting, we can give you cold meat 
and a tankard. Her husband is a tailor, but that, you 
know, does not make her one." In reply to an applica- 
tion for a subscription towards a memorial to Clarkson, 
to be built on the spot where he first formed the resolution 
to devote his life to the abolition of the slave trade, he 
sends a guinea, but says "the vanities of life are subjects 
" for trophies, not the silent thoughts arising in a good 
" man's mind. I sat down upon a hillock, at Forty-hill, 
" last night, with a thousand good speculations about 
" mankind. How I yearned with cheap benevolence. 
" I shall go and enquire of the stone-cutter, that cuts the 
" tomb-stones here, what a stone with a short inscription 
"will cost, just to say 'here C. Lamb loved his 
" brethren,' every body will come there to love." 

In 1826, Lamb took what he described as an odd- 
looking gambogish-coloured house at Chase-side.* The 
situation (says Talfourd) was far from picturesque, for 
the opposite side of the road only presented some 



* This house, which has been much altered and enlarged, was 
afterwards that of Mrs. Compton, and is now known as ' ' the Manse. " 



223 

-middling tenements, two dissenting chapels, and a public 
house, but the neighbouring field-walks were pleasant, 
and the country, as he liked to say, as good as Westmor- 
land. He had here a neighbour in Sergeant Wilde, 
afterwards Lord Truro, whom he supplied with several 
squibs to assist his contest for Newark. 

The cares of housekeeping, however, pressed too 
heavily on Mary Lamb, and they removed into lodgings, 
he says " twenty-four inches further from town." Here, 
he writes to Wordsworth, in 1830, "we are settled down 
with an old couple : our providers are an honest pair, 
dame W. (Westwood) and her husband; he, when the 
light of prosperity shined on them, a moderately thriving 
haberdasher, within Bow Bells, retired since with some- 
thing under a competence, writes himself gentleman, hath 
borne parish offices, sings fine old sea songs at three score 
and ten, and has one anecdote, upon which and about 
^40 a year, he seems to have retired in a green old age." 

On the marriage of their adopted daughter to Moxon, 
the publisher, they finally moved to a Mr. Walden's, in 
Edmonton, where, in consequence of a fall during one of 
his walks. Lamb died September 27th, 1834, in his 
sixtieth year. Mary Lamb died May 28th, 1847, and the 
loving brother and sister lie together in the churchyard 
at Edmonton. 



Amongst other known names connected with Enfield, 
may be mentioned those of Sir Ralph Abercromby, who 



224 

was educated at the same school as Isaac Disraeli, by 
Peter Morison ; Mrs. Andre, the mother of the unfortu- 
nate Major Andre, who lived at the bottom of Forty-hill; 
Major Rennell, in Baker-street ; Dr. Birkbeck, at 
Forty-hill ; Keats, the poet, educated at Messrs. May 
and Bluck's school ; Frederick Joyce, the inventor of 
the percussion cap, at the Rev. S. Freeman's ; Baron 
Bramwell, and his brother, F. J. Bramwell, C.E; Sir 
William Grey ; Corbould, the engraver, and his brother, 
the artist; at "the Palace" school under the late 
Dr. May. 



225 
THE RIVER LEE. 



" And the old Lee that brags of Danish blood." 

DRAYTON'S POLYOI.BION. 



The River Lee forms the eastern boundary of the 
parish. " It begynnethe (says Lambarde) near Whit- 
churche, and from thence passinge by Hertforde, Ware, 
and Waltham, openethe into the Thames at Ham, in 
Essex, whence this place is at this day called Lee-mouth. 
It hath of long tyme borne vessels from London twenty 
myles towards the head, for in the tyme of King Alfrede 
the Danes entered Leymouth, whence King Alfrede espied 
that the channell of the ryver might be in such sorte 
weakened that they should want water to returne, he 
caused therefore the water to be abated by two greate 
trenches, and setting the Londonners upon them he 
made their batteil wherein they lost four of their 
capitaines. Not long after they were so pressed that 
they forsoke all and left their shippes as a prey to the 
Londonners ; which breakyne some and burninge other 
conveyed the rest to London." 

In 1571, an Act passed for bringing this river to 
London, to supply the city with water, but this cut was 
never begun, and it was not till 1580 that the stream was 
made navigable as far as Ware, to the great discontent 

p 



226 

of the malsters and farmers of Enfield, who complained 
that malt and grain were thus conveyed cheaper than 
by land. 

The bank in Enfield-marsh, called " the Pimpler," was 
twice cut through in the night, as well as the bank at 
" Lothersey-gate," and at Sewardstone, and Lady Wrothe's 
old lock " though often repaired, was as often cut 
open." 

When Lord Burghley wrote to Sir Thomas Wrothe on 
these outrages, Sir Thomas told the inhabitants of Ware 
that " the Lords of the Council had done them much 
wrong in causing them to make a passage for boats to their 
undoing, and rather than they shall force us to make up 
the breaches we will be hanged at our own gates,"- and 
he gave such encouragement to the offenders that there 
were more breaches cut than before. 

An intelligent farmer, in a letter to the Queen, stated 
the true reason for all this opposition from the Enfield 
men was, that they could not monopolize the corn which 
they had been accustomed to buy up of the farmers, but 
that since the navigation was opened, there was a fair 
open market at Queenhithe. 

In. 1583 the Enfield people again complained of the 
injury they received, and of the many carriers reduced to 
poverty, when they were told, in reply, " that the navi- 
" gation is and ought to be as free as the highway ; that 
" it maintained more able-bodied men to serve the Crown 



227 

" by land and sea than could be found among all the 
"badgers* of Enfield." 

In 1767 application having been made to Parliament, 
upon a survey made by Smeaton, setting forth the im-' 
provements of which this navigation was capable, a sum of 
money was granted for making new cuts between Hertford 
and Bromley-lock, and from Bromley-lock to Limehouse, 
by which seven miles were saved. 

It is curious that modem tactics should have just 
reversed King Alfred's plan of operations for defeating 
invaders. In 1803 John Rennie was employed by 
Government to survey the Lee, and to construct embank- 
ments across the lower part of the valley for the purpose 
of flooding the whole extent with water, in case of an 
invasion, which was then anticipated. 

The old and irregular course of the river is now of 
little use, having been long superseded by the new 
" navigation," which has proved a great benefit to all the 
districts through which it passes. 



* Badger, a licensed huxter in corn and fruit. (Philips. ) 



228 



THE MILL RIVER. 

"Ther was hir whete and eke hir malt yground." 

[Chaucer, The Reevrjs Tale.~\ 



By the survey of 1572, it appears that Queen Elizabeth 
had " a watercourse or stream issuing out of the Lee, 
uppon which was antiently a mill belonging to the manor 
of Enfield ;" this was let to Sir John Wrothe, at a rent of 
6d. per annum, and is called the water mill, to distinguish 
it from the Lock or Oil mill, the latter being the site of 
the Royal Small Arms Factory, the nucleus of which was 
established here in 1804, apparently to utilize a small 
water-wheel and fall belonging to the Crown. 

On the recommendation of a Committee of the House 
of Commons, in 1854, it was decided to organize a manu- 
factory of small arms, to a limited extent, under the 
direction of the Board of Ordnance, and a sum of 
; 1 5 0,000 was voted for the purpose. 

The experiment proved so successful that the buildings 
and machinery were rapidly increased, and the establish- 
ment was placed on its present footing, and continued for 
seventeen years under the superintendence of Colonel 
W. M. Dixon. 

It would be hopeless to attempt, in the compass of 
these pages, any adequate description of the marvellous 
mechanism which has become- celebrated throughout 



229 



Europe. Admission can be obtained by the public on 
Mondays and Thursdays, and an intelligent guide ac- 
companies visitors through the various departments, and 
explains the different operations. 



Among other streams in Enfield, one rises from a 
spring near Potter's-bar, and another about three-quarters 
of a mile south of it, which running west through Old- 
pond,* crosses the bottom of Clay-hill, and passing under 
the New River, at " Bull-Beggar's-hole," and thence by 
Maiden's-bridge, runs by the side of Turkey-street to 
Enfield-wash, and crossing the Highway, turns due east 
into the marshes, and falls ultimately into the Lee. 

Another stream rises near Ganna-corner, and, crossing 
the centre of the Chase, passes under the New River at 
Bush-hill, and runs thence through the parish of Edmonton. 

A third rises near the same place, and, running through 
New-pond * and other sheets of water, quits the Chase at 
Cock-fosters. 



* Both these ponds are now filled up. 



230 



THE NEW RIVER, 

" May thy brimmed waves for this 
' ' Their full tribute never miss, 
" Summer drought or singed air 
" Never scorch thy banks so fair, 
"Nor wet October's torrent flood 
' ' Thy molten crystal fill with mud ; 
" May thy lofty HEAD be crowned 
"With many a tower and terrace round." 

Milton's Coinui. 

A History of Enfield would hardly be complete without 
some account of the New River, which wanders for so 
many miles of its devious course through the parish, and 
forms so important a feature and ornament of the scenery. 
Such, however, are the doubts and inaccuracies which 
pervade almost every account which has been published 
of " this noble aqueduct," (as Sir Christopher Wren calls 
it), and particularly as regards the original cost of the 
undertaking, that the task is one of no small difficulty. 

The chief authorities, which are adopted in the follow- 
ing pages,, are the Patent Roll of 1612, the original 
Charter, June 21, 1619, and Acts of Parliament, the 
Minutes of Evidence taken before the Committee of the 
House of Commons on the Metropolitan Water Supply, 
Stowe's Survey, ancient documentary evidence, and the 
very interesting and elaborate account given by Mr. 
Smiles, in his " Lives of Engineers," from which work 



Q 

DC 

o 
u. 

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UJ 

H 



ca 



U 

oc 
O 

01 

X 



UJ 

z 

UJ 

I 
h 




231 

the following illustrative engravings have been copied by 
permission. 

London was. originally supplied with water from the 
Thames * and from various streams and springs, of 
which Walbrook, which ran through the middle of the 
City, the Fleet, Clerkenwell, Clement' s-well, Holy-well, &c. 
survive in the names of the streets, which have been 
built over them. As London grew in size and population 
these sources became inadequate, and various conduits 
were constructed which conveyed water from James's 
Head, Mewsgate, Tyburn, Highbury, Hampstead, &c. 
There were sixteen of such conduits, the sites of which 
may still be traced by their names. Stowe gives an 
account of one of the annual inspections which were 
made by the authorities. " On the i8th Sept. 1562, the 
Lord Mayor, the Aldermen, and many worshipful persons 
and divers of the Masters and Wardens of the twelve 
Companies rode to the Conduit's head (now Conduit- 
street), for to see them, after the old custom, and afore 
dinner they hunted the hare and killed her, and thence 



* The. Water- works, at London-bridge, were erected by Peter 
Moris, a Dutchman, and conveyed the water from the Thames 
"vp unto the north-west corner of Leadenhall, where the first maine 
pipe "ran this yeare, 1582, on Christmasse even, and divided there 
into severall spouts, and ranne foure waies, plentifullie serving 
to the vse of the inhabitants that will fetch the same into their 
howses. " Hollingshead 's Chronicle. 



282 

to dinner at the head of the conduit. There was a good 
number entertained, with good cheer, by the Chamberlain, 
and after dinner they hunted the fox. There was a great 
cry for a mile, and at length the hounds killed him at the 
end of St. Giles's." 

As the demand for water increased, there were frequent 
contentions at the conduit for the first turn, which some- 
times grew into riots, the water-carriers came prepared 
for a fight, and a proclamation was issued forbidding 
persons from resorting to the conduits "armed with clubs 
and staves." Moreover, the springs from which the 
conduits were supplied, gradually began to fail, whilst 
the growing density of the population added every year 
to the impurity of the river, and the inhabitants of the 
lanes leading to its banks endeavoured to close the 
thoroughfares, and allowed no one to pass without paying 
toll. A large number of persons then obtained their 
livelihood as water-carriers, selling the water by the 



OLD 

WATER 
CARRIER, 




233 

"tankard," of about three gallons, who seem to have 
formed a somewhat unruly portion of the population. 
Some of these water-carriers were women. William 
Lamb, who formed the conduit where Lamb's Conduit- 
street now stands, gave " 120 pails to poor women, such 
as were willing to take paines therewith to carry and 
serve water." 

In the year 1571 the Corporation obtained an Act of 
Parliament " for the bringing of the River Lee to the 
north side of the City of London," (13 Eliz. cap. 18), 
but no steps were taken to carry out the undertaking, as 
though the Corporation were willing to sanction it, yet 
they were not disposed to supply any part of the 
necessary capital. 

Two several Acts were afterwards successively passed 
(3 and 4 James I.) "for the bringing in of a fresh 
streame of runninge water from the springs of Chadwell 
and Amwell, to the north partes of the Citty of London." 
Nothing, however, came of them, the citizens waiting 
for the corporation to move, and the corporation waiting 
for the citizens. 

" The worke (says the patent, 17 James I.) upon view 
was found to be very fezible, and was like to be profitable 
to manie, nevertheless the said mayor, cominaltie, and 
citizens, weighing the great charge and expence the said 
worke would requyre, and doubtinge what damage and 
losse might fall upon the chamber of the said cittie, in 
case the worke should not fall out to be gainfulle, did, 



234 

thereuppon, forbeare as their comon charge to undertake 
that worke, soe as the same lay longe neglected and 
unlike to be by them performed." 

.It was at this juncture that " Hugh Middelton, citizen 
and gouldsmith, well affecting the good of our said cittie 
of London, and being moved with a desire and zeale to 
performe soe publique, necessarie, and worthie a worke, 
was willing to adventure, and upon his own private 
charge to undertake the said worke, and did, out of a 
pyous and commendable purpose, make offer to the 
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Comons, assembled in a 
comon councell, the eight and twentieth day of March, 
in the seaventh yeare of our raigne, to undertake the 
said worke at the proper costs and charges of himself 
and his heires." 

- "After long and deliberate consultacon and advisement 
on this offer, they declared theire verie good likeinge 
thereof, as a thinge of great consequence, and worthie of 
acceptacon for the good of the said cittie." * 



Here we pause in our narrative, to give a short account 
of " one of the most distinguished benefactors London 
has ever known ;" " a man (says Mr. Smiles) full of enter- 
prize and resources, an energetic and untiring worker a 
great conqueror of obstacles and difficulties an honest 

* Patent Roll, 17 James 1 



235 

and truly noble," and in sad sooth must be added 
ill-requited man. 




Hugh Myddelton was descended from an ancient 
family in North Wales, and was born at Henllan, near 
Denbigh, about 1555,* being the sixth of sixteen 
children. He was entered by his father as an apprentice 
to the Goldsmith's Company and embarked in that trade, 
which then included that of banker and money-changer. 

His " shop " was situated in Basinghall-street, and he 
lived in the" overhanging tenement above it, as was the 
custom of city merchants in "good old days." Here, 
according to long tradition, Hugh Myddelton and Sir 
Walter Raleigh might be seen sitting together at the 
door of the goldsmith's booth, smoking the newly-intro- 
duced weed (tobacco), greatly to the amazement of the 
passengers. Pennant states, on the authority of the 



* Will of Sir Hugh Myddelton. It has generally, but erroneously, 
been stated that he was born at Denbigh. The autograph of Sir 
Hugh has been engraved from one in the possession of H. C. B. 
Bowles, Esq., the Treasurer of the Company. 



236 

Sebright MS., that Captain William Myddelton (Hugh's 
brother), with Captain Price, of Plasyollin, and one 
Captain Koet, were the first who smoked, or, as they 
called it, " drank " tobacco publicly in London, and that 
the Londoners flocked from all parts to see them. 

Myddelton was also one of the merchant adventurers 
of England, and was largely concerned in the manufacture 
of woollen cloth, in which he employed several hundred 
families. In 1603 he was elected to represent Denbigh, 
in the first parliament of James, of which his brothers, 
Thomas and Robert were also members. Among the 
first committees of the House on which the brothers 
were appointed, was one to consider of bringing a fresh 
stream of water from the Lee, or from Uxbridge, to the 
City. Thus his attention was early drawn to this subject, 
which his energy of character and public spirit eventually 
carried out with success. 

The Corporation of London were only too glad to 
transfer to Myddelton the labour, anxiety, and expense, 
which they considered so gigantic. " The matter (says 
Stowe) had been well mentioned, though little minded, 
long debated, but never concluded till courage and 
resolution lovingly shook hands together in the soule of 
this no-way-to-be-daunted, well-minded gentleman." 

On the 28th March, 1609, the Corporation formally 
accepted his proposal, and " a wan-ant " was made out 
on the 2ist of April following, constituting him their 
'lawfull deputie and assigne." Of this document, how- 



237 

ever, there is no record, and it was not till two years 
afterwards that " by their indenture under the comon 
scale, bearinge date the eight and twentieth day of March 
(1611), they fully, freely, and absolutely, conveyed, as- 
signed, and confirmed " the undertaking to Myddelton 
and his heirs. 

On the 2ist of April, 1609, Myddelton began the 
work, and turned the first sod at Chadwell. Master 
Hassall, Vicar of Amwell, who, greatly to his honour 
and patriotism, gave his land for the formation of the 
New River, thus describes the spring which " riseth at 
the foot of a hill near Ware ; this spring, Chadwell,* is 
not more commendable in respect to the pureness of the 
water, than admirable both in regard of the strangeness 
of her birth, issuing out of a hole of incredible depth, 
as also in respect of the richness of the current, which 
of itself instantly grows into a river of about twenty feet 
in breadth, afterwards pouring her rich spoils into the 
bosom of her sister Amwell, so hand in hand coming 
along with her to London." * 

The works were no sooner commenced, than a host of 
opponents sprang up. The owners and occupiers of land 
petitioned Parliament, representing that their meadows 
would be turned into " bogs and quagmires," and their 
arable land into " squallid ground;" that their farms 



* St. Chad, to whom this spring was dedicated, was an early 
English Bishop (Lichfield), who died of a pestilence in 673. 



238 

would be " mangled," and their fields " cut up into 
quillets and small peces ;" that "the cut, which was no 
better than a deep ditch," would be dangerous to cattle, 
and " on soden raines " would inundate the adjoining 
lands, to the utter ruin of many poor men ; that " the 
Church would v be wronged in its tithe without remedy," 
and that "the highway between London and Ware would 
be impassable." A Bill was, in consequence, actually 
introduced and committed, for the repeal of the Act, but 
happily Parliament was prorogued, and did not meet 
again for four years, during which time the panic had 
subsided, and the subject is not again mentioned in the 
Journals of the House. 

Worse than all, however, was the popular opposition 
which Myddelton had to encounter. The Rev. Wilhelm 
Bedwell, " pastour of the parish of Tottenham," writing 
in 1631, speaks of the New River as "brought with an 
ill-will from Ware to London ;" and Stowe says bitterly 
" if those enemies of all good endeavours could have 
prevailed, by their accursed and malevolent interposition, 
either before, at the beginning, or in the least stolne 
advantage of the whole prosecution, this worke of so 
great worthe had never been accomplished." " The 
depth of the trench (he adds) in some places descended 
full thirty feet, whereas in other places it required as 
spritefull art to mount it over a valley, in a troughe, 
borne up by woodden arches, rising in height above 23 
feet." 



239 

Myddelton's difficulties, however, did not end here, for 
after having adjusted all his controversies in an amicable 
manner, and brought the water " divers miles towards 
London, yet, finding the charge of the work greater and 
heavier than at first* was expected, the success thereof 
doubtful, and the opposicons very strong," his own funds 

became exhausted, and he was compelled to apply to 



such relations and " other friends as were well affected 
toward the work, and willinge to adventure and joyne in 
contribution towards the charge thereof."* 

Still the capital was insufficient to complete the under- 
taking. Joint-stock companies were not then in exist- 
ence, and shares, loans, and debentures, were all 
unknown. In this dilemma, Myddelton again applied to 
the City for their assistance in this ^reat and useful work, 
but only to meet with a refusal, and as a last resource 
he applied to the King, who had naturally become inter- 
ested in the works from observing their progress through 
the Royal Park at Theobalds. Several interviews took 
place here between them, the result of which was that 
* " Wee, considering out of our royal and gracious 
inclination, and being willinge to give our ayde and 
furtherance to soe good, publique, and commodious a 
worke," did, " with consent of the adventurers, agree 
to beare and pave the one-halfe and moyetie of all the 
charges, disbursed and expended, and to be disbursed 

* Pat. Roll, 17 James I. 



240 

and expended," c., in return for which assistance a 
moiety of the interest and profits of the undertaking 
was made over to the King. 

An amusing account is given in a letter from Mr. 
Joseph Meade, to Sir Martin Stutevifle (9 Jan, 1622), of a 
narrow escape which King James had from being 
drowned in the river which he had helped Myddelton 
to complete. He had gone out one winter's day, after 
dinner, to ride in the park, at Theobald's, accompanied 
by his son, Prince Charles, when about three miles from 
the palace his horse stumbled, and he was thrown into 
the river. It was frozen over at the time, and His 
Majesty's body disappeared, leaving only his boots 
visible above the ice. Sir Richard Young rushed in 
to his rescue and dragged him out, when there "came 
much water out of his mouth and body." " His Majestic," 
continues the writer, "rid back to Theobalds, went 
into a warme bed, and as we heare, is well, which 
God continue. He did not, however, soon forget 
the accident, for when the Lord Mayor, Sir Edward 
Barkham, and the Recorder, Sir Heneage Finch attended 
him, at Greenwich, in June, 1622, to be knighted, James 
took occasion, in rather strong terms, to remind them of 
his recent mischance " in Myddelton's water." 

The work at last went on without further interruption ; 
the water was brought within a mile of London ; the 
voice of derision became silent, and the King, Corpora- 
tion, and Citizens, now vied with each other in doing 



241 

honour to the brave-hearted and patriotic Myddelton. 
On the 29th September, 1613, the water was let into the 
basin called " The New River Head," in the presence of 
his brother, Sir Thomas Myddelton, who was that clay 
elected Lord Mayor, the Aldermen, and Common Coun- 
cil, amid a great concourse of spectators, who assembled 
in large numbers to celebrate the public pageant. 

" A troup of labourers (says Stowe, in his Survey) to 
the number of sixty or more, well apparelled and wearing 
green Monmouth caps, carried spades, shovels, and such- 
like instruments of laborious imployment, marching after 
drummers, twice or thrice about the cisterne." A metrical 
speech, composed by Myddelton, the dramatist, was then 
read, " when the flood-gate flew open, the streame ranne 
gallantly into the cisterne, drummes and trumpets 
sounding in a triumphal] manner, and a brave peale of 
chambers gave full issue to the entertainment." 

A large print, of much artistic merit, and now extremely 
rare, was published in commemoration of the event. It 
is entitled " Sir Hugh Myddelton's Glory," and is dedi- 
cated, by G. Bickham, to the proprietors of the New 
River. The grouping of some of the figures, and their 
light and shade, are particularly fine. 

The site of the New River Head had always been a 
pond, " an open, idell pool (says Hawes) commonly 
called the Ducking-pond, being now, by the master of 
this work, reduced into a comely pleasant shape, and 
many wayes adorned with buildings." The house ad- 



242 

joining was built in 1613, and was altered and new-fronted 
in 1782. The fine room, built for a board-room, still 
remains in its original state, with its walls lined with 
panelled oak, and enriched with carving, by Gibbons, 
and a painted ceiling, having a portrait of William III. 
and the arms of Myddelton and Green. There is a 
very interesting and highly-finished indian-ink drawing 
in the Print-room of the British Museum, taken about 
1730, by Bernard Lens, miniature painter to George II., 
which represents the New River Head, with tJie Windmill, 
and Sadler's-wells adjoining, standing in the open 
country, with a clear view across the fields, of St. Paul's 
and Westminster Abbey, broken only by intervening 
trees. A duplicate of this curious drawing, from ' the 
collection of the late Sir Henry Ellis, is in the possession 
of the writer. 

One of the most difficult and expensive parts of the 
undertaking still remained to be accomplished, the 
distribution of the water over the metropolis. During a 
period of two centuries this was accomplished by means 
of wooden pipes, principally of elm.* The only pumping 



* The rows of lopped elms, so common in the neighbourhood of 
London and the adjoining counties, owe their origin to the great 
demand for long straight trees, which were bored for New River 
pipes. The custom, which is noticed by Gilpin, appears to have 
been restricted to the elm, which was found to be more durable for 
this purpose than any other timber. The last outlay on elm pipes 
was in 1816, previously to which the annual cost had been from 
^5000 to j8ooo. 



243 

establishment was a windmill, with a horse-wheel below, 
so that when there was no wind, a couple of horses were 
put to work. The building is still in existence. The 
extent of these pipes, at the end of the last century, was 
estimated at 400 miles^ of which 20 miles had 'to be 
replaced annually. The expense arising from this, and 
the amount of leakage (calculated at one-fourth) was 
very heavy, and the Company were only able to supply 
water to the height of six feet, every consumer having a 
forcing pump in his own house. 

Between the years 1810 and 1816, when a severe com- 
petition existed among the different water companies, it 
was detemined to substitute iron pipes. Great public 
opposition was however made to this proposal, and among 
other outcries, it was gravely asserted that the consumption 
of the water would produce cancer. 

At this time however there was a great depression in 
the iron trade of the country, which induced Government 
to support the scheme, and on the application of the 
governor (John Walker, Esq.), and the treasurer (Samuel 
Garnault, Esq.), Mr. Vansittart, then Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, gave a letter to the Bank of England, author- 
izing a loan of ; 100,000, on condition that the money 
was expended in iron from the Staffordshire foundries. 

This alteration led incidentally to very beneficial 
results. At the time that the New River Head was 
constructed, the enormous growth of London had not 
been foreseen, indeed it had been restricted by sumptuary 



244 

legislation, and Sir Hugh Myddelton had not secured a 
sufficient extent of ground for the necessary connexions. 

Around that little centre were fifty acres of land, over 
which the company had obtained an easement for laying 
down their pipes, at a fixed rental for each line. These 
pipes had multiplied very rapidly, there were hundreds of 
them, and they covered those fifty acres like the threads 
of a garment.* The annual burden became so heavy 
that the land was ultimately purchased, and on the sub- 
stitution of iron, care Was -taken to carry the mains on 
lines, in which streets could be laid -out, and the whole 
has now been long built over, and forms a large district 
of squares and streets. 

At the time that the change was made, this land was 
let as pasture for ^500, it now produces above ^4000 
a year in ground rents, and it need hardly be said that 
when the leases fall in, the rental of this property will be 
very largely increased. 

In the year 1822 it was determined to rebuild London 
Bridge. The representatives of Peter Moris held a Lease 
from the Corporation, which had yet 260 years to run, 
of four arches of the old bridge, from which their water 
was pumped up by a series of water-wheels, turned by 
the tide, and the City, being anxious to arrange terms 
of compensation with them, came to an agreement, by 
which the New River paid them an annuity of ^3750 

* Mr. Mylne. Minutes of Evidence, July 29, 1851. 



245 

for the goodwill of their works, and agreed to supply 
the inhabitants from their own mains, thus giving 
them high service instead of low, and enabling the 
Corporation to remove the old bridge,* without any 
cost to the city. 

The various statements which have been made as to 
the original cost of this undertaking are strangely con- 
flicting. Pennant and others, misled by analogy with 
"joint-stock companies," suppose the shares to have 
been ^100 each, thus making the whole outlay only 
^7200; whilst Entick more correctly states them to 
have been ^7000 each, making a total of ^504,000. 

" In point of fact, there is no such thing as a share in 
the New River Company," t in the modern sense of the 

* Mr. Mylne. Minutes of Evidence, July 29, 1851. 

t Mr. Talbot (counsel for the New River Company), Minutes 
of Evidence, 1851. This statement however now requires some 
modification. By the Act 29 and 30 Viet. c. 230 (1866), it is enacted, 
that these parts shall be called "original shares" but they still 
remain real property, and the new ,100 shares created by the same 
Act "shall be called the New River Company's New Shares," 
but " all such shares shall be personal estate, and [be transmissible 
as such, and shall not be of the nature of real property. " 

Landed 'property was, till a much later period, the only "invest- 
ment " known. Bishop Warburton tells us that Pope's father, who 
had acquired a competence in trade, of between fifteen and twenty 
thousand 'pounds, retired from business into the country. Being 
however a Roman Catholic, he was unable, under the existing laws 



246 

word, a matter of some importance to state, as it hab 
led to more than one Chancery suit. They were 
properly parts or portions "commonly called shares," 
in the King's or Adventurers' moiety, as the case might 
be, and till lately were so described in legal documents, 
and were always conveyed by lease and release, and by 
fine and recovery, as landed property, which was 
"holden (says the Charter) of us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, as of our manner of East Greenwich, in our 
countie of, Kent, in free and comon socage, by fealtie 
only, and not in cheife, nor by Knight's service." 

Sir Hugh Myddelton originally undertook to advance 
the whole capital, and commenced the work as an 
individual enterprize. Afterwards King James took '.'a 
moiety" of it, and " divers loving subjects well affecting 
the said worke," made, at different times, their several 
agreements with Myddelton to contribute "to the charges 
for such rateable parts and porcons in the said worke as 
was agreed between them;" they, on the other hand, 
receiving in return, " rateable charges and partes out of 
the profitts rateably and respectivelie to the proporeon 



either to purchase land or to place his money out on mortgage ; 
and as he was an adherent of James II., he made it a point of 
conscience not to invest it in Government securities, so he was 
compelled to keep it in a chest, and to live on the principal, and 
when Pope came to the succession, it was nearly all spent. 



247 

of their severall disbursements/' which appear to have 
been originally of various amounts. 

Of these proprietors, called " Adventurers," there were 
twenty- eight, and by the Charter of 1619 they were in- 
corporated as " one body politique, in deed, fact, and 
name, and by the name of the Governor and Company 
of the New River, brought from Chadwell and Amwell 
to London," with power " to purchase and possesse 
manners, lands, tenements, rents, revenues, possessions, 
liberties, priviledges, rights, jurisdiccons, franchises, and 
hereditaments, and to have and enjoy a comon scale,* 
to scale any manner of instruments, deedes or writings," 
and appointing Sir Hugh Myddelton " to be the first and 
present Governor." 

It is the less surprising that there should be some 
difficulty in ascertaining the original outlay, and the 
amount paid by each adventurer, when we find that even 
the number of these proprietors, as well as their names, 
is differently stated by different authorities. Lodge, in 
common with others, says, that there were twenty-seven-, 
and that one of them was "Ralph, son of Hugh 
Myddelton." Mr. Smiles gives the number as twenty- 
nine, and adds that besides " his son Hugh, who held 



* This seal is "The hand of Providence, issuing from clouds, 
and distributing water over London," with the motto 

" ET PLVI SVPER VNAM CIVITATEM." 

(Taken from the 7th verse of the 4th chapter of Amos. ) 



248 

one share, and his brother, Sir Thomas, who held 
another, there were four other shareholders of the name 
of Myddelton, but it does not appear that they were 
relatives of the goldsmith." 

The Charter itself enumerates twenty-eight adventurers, 
amongst whom there is no " Ralph," but there aren't? 
of the name of Middelton, besides Sir Hugh, and his 
brother, and eldest son, and of these five, William appears 
to be his second son, and Richard and Timothie his two 
nephews. There were also Robert Bateman, his brother- 
in-law, and William Bateman, his nephew, making, with 
the " two shares " which Mr. Smiles says were held by 
Sir Hugh nine adventurers in the family.* This may 
perhaps account for the ultimate division of the moiety 
into thirty-six equal parts or shares, of which number the 
Myddelton family would hold just one quarter, and have 
a corresponding representation at the Board ; the 
Charter further providing that if any of the twenty-eight 
persons named should " departe with all or so much of 
the said share or part," which he then held, as that he 
should not " still retayne a full thirtie-sixe part or share 
of the moiety," he should be removed from his seat. 

As the books of the Company were destroyed by fire, 



* It would seem that these nine shares were held in trust, and 
that they constituted the nine shares mentioned in Sir Hugh's will, 
as belonging to himself or to other feoffees for his use, and which 
could not be sold for the payment of his debts. 



249 

which consumed the whole of the premises at Blackfriars, 
December 24, 1769, it is impossible to know what 
amount was paid upon these "partes or porcons," or 
what was the total expenditure upon the work. There is, 
however, every reason to believe that the statement of 
Entick, which was published before the documents of 
the Company were destroyed, is substantially correct. 
A " copy of a very old paper," in the New River Office, 
says : " N.B. By the best accounts that can be gotten 
there appear to be expended on each share about ^7000, 
before any dividend was made, and notwithstanding 
they were made a corporation, in 1619, they were not 
capable of making any dividend till the year 1635, which 
then amounted to no more than ^5 i6s. 8}^d. per 
share; 1640 ^"33 23. 8^d. ; 1650 40 i8s. 8^d." 

From evidence laid before Parliament, the original 
cost of the river alone, exclusive of the reservoirs and 
pipes, appears to have been ^428,420, being at the rate 
of about ;6ooo per share. 

It is certain that Myddelton, who was a very wealthy 
man, was all but ruined by his outlay on this work ; and 
after its completion we find him a petitioner to the 
Corporation for a loan of ^3000, which he obtained at 
six per cent interest (September, 1614). This was not 
repaid during his lifetime ; and in 1634 they remitted to 
Lady Myddelton ,1000 of the principal, in considera- 
tion of the great benefit bestowed on the City, as well as 
for " the present comfort of Lady Myddelton." 



250 

Now, at the time when the Charter was granted (in 
1619), Myddelton was the holder of no more than eight 
shares,* which, at Entick's estimate .of ^7000 each, 
would only amount to ^5 6,000, no very exorbitant 
sum to have exhausted the coffers of one of the merchant 
princes of London. 

Mr. Smiles, in his interesting narrative, to which we 
are so much indebted, considers that the statements 
hitherto printed as to the cost of the New River have 
been greatly exaggerated, and he bases his calculation 
on the payments made from the Treasury, as they appear 
in the accounts of the State Paper Office. The first of 
these payments, however, is for the moiety of disburse- 
ments, from August 24, 1611, to December i, 1612, and 
the last one entered is in April, 1616 ; making the total 
payments out of the Royal purse only ^8609' 145. 6d., 
and the total expenditure only ^17,219 93. od. But 
this is a very defective balance sheet. Mr. Smiles has 
himself previously pointed out that Myddelton had, 
before May, 1610, expended above ^3000, to which must 
be added a further sum of at least ^4000, for the 
following sixteen months (previous to August 1611). 

Moreover, the distribution of the water was, as stated 
by Mr. Mylne, " by far the most expensive part of the 
undertaking." We have no means of estimating the 
outlay on this head, except that it absorbed the whole 

* Mr. Smiles: A ninth share belonged to his eldest son Hugh. 



251 

receipts for a period of twenty years, and the loss of 
interest alone (Myddelton was paying 6 per cent) during 
this time would have more than trebled the original 
cost, independently of any calls that might have been 
made. So heavy was this burden that in November, 
1636, "as the concern seemed to offer no great prospect 
of improvement, and a further call on the proprietors 
was expected," Charles I., who required all his available 
means for other purposes, finally disposed of his moiety 
(now constituting the " King's shares,") to the Company, 
under the great seal, in consideration of a fee-farm rent 
of ^500, which is now paid to the Adair family, and is 
known by the name of the " King's Clogg." 

If the whole real cost of this moiety had been only 
;86oo, Charles I. could hardly have asked or obtained 
such an unreasonable equivalent for his share in a 
concern which for twenty years had not paid a sixpence, 
and on which an additional outlay was expected. 

Lastly, there seems some reason to doubt whether 
Myddelton was ever really repaid the whole amount which 
he was entitled to, under the agreement with the Crown. 
Fuller certainly implies that there was some injustice in 
his treatment in this respect. " But oh what an injury 
was it to him, that a potent person and idle spectator 
should strike in (reader I could heartily wish it were a 
falshood what I report) and by his greatness possess a 
moiety of the profit which the unwearied endeavours of 



252 

the aforesaid Knight had purchased to himself." * This 
language would have been wholly inapplicable if the 
stipulated payment had been fairly made, and Fuller in 
no way censures the " adventurers " who had purchased 
above a third of the undertaking. 

Nor is Fuller the only one who alludes thus obscurely 
to Myddelton having been in some way deprived of his 
just claims and position. The Rev. Wilhelm Bedwell, 
in his " Description of Tottenham High Cross," (London, 
1631), says, "He who first chalked out the way, we 
know was our English Tycho, a man so ingenious, 
industrious, and learned, that I suppose there were few 
things undertaken by him, if fecible, which hee would 
not have effected and done, but it seemeth, that before 
the worke was altogether finished, he was put by it, and 
others imployed to make an end of it." 

Sir Hugh was knighted after the opening of the 
New River, in 1613, and in October, 1622, he was 
created a baronet. "These .empty honours (says 
Lodge) were the only recompense that poor Myddelton 
ever received." He died, beyond all doubt, an impover- 
ished man, on the loth December, 1631, his will being 
dated the 2ist November, and proved the 2ist December 
of that year. Though the later undertakings of his life 
were prosperous, and probably lucrative, yet he seems 
never to have recovered from the losses and embarass- 

* Fuller's Worthies of England, 1662. 



253 

merits of his patriotic enterprize. His loan from the 
City of London was still unpaid after the lapse of seven- 
teen years ; he directs his land and houses to be sold for 
the satisfaction of mortgages upon them, and the whole 
of his pecuniary legacies amounted to only ^"3100, for 
the payment of which, and of his debts, he directs that 
his property in the Mines Royal of Wales, should be 
sold, and also four of his New River shares, if the sum 
realized by the sale of the mines should not be sufficient. 

He leaves his " house at Bush-hill, Edmonton," and 
his shares in the New River (which, however, yielded no 
income) to Lady Myddelton for her life, together with 
the jewels she had been " used to wear at festivals," and 
the great jewel given to him by the Lord Mayor (probably 
his brother) and Aldermen, and also " the deep, silver 
bason, the spout pot, and maudling cup, and small 
bowl, all which had been given to her." 

He states that " thirteen partes or shares " in the New 
River were then belonging to him, or to other feoffees 
for his use, " the profits " of which he gives to his wife 
for her life, but he only devises six of them, and 
appoints no residuary legatee. It would seem probable 
that the four shares which he directs to be sold had been 
purchased by him since the date of the Charter, and 
were at his own disposal ; whilst the remaining nine 
consisted of the share held by his eldest son, Hugh, 
which had reverted to him on his death (and which may 
be the one bequeathed to the Goldsmith's Company), 



254 

and of eight shares held by trustees for his use, with 
more or less power of appointment over the reversion. 
Five of these he leaves to his younger children, William, 
Henry, Simon, Elizabeth, and Aim. To the poor of 
Henllan (his birth-place), of Denbigh, and of Amwell, he 
leaves small legacies, as well as to his clerks and others, 
who had assisted him in his different enterprizes, and he 
leaves ^"5 to each of his men servants, " except the boy 
in the kitchen," who has only forty shillings, and forty 
shillings to his one " maid servant." 
The title is now extinct. 



When compared with the engineering works of the 
present day, the New River may perhaps appear a small 
undertaking, but at the time of its construction, it was, 
beyond all doubt, the greatest enterprize that had been 
attempted in England. Myddelton had no past experi- 
ence for his guide, and with only his practical good sense 
and strong determination to rely upon, he had to en- 
counter, single handed, the sneers of incredulity and the 
harassing opposition of hostile interest. 

The stream was originally forty-eight * miles in length, 

* It is strange that every writer we have seen should have stated 
this length to have been under forty miles. Our authority is that of 
Mr. Mylne (Min. of Evid. 6 May, 1852). "2700 What is the 
measured distance of the New River, as constructed?" " It was 
48 miles when I was appointed, but we have taken off some of the 
contours nearer London, and it is reduced to 38 miles." Since 1852 
the length has been still further diminished, and it is now only about 
28 miles. 



255 

and had a fall of two inches to the mile, with occasional 
weirs across its bed of three or four feet in height. The 
water-course was ten feet wide and four deep, and the 
number of bridges 160. 

The surface waters of the district were carried off, 
sometimes by a culvert under the bed of the river, and 
sometimes by a " flash," which consisted of a wooden 
trough carried over it. One of these flashes was situated 
at Clay-hill, where the name is still retained. 

Amongst the most important constructions was " The 
frame," at Bush-hill, which was a wooden trunk lined 
with lead, 660 feet in length and 5 feet deep. This was 
supported upon eighty brick piers, beneath which was a 
lofty tunnel for the passage of the Salmon-brook, and the 
storm-water from Enfield-chase. 




On the keystone of this arch are the arms of Sir Hugh 
Myddelton, argent, on a pile vert, three wolves' heads, 



256 

erased, of the field. Crest, out of a ducal coronet, or, 
a dexter hand, proper. The inscription round the arch 
records that "this arch was rebuilt in the yeare 1652. 
The Right Hon. Henry Earl of Clarendon, being 
Governor." And on a marble tablet above, " the frame 
and lead was raised one foot higher Ann. Dom. 1725." 
Another strong timber aqueduct, similarly lined, 466 
feet long and 17 feet high, known by the name of 
"Myddelton's boarded river," was situated near Islington. 

The continuous wear of the current for above a century 
and a half had so attenuated the lead of these structures, 
and the consequent leakage had become so great, that it was 
decided by Mr. Mylne to remove them, and to substitute 
clay embankments in their stead. The Bridgewater 
canal had just been completed, and Brindley had ex- 
hibited on the table of a wondering committee of the 
House of Commons his manufacture of "puddle? a 
word only known till then in Johnson's dictionary as 
" a dirty plash." 

In May, 1778, "the Frame," at Bush-hill, was taken 
down, and some idea may be formed of its original cost 
from the fact that the wasted remains of the old lead, 
which even then weighed fifty tons, were sold for about 
^1000.* 

* A professional calculation, based upon the prices of lead, 
materials, and labour, from the Churchwardens' accounts of some 
of the London parishes, and of Battle-abbey, in the seventeenth 
century, and computing the probable original thickness of lead in 
these two structures, estimates their first cost at 4000, being more 
than half of Pennant's supposed expenditure for the whole work. 



257 

The New River Company has, from time to time, 
enlarged its works, * widening the stream to about 
twenty-five feet, and adding to its supplies of water from 
various sources, the principal of which is the River Lee, 
which was resorted to, to compensate for the loss of the 
Amwell spring, which had abandoned its source and 
found its way into the Lee. No opposition was at first 
made to this drain, but as the amount became serious, 
disputes arose with the Lee trustees, and finally a long 
course of protracted litigation was put an end to by an 
Act of Parliament, 18 & 19 Viet. c. 196, which enacted 
that, subject to the payment of a gross sum of forty-two 
thousand pounds, and an annual payment of three 
thousand five hundred pounds, for the restoration of 
the locks, " all the water flowing down the River Lee 
and the navigation thereof, should be transferred to and 
be absolutely vested in the New River and East London 
companies for ever ; reserving to the trustees of the 
River Lee the use of such supply as was required for 
the purposes of the navigation. By the latest returns, 
taken from the " City Press," the daily supply now 
derived from its different resources amounts to twenty- 
five millions of gallons, and its yearly supply to nine 



* The cost of these improvements and extensions varied from 
20,000 to 27,000 a year, and was paid out of the income which 
would otherwise have been divided among the shareholders, between 
the years 1810 and 1850, upwards of 920,000 was thus expended. 



258 

thousand millions, of which three hundred and fifty 
millions are used by manufactories, forty-five millions for 
flushing sewers, fifteen millions for extinguishing fires, 
and ninety millions for watering the streets, 8,500,000,000 
being used for household consumption. 

The district supplied by the New River com- 
prises the whole of central London, between a line 
extending from the Tower to Stamford-hill, and one 
drawn from Charing-cross northwards by Tottenham- 
court-road to Camden-town. 

To meet this demand, the old river channel stores up 
117 million gallons, the Cheshunt reservoirs 75 millions, 
and that at Hornsey 39 millions ; while those at Stoke 
Newington, constructed in 1833, for subsidence, contain 
130 million gallons. Major Bolton's report of March, 
1873, gives the joint area of these reservoirs as above 
100 acres. The total water area amounts to 215 acres, 
and will contain 467,000,000 gallons, being a quantity 
sufficient to meet the whole consumption for eighteen 
days. 

The daily average supply to 120,000 houses, inhabited 
by 800,000 individuals, is 24 million gallons, which, if 
required, could be increased to 35 millions, and the 
resources are practically unlimited. 

The water of Loch Katrine, by which Glasgow is 
supplied, has generally been considered as -the standard 
of purity, but it appears from an article in the Lancet, 
giving the results of an elaborate investigation, -commu- 
nicated by the London Institution, that the Loch Katrine 



259 

water, pure as it undoubtedly is, contains putrescible 
matter corresponding to o - i3 parts of ammonia in a 
million gallons, being one-third more than that in New 
River water, which contains only o'og. The returns for 
the month of March last state that " the water of the 
New River Company was perfectly clear and colourless, 
when examined in bulk through a tube two feet in 
length ;" the analysis gives in a million gallons o'ooi of 
saline ammonia, and 0^004 of organic ammonia, being 
less than half the amount contained in Loch Katrine 
water. . 

For the purpose of ensuring this high quality of purity, 
there are, in addition to the large reservoirs for subsi- 
dence, thirteen filtering-beds, covering altogether a sand 
area of more than n^ acres, which contain upwards of 
twelve million gallons. The steam engines employed for 
raising this immense body of water possess 1780 horse- 
power, besides water-wheels which work fifty-one pumps. 

The length of cast iron mains, some of which are four 
feet in diameter, is no less than 650 'miles, and extends 
over an area of above 1 7 square miles of houses. There 
are also about two miles of tunnelling of immense bore, 
now conveying the water under ground, which, for 250 
years, had flowed in an open stream through Islington. 

The actual cost to the Company, including working 
expenses and interest, is stated in the Report of the 
Committee of the House of Commons* to be 22 8s. 3d. 



* 1 6th July, 1851. 



260 

per million gallons, and the charge to the public 
22 195. 3d., leaving a profit of not more than 2^ 
per cent. 

In small quantities, paid for in the bulk, the price is 
from 6d. to 7^d. per thousand gallons, a price much 
below what it would cost any one to pump it, if he had 
a well at his own door. The Reform Club, in Pall-mall, 
is supplied from a well, the cost of which, and of a four- 
horse engine, was ^1230. The expense of pumping is 
^170 per annum. 

When paid by water-rate, the charge, as authorized by 
Parliament, is 4 per cent on rentals under ^200, and 
3 per cent on those above 200, but the actual charge 
made by the Company is never more than half, and in 
some cases not more than one-tenth of the authorized 
price. 

In point of fact, all the water that is consumed for all 
purposes, throughout the New River Company's district, 
in one week, is supplied at a charge of less than two- 
pence a head, and the whole of the water used for 
drinking alone, costs less than two-pence per head per 
annum, being less than the price of half a pot of beer to 
each individual. 

The average daily supply to each house is two hundred 
gallons, being at the rate of thirty gallons per head of 
population, and more than double the amount laid down 
by the Parliamentary Commission.- No other city ap- 
proaches in its supply to that given to London, to 
which, says Sir William Clay, "water is furnished not 



261 

only in greater profusion than to any other city in the 
world, but in a degree beyond the utmost want of its 
inhabitants." 

It was mentioned above that the early records of the 
Company were destroyed by fire, in the year 1769; but 
" a valuation of the entire works was made in the year 
1765, and an account subsequently rendered to Parlia- 
ment up to 1820." * From that time a continuous 
account of the whole expenditure on the works to the 
year 1852 was received and adopted by Parliament, 
when the capital expended was fixed by statute to have 
been ,1,519,958, or 21, no per original share, in 
addition to which the Company have since been author- 
ized to raise, on bond and debenture, a further amount of 
one million. In 1866 it being deemed expedient to 
authorize a further sum of money to be raised by the 
creation of new shares, power was given by the 29 & 30 
Viet. cap. 230, to allot shares of the nominal value of 
;ioo to the extent of ^5 00,000, thus raising the total 
amount to ;3> OI 9>95 8 - 

It is very seldom that " a share " in this magnificent 
property comes into the market, the last that was sold 
was an "Adventurer's Share," in 1864. 

In 1870, there were sold at the Auction-mart, by 
Messrs. Fox & Bousfield, four-fifths of one King's share, 
and five-twelfths of one Adventurer's share, in lots chiefly 

* Minutes of Select Committee, May 6, 1852. 



202 

of one-twentieth part. These were purchased at the rate 
of about forty-one thousand pounds for an Adventurer's 
share. The King's shares, which do not give a quali- 
fication for a seat at the Board,* and are burdened 
with the payment of " the King's Clogg," sold at the 
rate of rather less than forty thousand pounds. Some 
of the new ^100 shares fully paid up sold at ^195, 
and some on which only 20 had been paid, sold at 
^"50 per share. At this time the dividend per share was 
only ^1578 on the Adventurer's, and ^1516 on the 
King's shares ; since that time it has been steadily 
rising, being now upwards of ^1900,- (of which about 
^"1820 is derived from the water, and ^80 from the 
land, so that the present market value of a share cannot 
be estimated at much less than fifty thousand pounds. )f 

It has been said above, that when the New River was 
first made, all depended upon individual enterprize and 
influence, and that joint stock companies and the various 
resources of modern finance were then not in being. 
J3ut this was only a small part of the difficulty. Skill 

* By the terms of the agreement with the King, the whole 
management of the Company was left in the hands of Sir Hugh 
Myddelton and his fellow Adventurers. The Board consists of 
twenty-nine members who receive a payment of about 4000 a year 
for their services. (Patent Roll, lojas. I A.D. 1612.) 

t Whilst this was in the printer's hands, a quarter share in the 
King's moiety has been sold in four lots of one-sixteenth each (May 
14, 1^73). at the Rate of above 49,000. 



2G3 

and knowledge were wanted as well as money. Engin- 
eering, levelling, surveying, and practical mechanics, were 
alike wholly unknown in this country. When the water- 
works at London-bridge were constructed, a Dutchman, 
Peter Moris, was employed, the great level of the Fens 
was drained by Vermuyden, Canvey Island was embanked 
by Coppenburgh and his company of Dutch workmen. 
A Dutch engineer was engaged to construct the haven at 
Yarmouth, and even when old Westminster-bridge was 
built, we had to send for Labelye, a Swiss engineer. 

Not a single attempt had been made to cut a canal in 
all England, when Myddelton first undertook to construct 
his aqueduct, 

"And roll obedient rivers through the land." 
Notwithstanding all that has been done by modern 
science, with the aid of steam, and of unlimited resources 
of capital, the New River still remains a wonderful 
work, and bold as the assertion may be, it is beyond 
any comparison the greatest and most important that has 
ever been planned and executed by a single man, single- 
handed, single-headed, and single-hearted. 

The monumental pedestal represented in the accom- 
panying engraving, bears the following inscription. 

" Sacred to the memory of 
SIR HUGH MYDDELTON, BARONET, 

whose successful care, 

assisted by the patronage of his King, 

conveyed this stream to London: 

an immortal work, 
since man cannot more nearly 

imitate the Deity 
than in bestowing health.'' 



264 
THE ENVOY. 



There are, as Goldsmith said, a hundred faults in 
this thing, and a hundred things might be said to prove 
them beauties, but it is needless. A book may be 
amusing with numerous errors, or it may be very dull, 
without a single absurdity. 

Should the gentle reader meet, here and there, with 
something to please or inform him, he may be assured 
that it was written expressly for intelligent readers like 
himself; and if he should find more that is tedious or 
common place, he will tolerate it as being intended for 
those of duller intellect or less refined taste. 

If, perchance, there should be some, more critical or 
more learned, whose pleasure may consist in finding 
fault or detecting errors, they will no doubt have abundant 
sources of amusement in these pages, where the writer 
has probably often been misinformed, without erudition 
enough to set him right. 

To conclude, in the words of the old grammarian, 

" Aiunt, 
Quid aiunt, ( 

Aiant, Cat (rtittt 



PART II. 

THE PARISH CHURCH, 
ITS MONUMENTS, &c., 

WITH NOTICES OF THE 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF THE PARISH 

ALSO AN ACCOUNT OF THE 

PAROCHIAL AND OTHER SCHOOLS. 



267 



THE PARISH CHURCH. 

THE church, dedicated to S. Andrew, stands within a 
spacious churchyard on the north side of the Market- 
place, just opposite the tenth mile-stone from London, 
and due north of S. Paul's. We know from Domesday 
Book that a church existed here at the time of the 
Conquest, as it had done in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor, and probably for several centuries previously. 
But of the original structure no vestige remains, nor of 
any building of the Norman period, except possibly in 
the basement of the tower. The most striking features 
of the present building, externally, are an array of 
battlements, and an abundant use of stucco. Internally, 
the church consists of a nave and chancel separated by 
a lofty arch, and of broad aisles, extending, without any 
break, the whole length both of nave and chancel, so 
that the church forms a parallelogram, too feet by 63, 
with a south porch and western tower. The floor of the 
church is now very much below the level of the ground, 
so that you descend several steps on entering. This is 
owing to the gradual accummulation of soil in the course 
of centuries^ as may be clearly seen by comparing the 
level of the churchyard with that of the Bowling-green, 
to the west of It. There are no documents in existence, 
so far as can be discovered, which throw light on the 



268 

architectural history of the church. The Bishop of 
London's registers do not go back beyond the beginning 
of the 1 4th century, and since that time there has been 
no consecration. We are left, therefore, to the evidence 
supplied by the building itself; and successive altera- 
tions and reparations, in. 1771, 1789, 1810, 1824, 1853, 
and 1866, have effaced so many landmarks, that it is very 
difficult to arrive at any- satisfactory conclusions ; but, so 
far as we may conjecture, the history of the structure has 
been somewhat as follows : 

The church was probably rebuilt, on a larger scale, 
in the twelfth century, soon after its connexion with the 
Monastery of Walden began, and to this church the 
present tower belongs. It is built of flint and rubble, 
with stone quoins in three stages, without any buttresses, 
and gradually tapering. The battlements, and the walls 
for a few feet below them, are a more recent addition. 
The original windows remain in the upper stage, but 
those in the middle stage are mostly blocked up, and th 
lower ones have debased tracery and cement hood 
mouldings. Owing to this, and to its being cased in 
cement, the tower has lost much of its ancient appearance. 

To the same period with the tower belongs the 
interior wall, to the south of the altar, pierced by a lancet 
window .of the twelfth century, formerly blocked up, and 
only opened in 1866. This was originally the external 
wall of the chancel, which then had *no aisles, and 
extended further to the west than it now does, as is 



269 

clearly proved by the old sedilia discovered in 1852, of 
which a drawing is here given. This, it will be observed, 
shows the arch of the last seat towards the west, cut 
in two by the present pier. 




Below the lancet window, on the south side, there is a 
recess in the wall, which (as may be seen in the same 
drawing), formerly went through the wall, and is repre- 
sented as blocked up. This was, without doubt, one of 
those openings which have perplexed ecclesiologists, 
and been variously named Squints, Hagioscopes, Lychno- 
scopes, &c., according to the different theories propounded 
to explain their use. Some have supposed that they 
were intended for watching the altar light ; others, that 



270 

they were to allow lepers and others outside the church 
to witness mass and be communicated ; others, that they 
were confessionals. In this one, there is the peculiarity 
that its splay is away from and not towards the altar. 

Some time in the fourteenth century, the whole of the 
church to which this wall belonged, from the present 
altar steps to the tower, must have been pulled down or 
othenvise destroyed, and another built, to which belonged 
the arcade of arches with clustered columns, which extend 
the whole length of the church, five being in the nave 
and two in the chancel, all of the same dimensions, and 
giving the same width to nave and chancel. This church 
had chancel aisles, extending as far east as the present 
altar steps, and the building of them must have- led to 
that curtailment of the sacrarium, which affected the 
sedilia, as we have seen. These aisles were in all pro- 
bability narrower than the present aisles, and had sloping 
roofs. The corbels on which the roof of the old south 
aisle rested may still be observed. Foundations of a 
wall within the present south aisle were discovered in 
1824. Of this church again, externally, nothing remains 
except part of the east wall, and internally, little more 
than the columns and arches ; for towards the end of the 
fifteenth century the walls of the nave were carried up to 
form the clerestory, thereby enclosing within the church 
one of the windows of the tower, now blocked up behind 
the organ, which formerly opened above the roof. We 
are enabled to approximate to the date of this clerestory 



271 

from the ornaments, which may be observed carved on 
square stones between the windows, a rose or rather 
quatrefoil, and a wing, alternately. (Two on the south 
side are gone). The same emblems occur on the tower 
of Hadley Church, with the date 1494. Of these, more 
will be said presently. 

Probably at the same time the present north aisle was 
built with the external turret staircase which then com- 
municated with the rood loft by a raised passage or 
gallery across the aisle. At the east end of this aisle 
there seems to have been then a chantry chapel, that 
founded by Baldwin de Radyugton in the year 1398. 
It About 1471 another chantry priest was endowed with 
YuA^ l P er <i.nnum, charged on the estate of Poynetts, in 
Essex, to say masses for the souls of Robert Blossom and 
his wife at the altar of S. Mary, which may have stood in 
this chapel, or in a corresponding chapel at the east end 
of the south aisle. There are now no traces of an altar 
in either. 

Some years, probably, after the building of the north 
aisle it was extended eastward so as to include the 
chantry chapel, and this part was made to correspond 
with the rest. The east window of the aisle seems of a 
somewhat different character from those on the north, 
and a stone* which was found under the plaister of the 

* This stone is now let into the west wall of the church, by the 
south gallery staircase. 



272 

wall externally above this window, with the inscription, 
ANNO DOMINI 1531, serves to fix the date of the com- 
pletion of the work. The coat of arms in the window 
itself, with the date 1530, points to the same conclusion, 
and leads us to suppose that the alteration was connected 
with the building of the arch over Lady Tiptoft's tomb, 
as a monument to her grandson Edmund Lord Roos, 
who died in 1508. The arms are those of Thomas Lord 
Roos, created first Earl of Rutland (great nephew of 
Edmund), by whom, probably, the arch was erected. 
The initials, T. R., are on the glass. This portion of the 
chancel aisle was enclosed and used as a vestry till 1867, 
when the present vestry was built. 

The south aisle did not assume its present character 
till 1824, when it was in great measure rebuilt, in order 
to correspond to the north aisle, and to be able to receive 
a gallery similar to one which had been built over the 
north aisle in 1819. At the same time the muniment 
room above the south porch, and the turret staircase 
which led to it, were pulled down, and many of the con- 
tents, unfortunately, dispersed and lost. This room above 
the porch may be seen in the view given of the church as 
it existed in 1817. 

The east window of the chancel was formerly blocked 
up to within three feet of the top of the arch by an oak 
altar-piece, and the lower portion of the window was 
bricked or plaistered up externally, so that in an engraving 
of the church in 1770 no mullions are to be seen. 



273 

Large sums were expended in repairs and restorations (?) 
in 1771 and 1789, and it is on record that from May, 
1789, to May, 1790, no Divine service was performed in 
the parish ! It appears from a stone tablet in the west 
wall that the church was again repaired and beautified in 
1810. In 1853 the high square pews, which encumbered 
not only the nave but the chancel, were cleared away, 
and the nave and aisles repewed, leaving only one square 
pew, for which a faculty was claimed. At the same time 
the chancel, with the consent of the rectors, was appro- 
priated to the choir, and the organ gallery thrown back 
one bay further west. But the most extensive restora- 
tions were carried out in 1866-7, at a cost of more than 
^"4000, raised by voluntary contributions, mainly owing 
to the exertions of Rev. W. D. Maclagan, then curate-in- 
charge of the parish. It was found necessary to put 
entirely new roofs to nave, chancel, and aisles, and to 
lay down a new floor throughout the church, which, 
unhappily, is already (in 1873), almost destroyed by dry 
rot. The galleries were rebuilt, and very much was done 
in every way to improve the appearance and comfort of 
the church. The stone pulpit and brass eagle desk were 
presented by Colonel Somerset, of Enfield Court. The 
font had been given previously in 1850 by Mrs. Everett, 
of Chase-side House. The east window will shortly be 
refilled with stained glass as a memorial to the late J. J. 
Austin, Esq., of Jugla^als Lodge (who died in 1872, at 
the age of 92), at the expense of his family. 



Allusion has been already made to the Rose and Wing 
which are found in the clerestory, and also on the tower 
of Hadley Church. They were supposed at one time 
(Lysons) to have formed a rebus on the name of Rose- 
wing, an Abbot of Walden invented for the occasion, as 
he had no real existence, the abbot in 1494 being 
Sarysfort. 

There can be no doubt but that a rose and wing we' re- 
borne as badges by Sir Thomas Lovell, K.G., who, on 
the death of Lord Roos in 1508 without issue, succeeded 
to the Manor of Worcester's in right of his wife Isabella, 
sister to Lord Roos. 

In the vaulting of the choir of St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, above the stall formerly assigned to Sir T. 
Lovell, as Knight of the Garter, there appears "a quatre- 
foil, gules, tied by a cord, or, to a bird's wing erased, 
sable." Willement, in his account of the S. George's 
Chapel, says, in a note, "A wing sable, the bone embrued, 
is given as the badge of Lovell in the Harleian MS. 4632." 

Pennant mentions in his Itinerary that in his time the 
same emblems, a rose and a wing, were to be seen on a 
wall which formerly belonged to Holiwell Nunnery in 
Shoreditch, to which Sir Thomas Lovell was a great 
benefactor, and where he was buried in 1524, after his 
body had been laid in state in Enfield Church, on the 
way from Elsynge Hall to London. 

A full account of the ceremonies observed on this, 
occasion is preserved in the Herald's College. 



275 

Though Sir Thomas Lovell did not come into posses- 
sion of the Manor of Worcesters till the death of Edmund 
Lord Roos in 1508, yet previously, by an Act of Parlia- 
ment passed in 1492, " the guidance and governance of 
Edmund Lord Roos and his estates" had been vested in 
him, " the said Edmund not being of sufficient discretion 
to guide himself and his livelihood." So that he had a 
connexion with the neighbourhood before the year 1494, 
the date found at Hadley. 

It is possible, however, that Sir Thomas may have 
adopted a device or badge belonging to his wife's family, 
the Rooses or Tiptofts,* as we know that the de 
Bohun badge, the swan, was adopted by Thomas of Wood- 
stock and Henry Bolingbroke, who married the heiresses of 
that family. 

In one of the gallery windows of the north aisle 
there are some remains of stained glass, in which may 
be traced two groups, of four women each, on each side of 
an arch, over which is a wing. The women are in a 
praying posture, and apparently in a religious dress. 
There are also a few letters of an inscription, and some 
flowers resembling wild hyacinths, but the whole is in a 
fragmentary and confused state, and nearly effaced. 



* Fuller mentions that on the mantel-piece of the Old House 
at Durants was a bat's wing. It may be merely a coincidence 
that Roos of Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire, has for crest a rose gules, 
between two wings expanded. 



276 

This was, probably, a memorial of Sir Thomas Lovell. 
We are told that on several of the windows of Holywell 
Chapel was the inscription : 

" All ye nunnes. of Holywell, 

Pray ye both day and night 
For the soule of Sir Thomas Lovell, 
Whom Henry the 7th made knight." 

THE BELLS. 

The upper stage of the tower is the bell chamber. In 
this are hung nine bells. Their present framework was 
put up in A.D. 1809, and can all be taken apart. The 
eight bells constituting the peal are hung on the same 
level. The remaining bell, known by the name of Ting 
Tang, and employed as a five minutes' bell before the 
services, is elevated above the rest, and is of an earlier 
date ; it bears this inscription on its collar, in two circles 
and in raised capitals. 

RICHARD IOSEPH WILLIAM HVNSDVN HENRY HODGE 

RICHARD WRIGHT, CHVRCHWARDENS W W J68o 

No i, or the treble bell of the peal, has this inscription 
in three circles round the collar, in large and small 
capitals, the colons indicating the completion of a circle, 
and the latter part of the last line forming the third 
circle, with the name of the founder : 
DOES BATTLE RAGE DO SANGUINE FOES CONTEND 
WE HAIL THE VICTOR IF HIS : BRITAINS FRIEND 
MAY GEORGE LONG REIGN WHO NOW THE SCEPTRE* SWAYS 
AND : BRITISH VALOUR EVER RULE THE SEAS : 

T. MEARS SON OF LONDON, FECIT 1808 : 



277 

No. 2 has the following inscription on the collar, in 
cut letters : 

RT. I>EWS, ESQR. RD. LANGFORD, ESQR- JOSEPH BELL, ESQ R - 
CH. WARDENS, 1808. 

and in raised letters below it : 

THOMAS MEARS OF LONDON, FECIT. 
Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 have all of them this inscription 
on their collars in raised letters, with small fleurs-de-lys 
between the words : 

R. PHELPS, FECIT 1724, 

Of these, No. 4 is cracked about 10 inches from the 
top down the cannon, and requires re-casting ; No. 7 is 
said to contain some silver, which idea, no doubt, arises 
from its being the clearest-toned bell in the belfry. 

No, 8, or the tenor bell, weighs about a ton ; its note 
is E ; round its collar is this inscription, in large and 
small capitals : 

RICHARD PHELPS MADE ME, 1724 * MR- ROB : UDALL, D : D : 

vie : IN BRIDGES MATW. ATWOOD W M - KIRBY, CH : WARDENS. 

In the chamber below is the clock which strikes the 

hours on the tenor bell. On the correcting dial is the 

name of the maker, sic, Will" 1 - Rout, Enfield, 1764. 

Below this again is the chamber where the ringing now 
takes place. The floor was erected in A.D. 1870, on four 
strong oak posts, for the convenience of the ringers, who 
formerly stood on the ground floor, which is now only 
used as a lumber-room, but which, it is hoped, may before 
long be put into a better state. 



278 

THE ORGAN. 

The organ stands in the west gallery. An inscription, 
in gilt letters, on its front, sets forth that it " was the 
sole gift of Mrs. Mary Nickells, late of this parish, and 
was erected by her executors in the year of our Lord 
1752." She left by will May 2, 1751, ^900, of which 
,500 was laid out in the purchase of an organ, and the 
remainder invested to provide for the organist's salary. 
Gibbs was the builder, and it was re-built and enlarged 
by Gray and Davidson in 1867. On the great organ 
are 7 stops, on the choir 5, on the swell 8, and on the 
pedals i stop, and there are also 5 couplers. 

MONUMENTS. 

The oldest and by far the most interesting monument 
in the church is that of Lady Tiptoft, who died 1446. 
An altar tomb occupies the eastermost arch on the north 
side of the chancel, over which is a stone canopy of a 
later date. The original tomb has four panels on each 
side, each containing a shield, and is covered by a slab 
of grey Purbeck marble, inlaid with a very fine brass in 
good preservation. Under a triple canopy richly adorned 
with finials and crockets, is a full-length figure of a lady, 
with the hands raised in prayer. On three circles 

NOTE. The illustrations of Lady Tiptoft's brass are taken from a 
paper in the Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeo- 
logical Society, by Rev. C. Boutell, kindly placed at my disposal, 
and I have largely availed myself of the paper itself. ED. 




BRASS TO LADY TIPTOFT IN ENFIELD CHURCH, A.D. 1446. 



279 



within the spandrils of the canopy are respectively 
the words f^e^cy, hu, Ignosce, From the pillars which 
support the canopy hang six shields. Round the edge 
of the slab on a brass fillet, at the corners of which were 
the four evangelistic symbols, (though only one, that of 




EMBLEM OF S. MATTHEW. 



S. Matthew, now remains), is the following inscription in 
old English letters, with birds, beasts, leaves, and various 
other devices between each word. 



locosa quondam filia et una heijed' 

ac etiam filia et una he^ed* $onot|abili$sime 
^at[chie, et uxoq famosissirao militi ; [Johanni 
t, que oblit xx]ii 4ie ^epte'bn*, ^B'ni mccccxlvi 
cujus anime, et omntu' fideliu* defunetot]', X'h's^ 
pijo $ua sactjatissima pas$ione 



280 

The portions within brackets are concealed by the arch 
above. 

Translation : (Here lies) the Lady Jocosa, formerly 
daughter and co-heiress of Charlton Lord Powes, and also 
daughter and co-heiress of the most honourable Lady 
March, and wife to the most famous soldier, John 
Tiptoft. She died on the 22nd day of September, 
A.D. 1446, on whose soul, and that of all the faithful 
departed, may Jesus, for his most holy passion's sake, 
have mercy k 

The costume of the effigy consists of a long and 
flowing robe, deeply bordered with ermine ; over this 




HEAD OF EFFIGY. 



281 

appears a sleeveless jacket, also enriched with ermine ; 
and, above all, an heraldic mantle secured by a tasselled 
cordon, richly jewelled. The coiffure is an elaborate com- 
position of the horned form, bordered with jewels, sur- 
mounted by a coronet, and with a cover-chef completely 
conceals the ham A rich necklace supports a pendant 
jewel. There are narrow bracelets about the wrists, and 
on the third finger of the right hand is a large ring. 

The uppermost shield, on the right-hand side, bears the 
arms of her father Powys, Or, a lion rampant, gules. 
The lowest, the arms of Tiptoft. Argent, a saltire 
engrailed, gules. That in the centre, Tiptoft impaling 
Powys, which is itself impaled by the arms of Holland. 
Gules, three lions of England, withiri a bordure argent. 
On the left side of the canopy, the uppermost shield bears 
Tiploft impaling Powys ; that in the centre, Powys and 
Holland, quarterly ; and the lowest, Powys. 

On the mantle may be seen the lions of Powys and 
Holland. 

This Jocosa, or Joyce, was the daughter of Edward, 
fourth Baron Charlton de Powys, who died in 142 2, leaving 
two daughters, between whom his barony fell into abeyance. 
He married Alianore, widow of the celebrated Roger Mor- 
timer, fourth Earl of March, and daughter of Thomas Hol- 
land, Earl of Kent, whose grandmother, Joan Plantagenet, 
was sister and sole heir of John, son of Edmund of 
Woodstock, younger son of Edward I., created by him in 
1321 Earl of Kent. She married John de Tiptoft or 

u 



282 

Tibetort, who was summoned to Parliament as Baron 
Tiptoft in 1426, and filled many high offices of State 
during the reigns of Henry IV., Henry V., and Henry VI., 
till his decease in 1443. His father, Sir Pain de Tiptoft, 
married Agnes, sister to Sir John Wroth, who had married 
Maud, daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Durant, of 
Durants, and in this way -the Tiptofts became connected 
with Enfield. 

Jocosa, Lady Tiptoft, left at her death one son and 
four daughters. The son was created Earl of Worcester 
in 1449. He was one of the most accomplished scholars 
and travellers of the day, and was made by Edward IV. 
Chancellor of Ireland and Constable of England. But 
his adhesion to the House of York proved fatal to him. 
During the few months of Henry VI. 's restoration in 1470 
he was beheaded on Tower-hill, and his honours were 
forfeited. His son was restored by Edward IV., but died 
unmarried in 1485, when the earldom of Worcester 
became extinct, and the barony of Tiptoft fell into 
abeyance. 

The estates passed to Thomas, ten'th Baron de Ros or 
Roos of Hamlake, who had married Philippa, the eldest 
daughter of Lady Tiptoft, and who died under attainder 
in 1461. His son Edmund obtained the reversal of his 
father's attainder in 1485, but was of weak intellect, and 
died unmarried in 1508, and was succeeded by his sister 
Isabel, wife of Sir Thomas Lovell, K.G., under whose 
guardianship he had been placed by Act of Parliament in 



283 

I49 2 - She also died without issue, and the barony 
which had been in abeyance, devolved on George, son of 
her sister Eleanor, who had married Sir Thomas Manners. 

This George, Lord Roos, died in 1513, and was 
succeeded by his son Thomas, who in 1525 was created by 
Henry VIII. Earl of Rutland and K.G., and died in 1543. 
His arms appear, as has been already mentioned, in the 
east window of the north chancel aisle, with the initials, 
T. R., and the date 1530, enclosed in a garter. On 
another shield in the same window are his arms impaling 
those of Paston, his second wife. 

It was very possibly by this Earl of Rutland that the 
arch or canopy above Lady Tiptoft's tomb was erected in 
memory of Edmund Lord Roos, or, more probably, as 
we may infer from the armorial bearings, as a memorial 
at the same time of his sister Isabel, Lady Lovel. 

A depressed four-centred arch, with a horizontal 
cornice, surmounted by a crest of Tudor flower, is built 
up so as to fill the opening of the pier arch. The 
masonry stands on the east and west extremities of the 
tomb, so as to cover portions of the inscription on the 
brass fillet. Over the point of the arch, on each face of 
the tomb, under a helmet, on which is a wreath sur- 
mounted by a crest, a peacock in his pride, hangs in a 
sloping position, a shield, quarterly, i and 4, gules, three 
water bougets argent, for Roos, 2 and 3, Argent, a fess 
between two bars gemelles, gules, for Badlesmere. (Both 
Rooses and Tiptofts were descended from heiresses of the 



284 

Badlesmere family.) In each spandrel is a shield. .That 
on the dexter side bears the arms of Roos, Holland, 
Tiptoft, and Badlesmere, quarterly; that on the sinister 
bears Lovell and Muswell, quarterly, impaling Roos, 
Holland, Tiptoft, and Badlesmere. The arms of Lovell 
are Or, a chevron azure between three squirrels sejant, 
gules. Those of Muswells Vert, two chevrons argent, 
each charged with 3 cinquefoils, gules. 

This monument has lately been restored at the expense 
of the Duke of Rutland, who is the representative of the 
Roos family. 

From the other daughters of Lady Tiptoft, Joan and 
Joyce, are descended many noble families in the peerage. 
Margaret died a nun. 

In the north chancel aisle, near the vestry door, is a 
large and richly-decorated marble monument to Sir 
Nicholas Raynton, of Forty-hall, who died in 1646, at the 
age of 78, and of his wife Rebecca, who died six years 
previously. He is represented in armour, reclining under 
a canopy supported by two columns of black marble, in 
his robes as Lord Mayor, with collar and badge, his head 
resting on his right hand, and in his left hand a sword, of 
which the blade is gone. Below him is the figure of 
his wife in a similar posture, holding a book in her left 
hand. Below this again are the figures of his son and 
his son's wife, also Nicholas and Rebecca kneeling 
at a desk, with books open before them ; behind 
the man two sons, and behind the woman three 




MONUMENT OF SIR NICHOLAS RAYNTON, 



286 

daughters, all kneeling. A son, Thomas, who had died 
before his parents, is represented as an infant lying at the 
foot of the desk. In shields at the top of the monument, 
are the arms of Raynton impaling Moulton, and of 
Raynton and Moulton separately. On the wall above 
is a shield, with those of Wolstenholme. 

In the same aisle are brass plates on the east wall, com- 
memorating Robert Rampston, A.D. 1585, and Jasper 
Nicholls, A.D. 1614, both of whom left money for the 
poor of the parish. 

In the south chancel aisle is a very fine bust, under the 
drapery of a tent, all in Italian marble, of -Thomas 
Stringer, son of Sir Thomas Stringer, of Durants, who 
served with great distinction under William III, and died 
at Bruges in 1706. He was buried in the Durants vault. 
Against the south wall of the same aisle is another 
monument of coloured marble, in memory of Dorothie, 

wife of Robert Middlesmere, of Enfield, who died in 1610, 

leaving a son and daughter, who are represented as 

kneeling below at a desk. 

Above it, on the same wall, is another larger monument 

with the figure of a man praying at a desk. It is that of 

Francis Evington, who died A.D. 1614,. 

On the floor are brasses of William Smith and Jane, 

his wife, "who served King Henry VIII., Edward VI.,. 

Queen Marie, and now Queen Elizabeth." He died in 

1592, leaving 4 out of his land "to be given to the 

godlie poore of Enfield." 



286 

Against the north chancel pier, by the altar steps, is a 
brass plate with an epitaph on Dr. Joseph Gascoigne, 
who died in 1721, aged 80, having been for 40 years 
vicar of the parish, composed by his friend, Dr. R. 
Uvedale, Master of the Grammar School. Above this is 
an oval monument of white marble, supported by female 
figures 

"Sacred to the revivinge memory of Mrs. Martha Palmere," who 
departed this life to her owne gaine and the world's losse in the year 
1617. 

" Whose vertew did all ill so over swaye, 
That her whole life was a communion day." 

Against the north wall of the north aisle, partly con- 
cealed by the gallery, there is the figure of a man, kneeling 
at a desk, under an arch, in memory of Robert Deicrowe, 
citizen of London and grocer, who died in 1586, leaving 
money for bread to be distributed to the poor. Other 
monuments of interest are those of Henry Dixon, 1696, 
founder of Dixon's charity ; Sir Charles Rich, Baronet, 
1677; Stephen Riou, 1740; Elizabeth Green, grand- 
daughter of SirHugh Myddleton ; Rev. Thomas Brattell, 
1 703, to whom Enfield Court belonged. John Abernethy, 
the celebrated surgeon, 1831 ; James Meyer, Esq., 182$; 
Rev. H. Porter, 1823. 

Previous to the last restoration there was a brass plate on 
the chancel floor with the arms of Gery, and this inscription : 
" Here lies enterr'd 

One that scarce err'd ; 
A virgin modest, free from folly, 
A virgin knowing, patient, holy, 



287 

A virgin blest with beauty here, 
A virgin crown'd with glorie there. 
Holy virgins, read, and say 
We shall hither all one day. 
Live well, yee must 
Be turn'd to dust. 
To the precious memorie of Anne 
Gery, daughter of Richard Gery, of 
Bushmead in ye coun. of Bedford, Esquire, 
Who dyed the 3 1st of August. A. Dm. 1624," 
but it has now disappeared. 

THE CHURCHYARD 

was enlarged in 1778 by the addition of part of a field, 
purchased of Mr. Clayton, which was consecrated by 
Bishop Lowth, on August i3th. In 1822 the present 
fence on the side of the Market-place was erected at a 
cost of ^90. In 1846 an additional piece of ground 
towards the north was purchased and enclosed. In 1858 
the old portion of the churchyard was closed by the 
Secretary of State for all burials except in vaults and 
brick graves belonging to the family. Notwithstanding 
these additions it was found necessary in 1871 to take 
measures for providing still further ground. Accordingly, 
a Burial Board was elected in October, and- nine acres of 
land belonging to the parish (part of the 100 acres), were 
set apart for a cemetery, a portion of which was conse- 
crated in July, 1872, by Dr. Jackson, Bishop of London. 
Amongst the tombs worthy of notice are those of Lord 
and Lady Napier, of Murchiston, and Rev. Dr. Cress- 
well, vicar, both hear the door leading to the Vicarage. 



288 

THE RECTORY. 

If the materials for the architectural history of the 
church are scanty, those for the early ecclesiastical 
history of the parish are more than usually abundant, 
from its connexion with two monastic foundations 
Hurley and Walden. 

The monks, as is well known, were excellent chronic- 
lers, and many of their chronicles have been preserved 
to us. Amongst others, there is in the British Museum a 
Register or Cartulary of Walden Abbey, written by order 
of Abbot Pentelowe, A.D. 1387 a magnificent folio of 
270 pages on vellum. This contains a complete collec- 
tion of charters, bequests, leases, and other documents 
relating to the affairs of the abbey from its foundation, 
with notices of its founders and benefactors. We have 
already seen that, at the time when Domesday Book 
was compiled, Goisfrid or Godfrey de Mandeville was 
in possession of the Manor of Enfield. This, with 
many others, had been granted to him by the Conqueror, 
as the reward of his prowess in the war against Harold. 
With the manor he received the advowson or patronage 
of the church. 

It may be as well here to say a few words in explana- 
tion. The old rule of law* was that if any lord of a 



* Si quis cum assensu Diocesani ecclesiam construxerit, ex eo jus 
advocationis acquirit. 



289 

manor built or endowed a church for the benefit of his 
demesne, he acquired the " jus advocationis," or advow- 
son i.e., the right of presenting to the Bishop of the 
Diocese a fit clerk for institution to the benefice. This 
right was appendant to the manor, and passed with it. 

Lords of Manors, also, at that period claimed and were 
allowed great latitude in the disposal of the tithes of their 
demesnes, so as to appropriate them to whatever religious 
purpose they chose, and there was a growing disposition 
to transfer the endowments of parochial churches to 
monastic institutions. So it was with Godfrey de Mande- 
ville. He founded a religious house at Hurley, in Berk- 
shire, well known to many as lying on the Thames 
between Henley and Great Marlow. To this, at the time 
of its consecration by the famous Osmund Bishop of 
Sarum, he made by charter large grants of tithes from all 
the manors of which he was lord, and amongst others that 
of Enfield, assigning to the Church of S. Mary of Hurley 
one-third of the tithe of corn, two-thirds of the tithe of 
cattle, and the whole tithe of all other things, including 
vineyards, which could rightly and properly be tithed. 
Further, he granted them a rustic, or serf, with eight acres 
of land, in each one of his manors, and in his park (at 
Enfield), a swineherd with a swineherd's land. 

The following is the original charter: 

Sciant universi quod ego Goisfredus de magna villa dedi predicte 
ecclesie ea die qua feci earn consecrari Osmundo Episcopo Sarisburg : 
pontifical! auctoritate presente, in omnibus maneriis que in dominio 



290 

meo eo tempore erant tertiam partem decime totius pecunie omnium 
maneriorum meorum in vivo et mortuo et totam decimam pannagiorum 
meorum in parcis et denariis sine parte, et totam decimam caseorum, 
lini et lane, pullorum, equorum, vitulorum, pomorum, vinearum, et 
totam decimam aliarum rerum mearum de quibuscunque juste et 
recte debet deo decima reddi. Insuper dedi predicte ecclesie in 
unoquoque manerio totius dominii mei unum rusticum qui octo acras 
terre habeat et in parco meo unum porcarium cum terra porcarii. 

The monks of Hurley, also, had from him the right of 
pannage in the park and woods at Enfield i.e., of turning 
in their swine to feed on the acorns, beech masts, &c. 
This, in those days, was a very important right. In the 
Domesday Book there is said to be pannage in Enfield 
for 2,000 swine. For several generations, the church 
continued to own a swineherd in the park.* In a subse- 
quent charter we find that their swineherd at that 
period was called Serbo. 

The grandson of the founder of Hurley, another 
Godfrey Earl of Essex, by a charter in the reign of 
Stephen, gave to the monks of Hurley a rent of too 
shillings (' solidatae'), charged on his own estates in several 
places in Berkshire, in exchange for all the tithes which 
they held by their Founder's Charter in Edmonton and 
Enfield, with the exception of the tithe of pannage, and 
the right of pannage for the monks' swine in his park. 

These tithes he restored to the Churches of Edmonton 
and Enfield " that each church might have its own rights 

* The reader may be reminded of Gurth, in Sir W. Scott's Ivanhof. 



291 

for the support of the priests who there perform God's 
service," and also in part as a provision for the Hermitage 
at Hadley.* 

This, however, seems to have been done with an 
eye to the interests of the monastery which he was 
founding at Walden, in Essex, for when this was dedi- 
cated, A.D. 1136, he assigned to it 14 churches, and 
amongst others those of Enfield, Edmonton, and South 
Mymms, with all their tithes and other revenues, all their 
rights and privileges, and transferred to the Prior and 
monks his own advowson or right of patronage. 

The original, from the MS. (Harleian, 3697) in the British 
Museum, is as follows : 

Carta domini Gaufridi de Mandevilla, Comitis Essexise. 
Monasterii fundatoris. 

Ad unjversitatis vestre notitiam volo pervenire me fundasse 
quoddam monasterium in usum monachorum apud Waldenam in 
honorem Dei et S. Marie et beati Jacobi Apostoli, quibus devote 
contuli et hac present! carta confirmavi, omnes ccclesias inferius 
annotatas tam de dominio meo quam de emptis et purchasiis meis 
scilicet ecclesiam de Waledena . ecclesiam de Enfelda ecclesiam 
de Edelmeton ecclesiam de Mymmes ecclesiam de Northala (and 10 
others}. Has autem ecclesias concede et confinno monasterio S. 
Jacobi de Waldena et monachis ibidem in servitio Dei constitutis in 
liberam puram et perpetuam eleemosinam cum omnibus ad easdem 
ecclesias pertinentibus in decimis et obventionibus, in terris et 
redditibus, in hominibus, et eorum servitiis, in pratis et pascuis in 

* de reliquo fratribus de Hadlega ibi canonice viventibus 

victum et vestitum. 



292 

bosco et piano in aquis et stagnis, in vivariis et piscariis, in viis et 
semitis, in omnibus libcrtatibus et liberis consuetudinibus. 

Et ne aliquis heredum aut successorum meorum aliquam donationem 
vel presentationem in prescriptis ecclesiis ulterius se habere estimet 
concedo et confirmo predicto monasterio et predictis monachis omne 
jus et omne dominium quod egomet vel aliquis antecessorum meorum 
melius et liberius in prefatis ecclesiis habuimus vel habere debuimus. 
Quare volo et firmiter precipio quod prelatus predict! monasterii et 
monachi habeant et teneant in perpetuum ecclesias jam supradictas 
cum omnibus earum pertinentiis et libertatibus, ita quidem ut, si quis 
aliquam illarum ecclesiarum aliquando tenuerit, de prelato et 
conventu teneat. Duo autem molendina, unum scilient apud Wale- 
denam et alterum apnd Enefeldam, cum omnibus pertinentiis et 
libertatibus suis in aquis et stagnis et piscariis, et cum multura* 
ambarum villarum sc. de Waledena et Enefelda." Another MS. 
(Vesp. E. vi. ), adds " Cum dimidia virgata terre arabilis." 

The monks of Hurley, however, retained their right of 
pannage in Enfield, including, as we have seen, a swine- 
herd and his piece of land, and to this William de Mande- 
ville, the next earl, A.D. 1181, added the whole tithe of 
nuts in his park at Enfield. A charter of William de S. 
Maria Bishop of London, A.D. 1219, confirms to them, 
" totam decimationem pannagii in parco de Enefeld et 
decimationem nucum ejusdem parci." 

But in the year 1258, with the laudable object of 
avoiding any ground of discord or litigation unbefitting 
the servants of God, which might arise from joint owner- 



" Multura" the exclusive right of grinding corn. 



293 

ship, the prior and monks of Hurley gave up to the 
abbot and monks of Walden all their tithes, &c., in the 
parishes belonging to the latter, and received in exchange 
the church of Strattley or Stretley, in Berkshire. Thus 
ended all connexion between Enfield and Hurley, after 
lasting nearly two centuries. 

The mill assigned by Godfrey to his monastery at Walden, 
with the right to grind the corn of Enfield, was, without 
doubt, the same mentioned in Domesday Book, then pro- 
ducing i os. per annum rent. It gives its name to Mill 
Marsh and Mill Field, both still belonging to the 
Rectory. The right of fishing also brought in a rent, 
paid in styches of eels i.e., eels strung on sticks, 24 on 
each. 

We find confirmations of the Founder's Charier by every 
successive Sovereign and Bishop of London. 

Stephen, in his Charter, more particularly defines the 
liberties of the Abbey, as consisting in " Sacna et socna et 
toll et theam et infangenatheofe." 

Henry II. confirms to them the view of frank pledge. 

Accordingly, the abbots exercised certain manorial 
rights in Enfield, and, when in the 22 Edward I. 1292, 
they were called on by a writ, " quo warranto," to prove 
these rights, they showed to the satisfaction of the King's 
Justices that they and their predecessors from time out of 
mind had held without molestation, " quendam visum per 
annum de tenentibus suis in predicta villa de Enfeld, 
capiendse emendaspanis et cervisiae fractae" /.*., inflicting 



294 

fines for fraud in the sale of bread and beer.* A note in 
the year-book of xx Edward I. (a collection of law cases), 
states that this belonged -to the view of frank pledge. 
" Amendement de payn e de serveyse est apendant a vewe 
de franc plegge." 

At the same time it was decided that the abbots had 
not the right to use the pillory or tumbril as punish- 
ments^ and that penalties for shedding of blood 
belonged not to the abbots, but to the bailiffs of the 
Counts of Hereford and Essex. 

This would seem to show that they had not the right 
of " mfangenetheof " mentioned in Stephen's Charter, for 
in the same Year-book, which has been referred to, we read 
" Amendement de payn e de service e pyllory e tumbril 
e fourches sy est apendant a infangenetheof." 

It may be observed that the manorial rights of the 
abbots have passed on, with the Rectory, to Trinity 
College. A court-leet is held for the Manor of Surlowes 
or the Rectory. 

In the Cartulary to which reference has been made we 
find a record of numerous gifts of land or houses in 
Enfield. Amongst others, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 

* Dr. Robinson translates cervisia fracta broken victuals ! 
but cervisia is beer, and frangere assisam, means to sell short weight 
or measure. " Si quis Brassiator assisam fregerit." Liber Albus. 

t Et dicunt quod predictus abbas nee aliquis antecesstorum 
habueruni pillorium nee tumberellum ad judicia de hujusmodi 
transgressionibus facienda. 



Hereford and Essex, Constable of England, gives to the 
Abbey, " All that virgate of land which Walter held of us 
in the vill of Enfield." There is nothing to identify the 
land, but it doubtless still belongs to the Rectory. 

The son of Serbo (the swinehead, as we may presume) 
follows the example of the Constable of England, and 
gives a house. 

In a subsequent survey of the churches belonging to 
the Abbey of Walden, it is said that Enfield was appro- 
priated to the use of the monks, with all the tithe, both 
of demesne and other lands. The monks received half 
a mark out of the Vicarage, three marks from a mill, 
twenty shillings from the tenants of the glebe, and kept 
six acres of meadow in their own hands. 

In the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of Pope Nicholas IV., 
A.D. 1291, we find under the head of 

TEMPORALIA : ' bona Abbatis de Walden 

de redditibus terre t pratis ^3 1 1 8 

Ecclesia 40 o o 



SPIRITUALIA ^ r , 

[ Vicana ejusdem ecclesie ^6 o o 

At the dissolution of monasteries, the Rectory of 
Enfield, with the advowson, was granted by Henry VIII., 
in May, 1538, to Thomas Audley, who, in November of 
the same year, was made Lord Audley of Walden. He 
presented in 1540, " ratione donationis et concessionis 
temporalium dissoluti monasterii de Walden eidem 
domino Thomae." By exchange with Lord Audley, the 
Rectory came again into the King's hands, and he pre- 
sented in 1545. Soon afterwards, in 1548, he granted this, 




296 

with many others which had belonged to different religious 
houses, to the Master, Fellows, and Scholars of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, which he was then founding, and 
with them it has ever since remained. 

In the King's books it is thus valued : " Valet in 
terris et tenementis necnon decimis granorum et feni 
ac omnibus aliis decimis oblationibus et proficuis dicte 
Rectorie pertinentibus. xxviii. lib. 

It was then let for this sum, as appears from the fol- 
lowing entry in the Register of Benefactions made by 
Henry VIII. in the College Library : 

" Firma Rectorie de Enfeld predict e, in com. Midd. 
cum omnibus decimis acaliis proficuis et advantagiis eidem 
Rectorie spectaritibus dimissis Johanni Butte per inde.nturam 
pro termino annorum, reddendum indeperann. xxviii. lib." 

At the end of the Register there is the following note : 

MEM. " The pretnmissez doe not lye nigghe to any the King 
Majestie's howssez, except the parsonage of Enfelde, which lyethe 
adjoynynge to the King's hovvse of Enfelde." 

In 3 Edward VI. the Rectory was let to Sir R. Wroth 
for 40 years. In 1631 to Earl of Pembroke, for 16 
years. 
In 1647 it was let to Sir Roger Langley ; the 

fine paid for renewal was, for 7 years ... 200 
The reserved rent was ;i8 135. 4d., and a 

corn rent of 14 quarters of wheat and 18 qrs. 

5 bus. i peck of wheat. 

In 1666 to the Duke of Albermarle, for 7 years 180 
In 1718 to Sir R. Nightingale 350 



297 

In 1726 to J.Gascoigne Nightingale, Esq. for 7 years ,320 

1785 to Wilmot, Earl of Lisburne, 

(who married Miss Nightingale) ... 1,400 

1806 to Sir John Eden and Sir L. Palk 3,5o 

1813 to Sir L. Palk (in trust) 4,200 

1820 to Colonel Vaughan (afterwards 

Lord Lisburne) ... ... ... 4,200 

1827-34 to Lady Elizabeth Palk and 

Lady Malet Vaughan ... ., 3,400 

1855 to Lady Malet Vaughan ,, 3,720 

186210 Robert S. Palk, Esq., and 

Rev. Wilmot Palk 3,925 

In 1869 the College refused to renew, consequently, as 
the lease is for 20 years, renewable every 7, the lease will 
expire in 1882, and the rectorial estates will fall directly 
under the management of the College. 

In 1650 the Parliamentary Commissioners reported 
as follows : " The Parsonage and Glebe lands be 
worth ^30 per annum, and the tythe of corn and 
grass be worth ^230 per annum, which is now received 
by Sir W. Langley. The said Parsonage House hath 
belonging to it, one greate barne with outhouses 
and fish ponds, two small orchards, and four closes 
of pasture thereto adjoining, containing eight acres 
or thereabouts. Also, 24 acres of arable land in 
the Common Field, and 5 acres and i rood of meadow 
in the Common Marshes being lammas ground." 



298 

The great increase in the value of the Rectory arose 
from the Enclosure Acts in 1777 and 1801, by the 
former of which 279 acres (after deductions for the 
Vicarage), by the latter 950 acres were allotted to Trinity 
College in lieu of tithes. 



THE RECTORY HOUSE. 

There is no record of the building of the Parsonage 
House, but it was in existence before the time of Henry 
VIII.'s grant to Trinity College. In a survey (6 James I.) 
it is thus described: "One mansion house, one barn 
and stable and other buildings with a yard and garden, 
one pigeon house, one pigeon house close with a pond 
therein, situated in Parsonage-street (now called Baker- 
street), on the east side, and next a little lane called 
Parsonage-lane, on the south, and the orchard of T. 
Meddows, and two closes of pasture, belonging to the 
said Rectory, on the north and west." 

It has been generally occupied by the lessees of the 
college, but is at present sublet to F. Hasluck, Esq. 

The arms over the iron gates at the entrance, are those 
of the Nightingale family, who came into possession as 
lessees in 1718. In the grounds, which on the side of 
Parsonage-lane are enclosed by a very picturesque old 
wall, are some remarkably fine trees, especially two 
accacias. The old fish ponds still remain. 



THE VICARAGE. 

We learn from Domesday Book that the Parish Priest 
of Enfield held a virgate of land, of course in addition to 
tithes and offerings, which are seldom, if ever, mentioned 
in that book, as the record is one of land. 

We have seen that in 1136 Godfrey de Mandeville 
granted the Church of Enfield, with all its tithes and 
other revenues, to his newly-founded Monastery at 
Walden. The effect of this here, as in other cases, would 
be to make the Monastery collectively responsible for the 
cure of the parish. They received all the revenues, and 
sent one or another of their body, as they thought fit, to 
discharge the duties. But, after a time, it was more usual 
to appoint some one priest permanently to serve the cure, 
who thus became a " perpetual vicar/' and had assigned 
to him a certain portion of the tithes and other offerings, 
with the sanction of the bishop. We are told that 
_ Reginald, Prior of Walden, afterwards first Abbot, 
appointed vicars to his churches in 1190. Consequently, 
we may assume that the first vicar, properly so called, 
of Enfield, dates from that year. There does not appear 
to be any record of the composition made with him by 
the abbot and monks ; probably he received the small 
tithes, subject to certain payments to the abbey, as was 
usually the case. In the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, the 
Vicarage was valued at 6 per ann.; in the time of 
Henry VIII at 26. In the report to the Parliamentary 



300 

Commissioners in 1650, preserved in the Lambeth 
Library, it is stated that 

" The Vicaridge House, with the barns, outhouses, 
and two orchards, with one close of pasture adjoining, 
and two acres of arable land in the Common 
Field are worth 8 pounds per annum. And the petty 
tyth.es, oblations, and other dutyes thereto belonging, 
are worth about ^50 per ann." They further report, 
" that Mr. Walter Bridges, the present incumbent, an able 
and painful preacher, was presented to the said lyving by 
the Master and Fellows of Trinitye Colledge, and re- 
ceiveth for salary the said tythes and proffitts belonging 
to the said Vicaridge. And that our parish (having 
no chapel), is of a large extent. Butt our church is 
conveniently situated, and none of the parishioners are 
far distant therefrom except some few scattering houses." 

In 1777, when the Chase was enclosed, 80 acres 
out of 519 allotted in lieu of tithes, were appropriated to 
the Vicar of Enfield. At the same time power was given 
by the Act (17 Geo. III. c. 18) to Trinity College further 
to augment the Vicarage by an endowment of 160 acres 
out of their tithe allotment, on the condition that any 
Fellow accepting the living should vacate his fellowship. 
By the award of the Commissioners under the Enclosure 
Act of 1 80 1, a further allotment was made to the vicar of 
382 acres 3 roods 20 perches of land, in lieu of all 
.vicarial tithes in the parish, with the exception of a corn 
rent, charged on certain houses, &c. where land could 
not be allotted, to be valued every 2 1 years, if required. 



301 

This, when the Commissioners made their award in 
April, 1806, was valued at ,43 6s. nd. 

The greater portion of the Glebe land, which lies on 
the Chase, has never been properly brought under 
cultivation, and is of comparatively little value. The 
rental of the glebe was less in 1870 than in 1840. 

THE VICARAGE HOUSE. 

Between Silver-street and the Churchyard, enclosed 
within a wall, are the Vicarage House and grounds, 
occupying about i ^ acres. 

In the reign of Edward I., Godfrey de Beston gave a 
piece of land near the Churchyard, with the buildings on 
it, to Bartholomew, Vicar of S. Andrew's, Enfield, and 
his successors, subject to a rent of 12 pence, as appears 
from the following deed (Harleian MS. 3697) : 

" Carta Godefridi de Beston de toto messagio suo dato 
ecclesiae S. Andree de Enefeld. 

Sciant praesentes et futuri quod ego Godefridus de 
Beston concessi dedi et hac plena carta mea confirmavi 
Deo et ecclesie Sancti Andree de Enefeld et Bartholomeo 
ejusdem ecclesie vicario cum omnibus vicariis ibidem 
eidem succedentibus totum messagium meum quod emi de 
Ricardo de Plesseto situm prope cimiterium dicte 
ecclesie cum domibus desuper edificatis et omnibus aliis 
pertinentibus habendum et tenendum illi et successoribus 
suis libere quiete pacifice integre per servitium duodecim 
denariorum annuatim solvendorum Ricardo de Plesseto 
et heredibus suis ad quatuor terminos, videlicet ad 
Pascha, iij. den m : ad nativitatem S. Johannis, iij. den m - 



302 

ad festum S. Michaelis Archangeli iij. den" 1 : et ad 
nativitatem Domini, iij. clenariorum: pro omni servitio 
consuetudine exactione et dcmanda. 

".Ut autem hac mea concessio donatio et carte mee 
confirmatio perpetuum robus obfineat, presentum paginam 
sigilli mei munimine duxi roborandum His testibus. 
Ricardo de Plessito, &c., &c." 

To this gift, Richard de Plessito, of whom Godfrey had 
purchased the messuage, subsequently added 18 perches 
of garden ground, between the churchyard and the King's 
Highway, called Ernygstrate, now Silver-street. 

" Noverit universitas me pro salute anime mee et 
animarum patris et matris, &c., concessissee et dedisse 
et hac plena carta mea confirmasse, Deo et eccl'esie S. 
Andree de Enefeld et ejusdem ecclesie Vicario Bartholo- 
meo et successoribus suis, 1 8 perticatas gardini mei cum 
pertinentibus, incipientes a messagio predicti Vicarii quod 
tenet de me per servitium xii. denariorum annuatim et 
extendentes se in longitudinem versus Austrum in totam 
latitudinem ejusdem gardini quod jacet inter cimiterium 
predicte ecclesie et viam regalem que vocatur Ernygstrate 
habendum et tenendum." 

Richard de Plessito died in 1289, so that the Vicarage 
must have occupied its present site for nearly six 
centuries. A great part of the house is extremely old, 
built of timber, and only cased with brick in 1845, ^"hen 
new kitchens and offices were built. Great alterations 
had previously been made in 1801 by Mr. Porter, who 
took down the old chimneys. 



In the windows of the dining-room are two diamond- 
shaped quarries of stained glass, evidently taken out of 
some older window, with Henry VIII. 's badges of the Red 
Rose and the Portcullis. 

The wall between the garden and the churchyard, 362 
feet in length, was built by the parishioners in 1800, as. 
stated in a stone tablet over the" door. 

THE VICARS. 

The first vicar, as we have seen, was appointed in 1 190, 
but his name is not preserved. One Bartholomew was 
vicar, when the vicarage house was given in the reign of 
Edward I., and an Absolom is mentioned in a later deed, 
but there is no complete list till the early part of the i4th 
century, when, for the first time, 'we can avail ourselves of 
the Bishop of London's register, which furnishes the 
following names and dates of presentation (with the 
exception of those in italics). 



VICARS. 


DATE. PATRONS. 


Henry de Chippenham, 


February 18, 1333. 




Thomas Cradock, 


July 14, 1391. 




Thomas Exeter, 


September i, 1408. 


Abbott 


John Westland, 




and 


William Appleby, 


September 29, 1435. 


Monastery of 


Edmund Causton, 


November 2, 1466. 


Walden. 


John Hobil, M.A. 


November 18, 1491. 




Thomas Thompson, B.D. 


January 7, 1504. 




Henry Lockwood, D.D. 


October 4, 1540. Thos. Lord And ley 


Robert Stringfellow, 


Octqbera?, 1545. Henry VIII. 



3CU 



Christopher Downes, D.D. April 7, 1530. 

Thomas Segeswick, B.D. March 12, 1555. 

John Malham, M.A. November n, 1556. 

Richard Clapham, February 9, 1557. 

Robert Thacker, M.A. April 7, 1576. 



Philip Jones, 

Leonard Chambers, 
Samuel Heron, D.D. 
Thomas Prowde, B.D. 
William Roberts, D.D.* 
Walter B 'ridges, t 
Daniel Manning, 
John Hawkins, B.D. 
Henry Dearsley, B.D. 
Benjamin Young, M.A. 
Joseph Gascoigne, M.A. 
Robert Uvedale, D.D.J 
John Hackett, D.D. 
James Whitehall, 
William Smelt, B.D. 
Richard Newbon, B.D. 
Harry Porter, M. A. 
Daniel Creswell, D.D. 
John Moore Heath, M.A 
George Hewitt Hodson,M 



August 1 8, 1579. 

February 3, 1579. 

October 10, 1598. 

December 23, 1601. 

July 12, 1616. 

August 27, 1646. 

May 6, 1659. 

October 3, 1662. 

January 15, 1663. 

October 8, 1672. 

October 29, 1681.. 

August u, 1721. 
1732. 
1734- 

April 29, 1758. 

June, 1 767. 

July, 1801. 

March, 1823. 
, July, 1844. 

A. January, 1870. 



Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 



Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 

by lapse. 



Trinity 

College, 

Cambridge. 



* William Roberts was turned out of his Vicarage in 1642, by the Parlia- 
mentary Commissioners, but lived some years. Walker, in his " Sufferings of the 
Clergy," mentions that the Vicar of Enfield was sent for as a delinquent, and 
his estate sequestered, but he apparently mistakes the name. 

f Walter Bridges, called by the Commissioners an able and painful preacher, 
is said by them to have been appointed by Trinity College, but we must bear in 
mind that at that time the Master and the majority of the Fellows had been expelled 
as Royalists. He was of S. John's College, B.A. 1635. He left the parish in 
April, 1658, and was succeeded after some interval by Daniel Manning (of Cath. 
Hall, Cambridge, B. A. 1649) who was deprived at the restoration. 

t Son of Dr. Robert Uvedale, who was Master of the Grammar School, and a 
distinguished botanist. 



305 

In the first leaf of the volume of the Parish register, 
which begins in 1666,. is the following entry by Mr. 
Gascoigne, vicar : 

" Ministers of this parish that can now, in the year 
" 1717-18, be remembered. 

" Dr. Roberts, formerly fellow of Trinity Coll. in Cam- 
" bridge, who continued for many years, till turned out 
"in the late times in 1642. After him in those times 
" succeeded several, as Mr. Bridges, Mr. Manning, which 
" latter was turned out by the Bartholomew Act in the 
"year 1661. After him came Mr. John Hawkins, 
"Fellow of Trinity Coll., in Cambridge, who stayed not 
" much above a year, and returned to the College. 

" Mr. Henry Dearsley, Fellow of Trin. Coll., came in 
" the year 1663, and continued till the year 1672, when 
"he dyed. After him succeeded Mr. Ben. Young, Fellow 
"of Trin. Coll., in the year 1672, who lived till July in 
"the year 1681, and in the same year after him came 
" Mr. Jos. Gascoigne, Fellow of Trin. Coll., in the month 
"of October, 1681, who, by the mercy of God, is still 
" alive, and in very good health." 

With the exceptions, already referred to, of Mr. Bridges 
and Mr. Manning, the College has always presented one 
of its Fellows to the Vicarage. 

LECTURER. 

In the year 1631 Henry Loft gave 4 per annum for 
a lecturer, who was to preach in the Parish Church on 



306 

the afternoon of the Lord's-day, not omitting above one 
month in the year. This magnificent endowment was for 
many years augmented by the Vestry, but their liberality 
has ceased. The present lecturer is the Rev. E. H. 
Egles, M.A., Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 

The Rev. J. M. Heath, shortly after he became vicar, 
instituted a third service on Sunday evenings, at which 
the whole church is free and open to all parishioners ; 
the service being entirely voluntary on the part of the 
clergy. This is still continued. There is also an early 
service at 8 a.m. on Sunday for the celebration of the 
Holy Communion, and daily service morning and evening. 

THE CHURCHWARDENS 

Are elected annually on Easter Monday. There were 
originally four (as appears by the oldest vestry-book 
remaining, of the date April 13, 1691), one for each of the 
four quarters of the parish, which were then called 
Enfield-greene, Bull's-cross, Greene-street, and PonderV 
end, and such was the practice till 1696, when one 
churchwarden was chosen to represent both Greene-street 
and Ponder' s-end Quarters, and, with the exception of the- 
year 1699, when four were again chosen, three has con- 
tinued to be the number to the present day, Greene- 
street and Ponder's-end being considered as one quarter. 
The churchwarden for Enfield-green (now called the 
Town) Quarter, is nominated by the Vicar. The others 
are chosen by the Vestry. 



307 

The division of the parish into four quarters, for 
other purposes, continued till iSro, when the Vestry, on 
September 22, agreed "that the three divisions, now 
" called BulPs-cross, Greene-street, and Ponder's-end 
" Divisions be reduced into two divisions, the one to be 
" called Bull's-cross, to commence at Mr. Duncan's, at 
" White Webb's-gate, and to extend to Carterhatch-lane, 
" at Enfield-highway ; and the other to be called Green- 
" street and Ponder's-end Division, to commence at, and 
" to include Carterhatch-lane, and to extend over 
" Ponder's-end and South-street." 

The Churchwardens, in former times, were zealous in 
the extermination of vermin. In the year 1780, as 
appears by the Vestry-book, they paid for the destruction 
of three otters, at is. each; twelve polecats, at 8d. each; 
sixty-five hedgehogs, at 4d. each. 

No church-rates have been collected in the parish 
since the year 1853, so that the Churchwardens are 
entirely dependant on voluntary contributions to supply 
funds for the repairs of the church and maintenance of 
the services. 

Easter offerings have also been discontinued for some 
years past, though the Vicar's claim to them was reserved 
by the Enclosure Act of 1801. 

PARISH REGISTERS. 

The registers of baptisms, marriages, and burials, all 
extend back to 1550, and with the exception of an 



308 

interval between January, 1556,* and August, 1557, are 
complete to the present day, though they were kept very 
irregularly during the times of the Rebellion and Com- 
monwealth. 

The Act by which parochial registers were enjoined was 
not passed till 1536, and was not at once generally 
observed, so that the registers, which we have, are probably 
the first kept in the parish. 

The oldest volume is on paper, and extends from 1550 
to 1588. The succeeding volumes, as now bound up, 
from 1588 to 1639; 1639 to 1666 ; and 1666 to 1704, 
are on parchment. 

It is curious to observe the uncertainty in the beginning 
of the year. The years 1550, 51, 52, 53, begin with the 
Feast of the Annunciation, March 25. The years from 
1554 to 1577 with the Feast of the Circumcision, 
January 4 1. After that they return again to March 25 
and so continue till the New Style came into use, in 
January, 1753. 

There is a curious mode of registering baptisms to be 
noticed during the years between 1576 and 1586. In 
the case of a boy it is " baptizatus est," or some- 
times " baptizabatur" (the force of which is somewhat 
difficult to explain) ; in the case of a girl " renata fuit." 

* Where there is this note: "Memorandum: that I found this 
nexte leaf or leaves cut out at my receiving the book fromMr. Hall ; 
as witnesseth Robert Wilbro." 



309 



The Register has this entry, Sept. i8th, 1653 : " Be 
it remembered that Walter Bridges, Vicar of the Parish of 
Enfield, was this day and year above written, elected and 
chosen Registrar, and was approved and sworn by Edwyn 
Rich, Esq., J.P., according to a late Act of Parliament," 
and the following in April, 1658 : 

" Mr. Walter Bridges, min. of the parish, who for some 
few years before-mentioned, as it doth appear from ye 
beginning of this book, left the books in good order, and 
sett downe the baptizings exactly, but he leaving the 
parish about the beginning of Aprill, 1658, the parish 
being destitute of a minister was constrained to hire one 
or other to preach on the Lord's Days. Mr. Bridges, 
above-mentioned, being gone, and strangers preaching 
here for some time till Mr. Manning; minister, came, 
the names of children, for a short time, could not exactly 
be registered." 

There are many indications, in the registers of the pre- 
ceding years, of the disorder prevailing in church matters. 

It will be remembered that in 1645 the use of the Book 
of Common Prayer, either in public or private, was for- 
bidden by the Parliament, under heavy penalties of fine 
and imprisonment ; and the Directory substituted for it. 
All religious services at the burial of the dead were for- 
bidden the dead body was to be " interred without any 
ceremony." 

In 1642, as we have seen, the Vicar, Dr. Roberts, was 



310 

ejected. Between September, 1642, and September, 
1644; only one marriage is registered. Afterwards we 
find such entries as these, in 1653: "All these 
three couples were married by Thomas Hubbert, Esq., 
and by him declared man and wife," and in 1655, 
" The truly worthy John Bernard, of Huntingdon, Esq., 
single man, and Mrs. Elizabeth St. John, daughter 
of the Right Hon. Oliver St. John, Lord Cheefe 
Justice of the Comon Pleas, were married before her said 
father, and by him declared man and wife, February 26, 
1655. Coram testibus non puucis venerabilibus egregiis 
et fide dignis." 

In August i, 1678, the Act, for burying in woollen, came 
into operation, and accordingly in every case of burial 
the parish register records that an affidavit was made and 
delivered to the Vicar, as required by the Act, within 
eight days, but on September 18 of that year, we find a 
memorandum regarding Dennis Younge, " No affidavit. 
Information given of her being buried in linnen, and the 
moiety of five pounds was paid to the poor, according to 
the Act for burying in woollen.'' And again, in 
November, when Alary, wife of Nicholas Raynton, was 
buried in a vault in the vestry, there is the same memo- 
randum. 

After a few years the practice seems to have become 
more lax, as there are many burials, where no affidavit is 
mentioned. 

The number of nurse-children registered as buried is 
very remarkable, and also the number of foundlings 



311 

baptized. The neighbourhood of the Chase will, in some 
measure, account for both, as also for the number of 
"strangers unknown " who are buried. 

With the year 1569 begins mention of those who died, 
or were suspected to have died, of the Plague : 

Between August and December in that year, 29 deaths 
are recorded. 

Between June and December, 1578. 50 deaths. 

In three months of 1603, September to November, 103. 

In the year 1625, 67 died; in 1665, the year of the 
great plague, only 55. 

It is said that some of those who died of the plague 
were buried in the churchyard, some in other places. 
In the original survey of the Chase, made in 1658, a site 
on the Green, now occupied by an isolated house and 
garden, known as " the Limes," is marked as " the Pest 
House," and in the presentment to the jury of the Manor 
in 1636, it is described as "a cottage erected by the 
" appointment of His Majestie's Justices of the Peace, for 
" the harbouring of infected people the last great infec- 
" tion." 

A small pond at the back of these premises has pro- 
bably been caused by the subsidence of the ground, and 
indicates the site of the " plague pit." De Foe mentions 
that a similar " mark was to be seen on the surface, 
parallel with the passage between Houndsditch and 
Whitechapel," where a pit had been dug 40 feet in length, 
15 feet in breadth, and 20 feet deep. 

This house is again presented " at a Court of the 
" Mannor and Chace of Enfield, held the eighth day of 



312 

" October, in the first year of the reign of our Sovereign, 
" Lord James the Second," &c. 

" (19.) An house formerly ordered by the Justices for 
" a pest-house erected on the said Chace, and now in the 
" tenure of John Boone, which we desire may continue 
" for a pest-house still, if there should be an occasion." 

At a vestry had of ye most part of ye ancient parish- 
ioners aforesaid, 2ist Jan. 1620, the " duties for buryalls 
in the churchyard," were fixed for parishioners, "un- 
coffined" 2d., strangers, 4^. 

For one hours knell of ye i st Bell ... 6d., strangers i2d. 
t 2nd Bell... Sd., i6d. 

' 3rd Bell... iod., i8d. 

,, ye great Bell... . 1 2d., 24^. 

To ye Vicar, for his office of bury- 
ing a child ... ... ... 7^/., 2\d. 

To him for a communicate person iod., 24^. 
To Clerk for a child ... ... 4^., izd. 

More to him for a communicate 

person ... ... ... ... 6d., ,, izd. 

Duties for buryalls coffined--double the above. 
The fee for a person churched at church, was sixpence. 
The fee for a person churched at home, was one shilling. 

The Clerk's duty was " to attend ye Vicar and Curate 
at divine service, marriages, churchings, sac. visiting of 
sick, burying of dead, to lay up ye books, to write ye 
burrialls in a book." 

" The Sexton's office is to keep ye clock and church 
clean, to ring and toll ye bells, to make the graves five 
foot deep." 



DISTRICT CHURCH KS. 
s. JAMES'S, HIGHWAY. 

Notwithstanding the increase in the population of the 
parish, no provision was made for increased church 
accommodation till the year 1831, when a Chapel-of-ease 
was built by subscription, on ground given by Woodham 
Connop, Esq., and consecrated on i5th of October, by 
Dr. Blomfield, Bishop of London. 

A district was assigned by Order in Council, Dec. 9, 
1833, comprising the whole of the parish of Enfield east 
of a line drawn at a distance of 150 yards to the west of 
the Turnpike-road from Edmonton to Cheshunt. The 
church was licensed for marriages by the Bishop of 
London in 1845, May 26th. 

An addition to the churchyard was consecrated in 
1861. 

The present chancel, added at the expense of the Rev. 
J. Harman, in memory of his wife Elizabeth (who died 
April, 1859), was consecrated in November, 1864. The 
east window is filled with stained glass in " Memory of 
Ezekiel and Sarah Harman, of Theobalds, Cheshunt, and 
of Mary Wright, sister of Sarah Harman." The windows 
of the chapel are memorials respectively to Mary 
Harman, and the wife of Henry Parry, Esq., of the 
Limes, Ponder's-end. 

x 



314 

A vicarage house has since been built opposite to the 
church. 

The Vicar of S. Andrew's, Enfield, is the patron. 

T. W. Thirl wall, M. A., 1834. 
Charles Warren, M.A., 1835. 
Incumbents, -j J. R. Nicholi, M.A., 1838. 

J. Fuller Russell, B.C.L., 1841. 
John Harman, M.A., 1854. 

JESUS CHURCH, FORTY HILL. 

This church was erected in 1835 at tne so ^ e expense of 
Christian Paul Meyer, Esq., of Forty Hall, and endowed 
by him with ^4000 conveyed to trustees, and with a 
house and 7)^ acres of land adjoining the church. A 
district was assigned by Order in Council, December, 
1845. It is now a vicarage. The Vicar of S. Andrew's 
is patron. In 1871 an additional endowment of seven 
acres of land was given by Trinity College. The first 
incumbent was the Rev. C. W. Bollaerts, M.A., who 
died in 1863, and was succeeded in the same year by 
Rev. Archibald Weir, D.C.I,., Trin. Coll., Oxford. 

CHRIST CHURCH. 

Christ Church, situated at Cock Fosters, at the western 
extremity of the parish, was built in 1839 at the sole 
expense of R. C. L. Bevan, Esq., of Trent Park, who is 
the patron, who also built a parsonage. A district has 



been assigned by the Bishop of London. The present 
incumbent is the Rev. James Swinbourn, who, in 1865, 
succeeded the Rev. Claremont Skrine. 

s. JOHN'S, CLAY HILL. 

This church was built in 1857, from the designs of Mr. 
P. St. Aubyn, as a chapel-of-ease to the mother church, on 
land belonging to the Vicarage, which had been bought 
with the proceeds of the sale of a portion of glebe to 
the New River Company. The greater part of the cost 
of the building and endowment was borne by the Vicar, 
the Rev. J. M. Heath. The church was opened by 
license in November, 1858, but not consecrated till 
July 31, 1865. It did not become a district church till 
March 19, 1867. 

The Rev. G. B. P. Viner has since that time been 
incumbent. There is a vicarage house adjoining the 
churchyard. 

NEW CHURCH OF S. MICHAEL AND ALL ANGELS. 

Notwithstanding these district churches, the accom- 
modation at the mother church of S. Andrew's had been 
for some time found quite inadequate to the wants of a 
population rapidly increasing. A new church was conse- 
quently determined on, of which the first stone was laid 
on May 7th of this year (1873), on a portion of what was 
formerly the Gordon House Estate. The site and ^2,000 



31G 

were given by George Batters, Esq., of Brigadier Hall. 
The church, when complete, will consist of a chancel 
with aisles and a groined apse, a nave of five bays, with 
aisles, and a western tower ; two bays of the nave and the 
tower are left for completion hereafter. It is built of 
Kentish rag, with Bath stone dressings, from the designs 
of Messrs. Slater and Carpenter, of London, under the 
superintendence of Mr. Hill, of Enfield. It will be a 
chapel-of-ease, served by the clergy of the parish church. 



'I 1 HE CEMETERY. 

The cemetery occupies a very beautiful and commanding 
site, of about nine acres, between Lavender-hill and Clay- 
hill, at a distance of i^ mile from S. Andrew's Church, 
to the north-west. The cemetery was laid out and 
the buildings erected from the designs and under the 
superintendence of Mr. Hill, architect, of Enfield, at 
a total cost of about ^9,000. It was opened July 
27th, 1872. 



317 



THE FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

On the west side of the churchyard stands an old 
red-brick building, with dormers in the roof, and a 
turret staircase, which, for nearly three centuries, has 
been the Free Grammar School. Modern sash windows 
have been inserted in the wall facing the churchyard, 
and two bay windows, one at each end of the 
building, have been bricked up, so that the original 
effect is very much destroyed. A " school-house" is 
mentioned in 1557, but in 1586, William Garratt left the 
sum of 50 by will, towards building a school-house in 
Enfield, and a deed of 1598 speaks of" the Schole House 
now of late new built there." It stands on part of an 
estate called Prounce's, belonging to the parish. 

In the different trust deeds from 1623 to 1717, 
inclusive, the chamber and garret over the school were 
reserved to such uses as the trustees and vestry should 
direct,* the schoolmaster then residing in Prownce's house, 
also in the churchyard, known as the Old Coffee-house, 
now the School of Industry, but about 1739 or 1740 the 
chamber and garret were divided into several bedrooms, 
and a wing was added to the school-house as a. residence 
for the master. The passage to the chamber and garret 
was by a circular staircase in a tower erected outside the 

* e.g., for the meeting of the trustees and vestry. See /. 323. 



818 

school-house, but the building of the wing, by enclosing 
within itself the foot of the staircase, completely shut out 
all access to the chamber and garret, unless by passing 
through the master's house. The trust deed of 1740 put 
the master into possession of " the school-house, with the 
improvements lately made thereto," and no further mention 
is made in that, or any subsequent deed, of the chamber 
and garret, so that the whole has been in the possession 
of the master for more than 130 years ; and in 1825 the 
Court of Chancery decreed, "That the master should 
have the school-house for his residence." 

It has been already mentioned that in the reign of 
Edward IV. a licence was granted to found a Chauntry 
in Enfield Church, called "Blossom's Chauntry," which 
might be endowed with 10 marks per annum. It was 
apparently with this intent that in 1471 (n Edw. IV.), 
Robert Ingleton conveyed to Edmund Causton, Vicar of 
Enfield, John Bristowe, and others the Manor of Poynetts 
or Poynants, which had belonged to R. Blossom, but 
there is no delaration of trusts. 

It is clear that an estate described as consisting of three 
messuages and 740 acres of land, must have been worth 
far more than 10 marks per annum, but there is no 
mention in the deed of the Chauntry, nor anything to 
indicate the purposes to which the remaining rents were 
to be applied. 

In 1491 (7 Hen. VII.), on the death of Edmund 
Causton, the vicar, John Bristowe and others conveyed 



319 

Poynetts to fresh feoffees. In 1500(16 Henry VII.), 
John and Agnes Spottell conveyed it to John Hobel, 
Vicar of Enfield, and others. In 1501 John Hobel con- 
veyed to Thomas Sawyer and Margerie his wife, John 
Honesbie and Agnes his wife, and William Spottell. 
From them it passed to Roger Carewe or Crowe (as 
appears by record of the Court of King's Bench, 15 Henry 
VII.), and from him to. his son John Carewe. or Crowe. 
In 1506 (21 Henry VII.), John Carewe or Crowe 
conveyed the Manor of Poynetts (which is still described 
as three messuages and 740 acres of land)* to Wm. 
Ockburn, John Goddard, William Woodam, Robert 
Alford, and others, but there is no trust declared or 
schedule appended, and as far as the documents in the 
possession of the trustees are concerned, there is nothing 
to support the statement that John Carewe founded a 
school or did anything but convey the estate to new 
feoffees, on the same conditions as before. There can be 
no doubt but that Poynetts was charged originally with 
the payment of ten marks for a chauntry priest, though it 
is somewhat remarkable that in a presentation, t made by 
the Churchwardens of Enfield early in the i6th century? 
of " the chauntries, &c., within the Church," no mention 
is made of Blossom's Chauntry amongst the rest. At any 



* The present estate is by survey 273 acres. 
t See p. 132 supra. 



320 

rate, the surplus rents were at the disposal of the Church- 
wardens. An indenture made in 1520 records that "the 
"Churchwardens, with the assent of all the inhabitants of 
" the said parish, and to the use and profit of the said 
" parish church have bargained and sold to Avery Rawson 
"and Thomas Geffery, the wood belonging and apper- 
taining to the said Churchwardens, in right of the parish 
" church of Enfield, growing in a wood called Ship- 
" wrights of xxvii acres," part of the Poynett's estate, and 
there is a similar indenture made in 1532. 

In the ist Edward VI., 1547, Chauntries were 
abolished by statute, and the lands, &c., belonging to 
them granted to the king, partly with a view to founding 
schools. Accordingly in 1548, the King sold Poynetts 
to Walter Farr and Ralph Standish for ^200, but as the 
Court of Augmentations decreed, July 8, 1549, that the 
king's title was doubtful, the purchase-money was 
returned. This was probably on the ground that Poy- 
netts belonged to the parish, not to the chauntry, and 
that the king could claim at most the ten marks assigned 
to the Chauntry Priest. Meanwhile, the parish continued 
in possession of Poynetts, and by a deed, January 7, 
4 and 5 Phillip and Mary, 1557, John Goddard, William 
Woodham, and Robert Alford three of the feoffees named 
in John Carewe's deed of 1505, convey the estate to 
John Butte and many others in trust for the purpose of a 
school according to a schedule annexed. This deed was 
never executed, and Robert Alford having died in April, 



821 

the two survivors, John Goddard, maltman, and William 
Woodham, yeoman, in May of the same year, after a recital 
of title extending back to Thomas Sawyer and others in 
1501, conveyed to Simon Potter, John Butte and 18 others, 
" pro et in consideration cujusdam schole pro eruditione 
et instructione puerorum pauperum inhabitantium in 
Enefield in Litteris Alphabeticis et Arte Grammatical!, 
and pro aliis considerationibus in quadam schedula 
expressis et significatis." 

" This schedule indented and made in the yeare of our 
Lorde God, according to the course and reckeninge of the 
Churche of Englande, a thousande fyve hundrede fiftee and 
eight, and in the fourth e and fiveth yeares of the raines 
of our Soveraigne Lorde and Ladye Phillipe and Marye," 
declares the intent of the deed of feoffement to be that the 
feoffees shall " gyve and paye yearlie to a schole master 
to teache within the sayde towne of Enfielde the children 
of the poor inhabitants to knowe and read their alphabet 
letters and to read Laten and Englyshe, and to understand 
grammar and to wrigt their Lateines according to the 
trade and use of grammar scholes, the summe of six 
poundes thirteen shillings and foure pence." The 
Churchwardens of the parish church were to be 
authorised to act as bailiffs of the feoffees to collect and 
gather the rents. . 

In 40 Elizabeth, 1598, the estate was conveyed 
by John Taylor, Simon Potter, and others, to new 
feoffees, Sir Robert. Wroth, of Durants, his son 
Robert Wroth, Esq., Vincent Skinner, Esq., and others, 



322 

with the same directions as to the schoolmaster and 
children, and also to " give and distribute unto the poor 
impotent people from time to time, inhabiting in the 
parish of Enfield, or unto such other good and godly 
deeds, intents, and purposes, as the said feoffees should 
think meete and convenient, all the residue of the rents 
and proffitts of the said messuages, lands, &c., after 
providing for repairs of the said messuages and of the 
" schole house in Endfield now of late new built there." 

If the rents improved, the feoffees might at their 
discretion deal more liberally with the schoolmaster in 
respect of stipend, always, however, having regard and 
consideration of the other good and godly uses and pur- 
poses expressed. 

In 1619 Sir Nicholas Salter, Nicholas Raynton, and 
Benjamin Deycrowe purchased for pioo is., the claims 
of the crown upon Poynetts, which, after lying dormant 
for some time, had been revived, and by letters patent of 
James I., 1615, sold to Edmund Duffield and John 
Babington, and which from them had passed to Thomas 
Kenethorpe, of London. Though the terms of James' 
grant were muchmore extensive, it seems tolerably certain 
that what he really did grant was " the sums of money 
issuing out of certain lands, tenements, or hereditaments 
in the parishes of South Benfleet and given for the 
maintenance of the singing chaplain or priest in the parish 
church of Enfield," belonging to the king, " by reason of 
the Statute of Colleges of Singers, ist Edward VI." 



323 

Some years before, in 1596, 38 Elizabeth, the then 
feoffees, John Taylor, Simon Potter and others, had 
let all that messuage at South Benfleet, &c., exclusive 
of wood and underwood, and reserving to themselves 
" all rights of hawkinge, huntynge, fishinge, and foul- 
inge," for twenty-one years, at a yearly rent of ^35 
for eleven years, and of 3 7 for the remainder of the 
term. It is hardly credible that an estate of this value 
could have been sold for ^100, nor is there anything to 
show that it had ever passed out of the possession of the 
parish, or that the school was not kept up continuously 
from 1558. Bradshawe is mentioned as master in 1600, 
and Richard Ward in 1606-7. 

Shortly after the purchase from Thomas Kenethorpe, 
by a new trust deed of ist September, 1621, Hugh 
Mascull and thirteen other feoffees are directed to 
pay 20 yearly to a learned, meet, and competent 
master to teach the children of all the inhabitants of 
Enfield the cross-row or alphabetical letters, and the arts 
of writing, grammar, and arithmetic, and to employ the 
residue, after providing for repairs, for the relief of poor 
orphans, and other poor and impotent people of the 
parish, and for any other good and charitable purposes. 

The feoffees were to do nothing, with regard to the 
property of the school, or the appointment or dismissal of 
the master, except in a vestry, at which ten at least of the 
parishioners, not being feoffees, must be present, to be 
held in the chamber- above the school, after public notice in 
the church on the preceding Sunday. Whenever the 



'521 

number of feoffees was reduced to five, four, or three, at 
the least, fourteen new ones were to be chosen by the 
vestry. 

The school continued to be managed according to the 
provisions of this trust till the year 1825, when a new 
scheme was established by the Court of Chancery on the 
termination of legal proceedings between the master and 
trustees, which had lasted seven years. This provided, 
" inter alia," " That the master be required to teach and 
instruct the children of the inhabitants in the school-house, 
in the arts of reading, writing, grammar, and arithmetic, on 
every day in the week (except Sunday), from 9 a.m., to 
12, and from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m., except in the afternoons 
of Wednesday and Saturday, and except one month in 
the summer and one in the winter ; and the same master 
or the usher shall attend the scholars to and during 
Divine service at the parish church ot Enfield on Sundays 
and prayer-days." 

When the number of scholars reached 60, on the 
average of five months, the master was to receive a 
salary of ^120 per annum, and might appoint an usher, 
subject to the approval of the trustees, who were to pay 
him ^50 per annum. 

The Inspector under the Schools' Inquiry Commission 
says, in his report, " The history of this school, during 
one-half century, affords a notable example of the 
disastrous results of ill-defined relations and consequent 
conflicts between the masters and governing bodies of 



endowed schools. Since the year 1818, the Trustees 
have been continually engaged in litigation, the result of 
which has been to saddle the charity with a debt of 
^650, incurred for costs, and to paralyse the action of 
the school." In 1873 the Trustees having no funds for 
the repair of the school premises, which were reported to 
be unfit for school use, and having no power under the 
Trust Deed to levy capitation fees, determined, with the 
consent of the Vestry, to close the school for a time and 
apply to the Endowed School Commissioners for a new 
scheme, which has been prepared and is now under the 
consideration of the parish. 

The income of the school arising from the Poynett's 
Estate, at Benfleet, of 273 acres, and from 90 acres, part 
of the Edward's Hall Estate, bought in 1817, with the 
accumulations from sale of timber at Poynetts, has 
amounted of late years to about ^280, but is likely 
to increase. 

The following is a list of the masters of the Free 
School : 

Bradshawe was master in 1600, at a salary of ,20 
per annum. 

Thomas Taylor was appointed master in the same 
year, on the death of Bradshawe. 

Richard Ward, in 1606-7, an d was put into the deed 
of 1621, and continued master until 1647. 

William Holmes was the next master. He died in 
1664, and was succeeded by 

William Nelson, clerk. 



826 

Robert Uvedale, L.L.D., Fellow of Trin. College, Cam- 
bridge, was master in 1670. 
Harper in 1700. 

John Allen in 1732. 

Daniel Shipton, in 1761. 

Samuel Hardy, M.A., was appointed in 1762; he 
resigned in 1791, and died in 1793. 

John Milne (Member of the University of Aberdeen), 
was appointed in 1791. He died in 1836. 

James Emery succeeded in 1831, and was called upon 
to resign in 1846. This led to a trial in the Court of 
Common Pleas, in which a verdict was returned for 
Emery. 

Charles Chambers was elected i4th December, .1846, 
but as Emery would not vacate the school-house till a 
compensation of ^450 was paid him, Chambers did 
not enter upon his duties till the following year. 

An attempt to remove Mr. Chambers from the master- 
ship in 1858, after a public inquiry by authority of the 
Charity Commissioners, led to a Chancery suit, which left 
Mr. Chambers in possession. The costs were paid by a 
mortgage upon the estates. 



327 

PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. 

(i.) THE NATIONAL SCHOOLS for boys and girls in 
London-road, were built by subscription, without any 
Government aid, in 1839. In 1868, a Class Room and 
Infant's School-room were added. They are now attended 
by 120 boys, 70 girls, and 70 infants, who are taught 
by a master, mistress, and infant school mistress, all 
certificated, together with an assistant master and two 
pupil teachers. 

They are annually examined by one of H. M. 
Inspectors, and have for many years received the most 
favourable reports. 

They are under the management of a committee of 
gentlemen and ladies, of which the Vicar is chairman, 
and P. Twells, Esq., treasurer. 

(2.) The S. MICHAEL'S SCHOOL, Gordon Estate, was 
built in 1870, as the small room previously used, was not 
found sufficient. About 150 children are taught by a 
certificated mistress, assistant, and two pupil teachers. 

(3.) A NEW SCHOOL-ROOM for 60 infants was built in 
1872, in Gordon-lane, Baker-street, on ground given by 
Trinity College. 

(4.) Another INFANT SCHOOL, also in connection with 
the Parish Church, is held in Love's-row, in a hired 
building, formerly used as a dissenting chapel. 

(5.) The CHURCH SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY, established 
in 1800, under the management of a committee of ladies, 
for the industrial training of 30 girls, is carried on in a 
building in the Churchyard, belonging to the Free 
School, formerly known as the Old Coffee-house, 



828 

In the district of S. JAMES', Highway, there are, 

(i.) A SCHOOL FOR 160 BOYS, with a master's house, 
built in 1872, near the Church, under a certificated 
master and three pupil teachers. 

(2.) GIRLS' AND INFANTS' SCHOOL, at the Highway, 
for 260 children, taught by a certificated mistress, and 
four pupil teachers. 

(3.) A MIXED SCHOOL, in South-street, for 120 
children, under a certificated mistress, assistant, and two 
pupil teachers. 

(4.) A SCHOOL-ROOM at the end of Lock-lane, not yet 
opened. 

(5) SCHOOLS at the ROYAL SMALL ARMS FACTORY, 
for boys, girls, and infants, with three certificated teachers 
and seven pupil teachers, supported by the War Office. 
They supply accommodation for more than 500 children. 

In the district of JESUS CHURCH, Forty-hill, are boys' 
and girls' schools, built in 1851, and enlarged in 1868, 
so as to accommodate 140 children, with a certificated 
master and mistress. There is also a school for infants 
near Maiden's-bridge, built and supported by James 
Meyer, Esq. 

In connection with S. JOHN'S, Clay-hill, is a school for 
60 children, built in 1859, near the Church. 

In the district of CHRIST CHURCH, Cockfosters, are 
girls' and infant schools, built by D. Bevan, Esq., in 1840, 
and a school for boys, built by subscription, in 1859, 
providing altogether for 180 children. 



POPULATION. 

The No. of 

The population of the Parish of Enfield Houses. 

by the Census of 1 81 1 was... 6,636 ijUS 

1821 ... 8,227 1,309 

1841 ... 9,367 1,706 

1851 ... 9,453 *>**7 

1861 ... 12,410 2,308 

1871 ... 16.053 2,895 

Previous to 1811 we can only approximate to the 
population. In 1793 there were said to be about 920 
houses; in 1801, 926., The average of burials during 
the last 20 years of the eighteenth century (144), was 
somewhat larger than during the first 20 years of the 
present (136), but it is clear that the mortality was much 
greater in proportion to the population. 

According to the return of the Registrar of Births, 
Deaths, and Marriages, there were in the parish of 
Enfield, 

MARRIAGES.. 
BIRTHS. DEATHS. In Church. In Registered 

In the year ending Buildings. 

March 21, 1869. ..548 221 60 8 

1871. ..482 373 52 7 

1873. ..657 244 60 6 

In the two first quarters of 1873 there were registered 
276 births, and 113 deaths. 

The population in 1871 was thus divided amongst 
the several districts : S. Andrew's, 5,087 ; S. James', 
Highway, 8,027; Jesus, Forty-hill, 1,213; S. John's, 
Clay-hill, 997 ; Christ Church, Trent, 730. 

Y 



380 

Enfield belongs to the Edmonton Poor Law Union, 
and has eight elected guardians. 

The rateable value of the parish was in 1821, ,32,599 ; 
in 1871, ^"68,981. 

The rate levied for the relief of the poor was, in 1821, 
2S. id. in the pound; in 1871, 23. 3d. in the pound. 

The whole control of the draining, lighting, paving, 
&c., of the parish is vested in the Local Board of Health, 
which was constituted August 19, 1850, under the pro- 
visions of the Public Health Act (1848). There are twelve 
members, of whom four retire every year. James 
Meyer, Esq., has been chairman from the beginning. 
The rate was, in 1873, 35. in the pound. 



831 
DISSENTING PLACES OF WORSHIP. 

BAKER-STREET CHAPEL. 

A congregation of Presbyterian Dissenters was estab- 
lished in Enfield as early as 1687, by Obadiah Hughes, 
an ejected minister, and son of George Hughes, Vicar of 
Tavistock. At that time they held their meetings in a 
barn, but on the passing of the Toleration Act a meeting- 
house was built in Baker-street, and Mr. Hughes was 
chosen pastor in 1688-9. The society took a lease of the 
ground in 1702, when the meeting-house was rebuilt. In 
1752 the freehold was purchased for ^200, and con- 
veyed to trustees. In 1771 it underwent considerable 
repairs and alterations, and was newly floored and pewed. 
The present chapel is the third erected upon the same 
site, and is capable of holding about 400 people. School- 
rooms adjoining were built in 1860, at an expense of 
^350. The present minister is the Rev. S. J. Smith, B.A. 

PONDER'S-END CHAPEL. 

This chapel was opened in 1768. The first minister 
was the Rev. Mr. Alliston, of London ; he was succeeded . 
by the Rev. John Knight, who continued .for 20 years.. 
In 1825 the Rev. G. Clarke, of London, was chosen, and 
remained till his death, a period of seven years. 



832 

ZION CHAPEL. 

The original Congregational Chapel at Chase-side, 
known as Zion Chapel, was built in 1780, and opened on 
the 7th of June. The ground was purchased by Matthias 
Peter Dupont, landlord of the Castle and Falcon, in 
Aldersgate-street, who erected the present building, with 
the assistance of contributions amounting to ^240. 
Tavern-keepers are so seldom church-builders, that 
his name deserves to be recorded. Messrs. Woodgate 
and Midley opened the chapel by two sermons, each 
being an hour and a half in length. Yet abundant 
as was the mental fare, it was supplemented by a no less- 
substantial repast at the George Inn, where an item 
of ^"3 for coach-hire, and another of ^4 125., 
" expenses of ministers at the George," bear witness to 
the hospitality of the genial and pious founder. The 
events of the day are duly chronicled in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, p. 295. The first minister appears to have 
been a Mr. Whitefoot, on whose induction a similar 
liberality was exercised, the earliest entry in the chapel 
books being " chaise for ministers to attend the ordination 
of Mr. W. Whitefoot, i IDS. expenses at the George, 

* 13*." 

CHASE-SIDE CHAPEL. 

In the year 1793, in consequence of a schism among 
the brethren, the seceding party built the adjoining Chase- 
side Chapel. The present structure was erected in 1832. 



333 

In December, 1871, at a united meeting of the two con- 
gregations, called for the purpose, a resolution was passed 
" that the members and office-bearers of Zion and Chase- 
side Churches do hereby unite to form one church," 
after which the Rev. H. S. Toms was chosen to the 
united pastorate, the venerable Mr. Stribling retiring on 
his full stipend, after 40 years of faithful service. 

It is now in contemplation to build a new chapel large 
enough for the accommodation of the two congregations, 
which have been so long dissevered.* 

HIGHWAY CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL. 

The Congregational Chapel at the Highway, with 
school-rooms adjoining, was opened in 1854. 

PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL. 

This congregation took its origin from itinerant 
preachers, who some twenty years ago collected a number 
of hearers on Chase-green, and afterwards took a barn at 
the Holly-bush, which thiey fitted up as a temporary 
chapel, where they continued to meet till on the receipt 
of a liberal donation from Mrs. Tolputt (the wife of a 
clergyman of the Church of England), they raised by 
additional subscriptions a sufficient amount for the erec- 
tion of the present chapel, a neat, unpretending building, 
which was opened on the 28th October, 1858. 

* From a paper by Rev. H. S. Toms. 



834 

WESLEYAN METHODIST CHAPEL. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, in Cecil-road, was 
built in the year 1864. The land was given for the 
purpose by Mr. Cave, of Enfield, who also contributed 
liberally towards the cost of the building, the amount of 
which, ,1,030, was raised by subscription. It is calcu- 
lated to accommodate 230 sitters. There is no settled 
minister. 

BAPTIST TABERNACLE. 

The Baptist congregation in Enfield was formed on the 
loth June, 1867, and for a short time held its meetings 
in the Assembly-room at the " Rising Sun," but receiving 
notice to quit from the landlord, and being unable to 
obtain any other room for the purpose, they erected the 
present iron building in the London-road, which was 
opened on the third of December the same year. 

BAPTIST CHAPEL, TOTTERIDGE ROAD. 

The Baptist chapel in the Totteridge-road was opened 
in 1872. 

There are also chapels at BOTANY BAY and WHITE 
WEBBS, chiefly supplied from Lady Huntingdon's College 
at Cheshunt. 

Religious services are held at the MISSION ROOM, 
Baker-street, conducted by the London City Missionary. 

Services are also held in a room on CHASE GREEN, 
near the river, by the PLYMOUTH BRETHREN. 



385 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPEL. 

Some years ago a Roman Catholic gentleman purchased 
a commodious site, with ample space for church and 
presbytery, and having a frontage to the London and 
Cecil-roads. Upon this ground a building was erected, 
in which, for the present requirements of the Roman 
Catholic residents, numbering about 50, mass is said by 
the priest from Waltham Cross on Sundays and holy days 
of obligation, by the direction of the Archbishop of the 
Roman Catholic Diocese. 



BRITISH AND OTHER SCHOOLS. 

The BRITISH SCHOOLS, at Chase-side, were built, with 
the assistance of a Government grant of ^200, at a cost 
of i 100, in the year 1838, when the first stone was laid 
by Lord Brougham. At this time there was no school 
for boys in Enfield, except the Grammar School. The 
building was opened on the ipth November in the same 
year, on which day 80 boys and 30 girls were entered on 
the books. The adjoining houses for the master and 
mistress were built in 1857. During the 34 years that 
the schools have been in existence, above 1,400 boys, 
and 1,050 girls have been admitted. The education is 
wholly unsectarian, no creed or catechism being used, and 



836 

the only text-book for religious instruction being the 
Bible. The children are expected to attend the Sunday 
services at whatever place of worship may be selected by 
their parents. 

Mr. Wakley, who has been the master from the com- 
mencement of the school, received a Government certifi- 
cate last year (1872). The mistress has since obtained 
one, and both schools will now participate in the advan- 
tages offered by the Education Act. 

The present number of children on the books is, 98 
boys and 74 girls. 

The joint secretaries are Rev. S. J. Smith, Baker-street 
Chapel, and Rev. H. S. Toms, Chase-side Chapel. 

The BAKER STREET INFANT SCHOOL was established 
in 1846. It is conducted by a committee of ladies, who 
are elected yearly by the subscribers. The average 
number of children who attend is about 50. 

Schools have lately been opened in connection with the 
BAPTIST CHAPEL in the Totteridge-road. 

There is also an INFANT SCHOOL at Ponder's-end. 



ffijraritif*. 



THE following account of the Enfield Charities is 
taken from that drawn up in 1789 by the Vicar and 
Churchwardens and Overseers, and published by their 
authority. As this is the original document from which 
all subsequent statements have been adopted, it has been 
thought best to reprint it verbatim, with the addition of 
" NOTES," which have been supplied by Mr. Purdey, the 
Vestry Clerk, and of an appendix containing gifts of a 
later date, thus completing the record down to the 
present time. 



A PARTICULAR of the several charitable gifts, rents, 
and revenues belonging to the parish of Enfield, in the 
county of Middlesex ; with the names of the donors, for 
what uses to be disposed of, according to the wills of the 
donors, and constitutions of every respective gift and 
settlement. 

Abstract of deeds of trusts, wills of the donors, and 
orders of Vestry. 

A2 



|-'ll<<T (IlFT. PoYNKl's. 

A farm, called Poynet's, in South Benfleet, Hadleigh, 
and Thundersly, in the county of Essex, formerly lett at 
^55 per annum (now on lease from Michaelmas, 1786, 
for fourteen years, at 80 per annum), .which the feoffees 
in trust shall from time to time for ever dispose and pay. 
as followeth viz., 20 part of the rents, issues, and 
profits thereof yearly, for and towards the maintenance 
of a learned, meet, and competent schoolmaster, to'keep 
a free school for the teaching and instructing of the 
children of all the inhabitants of the said parish of Enfield, 
in the cross-row, or alphabetical letters, and in the art of 
: writing, and in the arts of grammar and arithmetic, within 
the town and parish aforesaid, in the new-built "school 
there (which school, and house for the schoolmaster to 
dwell in, the parishioners purchased and built at their own 
proper costs and charges), to be paid quarterly viz., at 
Lady-day, Midsummer -day, Michaelmas-day, and Christ- 
mas-day, orwithin twenty-eight days next after any of them; 
and all the residue thereof for and towards the relief of poor 
orphans, and other poor and impotent people of the said 
parish for the time being, and to any other good and 
useful uses, to be done and performed within the said 
parish, except so much thereof as shall be sufficient to 
pay and discharge all such other charges and expenses as 
shall from time to time grow to be due and payable, or 
upon any other meet or reasonable occasion to be laid 



out for, upon, about, or by reason of the said premises. 
When the feoffees are dead, to five, four, or three at the 
least, this feoffment to be renewed. 

N.B. There has been received several sums for timber 
cut on this estate. 

Particular of the annual receipts and disbursements of 
each gift. 



Annual Receipt. 


Annual Application. 


f- d. 


' d - 


A Year's Rent 80 o o 


To the Schoolmaster* 20 o o 




To the Lecturer* ... 26 o o 




Land Tax, about ... 3 o o 




Quit Rent to the 




Manor of Hadleigh I 2 6 




Ditto to South Ben- 




fleet 128 




Charges of repairing 




marsh walls, on a 




medium i o o 


' 


To be applied in 




repair of the school - 




house, or to such 




uses as contained 




in the abstract ... 27 14 10 


So o o 


80 o o 







[NOTE.] 

Ji 

Farm-house and Land of Poynetts, containing 270 
acres in South Benfleet and Hadleigh, let on 21 

years lease from 29 September, 1853 150 o o 

Edward's Hall, let on yearly term 80 o o 

Two cottages and Field 8 o o 

Dividend on 21 143. 4d. 3 percent, consols exparte 

Tilbury and Southend Railway 9 9 o 



rf. 



247 9 



* The duty of- schoolmaster and lecturer is performed by one 
person. 



IV. 

SECOND GIFT. RAMSTOX'S. 

ROBERT RAMSTON, of Chinckford, in the county of 
Essex, gent., by a codicil annexed to his will, bearing 
date the ist of August, 1585, gave, for the comfort and 
relief of the poor people of the parish of Enfield, the sum 
of 403. to be paid in the month of November, yearly, 
for ever, to the Churchwardens for the time being. 

N.B. This gift is paid by Mr. Patrick, of the Dividend 
Office in the Banlc of England. 

[NOTE.] 
It is now paid by Lord Maynard. 



Annual Receipt. Annual Application. 




s. d. 


'. 


d. 


A Year's Gift Money 


By an allowance for 




of George How- 


Land Tax o 6 





land, Esq., due 


Bread given away 




yearly on the 12th 


every other Sunday I 14 





1 of November ... 2 o o 






200 


2 o 








[NOTE.] 

This money is now given in clothing to the poor at 
Christmas. 



THIRD GIFT. WILSON'S. 

THOMAS WILSON, of London, brewer, by will dated the 
3oth of October, 1590, gave all the rents, issues, and 



profits of three houses, with the appurtenances, being in 
Whitechapel, in the county of Middlesex, on the south 
side of the -High-street there, near the Bars, to be yearly 
for ever bestowed on six poor. men of the parish of 
Enfield, to be paid to them , quarterly, or within one 
month, which said houses are now lett on lease for 2 r ; 
years from Lady-day, 1786, at ,8-2. tos. per annum, 
clear of deductions ; and that the same poor men shall 
from time to time be chosen and appointed by the 
Churchwardens and six parishioners of the said parish, of 
Enfield, always at a Vestry ; and if any of the said poor 
men shall go to dwell out of the parish, or decease, or 
any such so chosen to have a part of the said rents 
happening to be wealthy, or able to live, without the 
same, then, from time to time, one other poor person or 
persons of the said parish to be chosen in form aforesaid, 
in the room of such person so dying, or dwelling out of 
the said parish, or of ability to live without it. When 
feoifees reduced to three, the feoffment to be renewed to 
six. 



[NOTE.] 

One of these houses was sold under Act of 
Parliament (42 Geo. III. c. 101), to the trustees of the 
Commercial-road, and the purchase-money, ,2, 091 53. 8d. 
(invested in consols), may be applied to the purchase of 
any real estate. 



VI. 



Annual Receipt. 


Annual Application. 


s. d. 


' * 


Of Mr. Daniel Law- 


To six poor men, at 


rence, for No. I ... 28 10 o 


12 I2s.* per an- 


Of Mr. Wm. Wright, 


num each 75 I2 


for No. 2 28 o o 


To re-pay the parish 


Of Mr. Bendahan, for 


16 os. 5d., ad- 


No. 3 26 o o 


vanced forinsuring 




the premises for 




seven years, from 




August, 1788 ... 4 II 6| 




Towards a fund for 




keeping the pre- 




mises insured ... 2 6 5^ 


82 "10 o 


82 10 o 



* From Michaelmas, 1 795, this sum will be increased. 

t This insurance cost 32 os. iod., the half of which was paid 
out of the rents of the estate, the other ^i 6 os. $d. was advanced by 
the parish, to be repaid by annual payments at ^4 I is. 6^d. per 
annum, which expires at Lady-day, 1792, from which time to 
Michaelmas, 1 795, when the present insurance expires, it is to be 
added to the above 2 6s. S^d-, to raise a sufficient fund to keep 
the premises always insured, as under : 

Three years and a-half to Lady-day, 1792, at 
2 6s. 5^d. per annum 8 2 6^ 

Three years and a half from Lady-day, 1792, to 

Michaelmas, 1795, at 6 i8s. per annum ..24 3 a 

32 5 W 



[NOTE]. 

s. d. 
Two Messuages in High-street, Whitechapel 160 o o 

Dividend on .209 1 155. 8d. 3 per cent. Consols ... 61 8 7 

221 8 7 



FOURTH GIFT. SMITH'S. 

WILLIAM SMITH, of the parish of Enfield, in the county 
of Middlesex, yeoman, by will dated the 26th of Sep- 
tember, 1592, gave 4* per annum for ever, to be paid 
to the Vicar and Churchwardens of the Parish Church of 
Enfield aforesaid, for the time being, by four even 
portions, viz., at Christmas 205.; at Lady-day 205.; and 
at Midsummer and Michaelmas, 203. each; which said 
money in such sort paid, the said Vicar and Church- 
wardens, calling unto them some four other men of the 
same parish, shall, within six days after every such 
receipt, distribute it among the poor inhabitants where 
most need is. And if it shall chance that the said sums 
of money, or any of them, shall be in the whole or in part 
unpaid by the space of two months after any of the feasts 
wherein they should be due, he did will then that his 
house, with all and every the parcels of land hereafter 
named, should be demised or lett out from time to time, 
by the said Vicar and Churchwardens, and in case no 
Vicar, the Churchwardens and four other men, at such 
price as they, or the greater part of them, shall think 
good, and pay the rent as aforesaid, viz., the house where 
John White did dwell, with five acres of pasture adjoining 
to the same, and four acres of pasture near Phipps Hatch 
Gate, and three acres of arable in Broadfield, and two 

* There is now only received ^3 135. 4d. ; the other 6s. 8d. has 
been lost to the parish many years. ' 



vm. 



acres in Maypleton-field, and one acre called a five-rod 
acre, at or near Bullock's Stile. 



Annual Receipt. 






Annual Application 







s. 


d. 









s. d. 


Of the Overseers of 






To one poor woman, 


the town quarter, 






at 1 8s. 


4d. per 






for the workhouse o 


6 


8 


quarter . 




3 


13 4 


Of Mr. Shroder one 














year o 


10 


o 










Of Mr. Maurer ... i 


*3 


4 










Of ditto, for late Jenks I 


3 


4 










3 


13 


4 






3 


13 4 









[NOTE]. 
The full amount of this charity is now received, viz. 

s. d. 

One year's rent charge, C. Walford 216 8 

S. L. Lucena o 10 o 

Overseers for Workhouse Premises ... 013 4 



40 



FIFTH GIFT. DAVID'S. 

JOHN DAVID, of Enfield, Middlesex, yeoman, by will 
dated the 2oth of November, 1620, did will and devise 
that the rents, issues, and profits, from time to time 
coming, growing, and arising of and in all that his mes- 
suage or tenement, with the barns, stables, yards, and 
outhouses whatsoever thereunto belonging, situate, lying, 
and being on the left side of the Market-place at Enfield- 
green, should be yearly employed and bestowed to and 



IX. 

upon the relief of four poor, aged, and well-disposed 
widows of the said parish of Enfield for ever, to be paid 
unto them at the four usual feasts, or within 2 1 days next 
after, by even portions ; and that the same poor widows 
should, from time to time, be chosen and appointed by 
the Churchwardens and six parishioners of the said parish, 
always at a vestry to be holden at the said parish ; and 
if any of the said poor widows should go and dwell out 
of the said parish of Enfield, marry or decease, then, from 
time to time, one other poor widow or widows of the said 
parish should be chosen in manner and form aforesaid, 
in the room of her or them so dwelling out of the said 
parish, marrying, or deceasing. There are six feoffees, 
and when reduced to three the feoffment to be renewed 
to six. 

N.B. The estate is now lett on lease for 99 years, 
from Midsummer, 1788, at ^40 per annum. 



Annual Receipt. 



Of Mr. John Ostlife, 







the lessee 40 



40 



Annual Application. 

* 

To four poor women, 
at 10 per annum 
each 40 o 



40 o o 



N.B. This estate used to be lett to different tenants at 48 los. 
per annum, but great part thereof being so old and decayed as to 
make it necessary to be re-built, the same was lett to Mr. Ostlife at 
the above rent, he covenanting to expend ,500 in repairing or 
re-building the same. 

[For Note to David's Gift, see next page.] 



X. 

[NOTE.] 

Rent of Public Offices and Houses in Market-place 

(40 less loss of Common right, 2 us. od.) ... 37 90 
Allotment of Chase let on yearly tenancy 6 12 o 

44 i 

SIXTH GIFT. DEYCROWE'S. 

JOHN DEYCKOWE, by will dated the 25th day of May, 
1627, gave a moiety of his messuage or farm, situate at 
or near a street in Enfield, called Green-street, and of all 
barns, stables, houses, outhouses, gardens, orchards, 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments thereunto belonging 
and appertaining, as the same are mentioned in a certain 
presentment or survey made by a jury at a court holden 
for the Manor of Worcester, to be held freely of the said 
manor, to Thomas Sone, his heirs and assigns for ever, 
and requires him and them for ever to pay thereout to the 
poor of the parish of Enfield 4 yearly, by 205. quarterly, 
to be paid on every of the four most usual quarter days 
of payment in the year, or within eight days next 
following, to the Churchwardens and Overseers of the 
said parish of Enfield ; and they calling and taking unto 
them two others of the inhabitants of the said parish, 
such as they shall think well of, do and shall give and 
bestow, dispose and distribute the said 203. quarterly to 
and amongst the poor people of Enfield aforesaid for the 
time being, for ever. 



Annual Receipt. 

s. d. 
Of Mr. Boddam ... 4 o o 



400 



Annual Application. 

J- d. 

To two poor women, 
at IDS. per quarter 
each 4 o o 



400 



SEVENTH GIFT. LOFT'S. 

HENRY LOFT, of Enfield, Middlesex, yeoman, by will 
dated March the 3rd, 1631, gave to the parish of Enfield 
the sum of ^20 per annum for ever viz., ^12; part 
thereof to be paid to the Minister and Churchwardens 
for the time being, to and for the only use, benefit, and 
behoof of six poor widows, to be chosen after his decease 
by the said Minister, Churchwardens, and six others of 
the vestrymen of the said parish of Enfield, at a vestiy, 
equally to be divided amongst the said six poor widows, 
at the four most usual feasts or terms in the year, or 
within 14 days next ensuing every of the said feast days, 
by even portions ; and if any of the said poor widows 
shall depart this mortal life, or go to live out of the said 
parish to dwell, or happen to be married, that then one 
other poor widow to be chosen in her stead or room by 
the said Minister, Churchwardens; and six others of the 
vestrymen of the same parish for the time being, at a 
vestry as aforesaid ; and ^4, another part thereof, to the 
said Minister and Churchwardens, at the days and times 
aforesaid, to and for the use and only benefit and behoof 



Xll. 



of a preacher or lecturer, which shall preach in the after- 
noon of the Lord's-day, in the said Parish Church of 
Enfield (the said preacher or lecturer for the time being 
not omitting preaching above one month in the year in 
the said Parish Church); and 4, the other part thereof, 
at Midsummer-day, or within 14 days then next following, 
to the Minister and Churchwardens as aforesaid, to be 
bestowed by them for and towards the cloathing of the 
poor of the said parish of Enfield, or providing of them 
such necessary apparel as they shall think fitting ; which 
said sum of 20 is to be paid out of the premises here- 
after named viz., one messuage, three barns, one garden, 
one orchard, and 39 acres and a half of land, with the 
appurtenances situate, lying, and being at Horsepool 
Stones, in the parish of Enfield aforesaid ; also one 
cottage and one acre of land, in Baker-street, then in the 
occupation of Robert Morphew ; and also one close of 
pasture, called Bullocks Stile, and two acres and a half of 
land, then in the occupation of Henry Hunsdon, the 
elder ; and also of and in two and twenty acres of land, 
with the appurtenances, lying and being in Chigwell, in 
the county of Essex, then in the tenure of Abraham 
Fuller. 

Annual Receipt. Annual Application. 

s. d. \ s. d. 

Of Benjamin Crew ... 20 o o To six poor women, 

at I os. per quarter 

each 12 o o 

To the Rev. Samuel 

Hardy, as lecturer .400 
To the Minister and 
Churchwardens, to 
cloathe the poor ... 4 o o 



20 o o 



20 o o 



[NOTE]. 

The lands in En ft eld from which this sum is paid are 
numbered on the parish map 1292, 1293, 1362, 1374, 
1608, and 1894. 



EIGHTH GIFT. COCK'S. 

GEORGE COCK, of the parish of St. James, Clerk en well, 
in the county of Middlesex, brewer, by will dated the 
i6th of September, 1635, gave to the poor of the parish 
ef Enfield the sum of ^30 for a stock for the increase of 
profit thereof to be yearly given to the poor of Enfield in 
bread, with which said sum the parishioners purchased a 
tenement, with a little close of pasture ground adjoining 
to the same, at Clay-hill, in the said parish of Enfield, 
and it is disposed of for bread given to the poor on 
Sundays. 

N.B. The tenement is in the possession of Thomas 
Richardson, as one of the paupers of the said parish ; 
the close of pasture is on lease to Mrs. Ann Schroder 
for 31 years, from Michaelmas, 1762. 



[NOTE.J 

In the year 1829 the late Mr. Harman agreed with the 
parish to exchange the above property for premises in 
Enfield Town, adjoining the Greyhound Inn, which 
exchange was accordingly made by deed, and the 
premises conveyed to trustees. 



Annual Receipt. 
* d. 
Of the Overseers of 


Annual Application. 
s - d- 
By bread given away 


the town quarter, 


every other Sunday 






for the tenement ... I 8 o 


in the year 


2 II 


4 


Of Mrs. Schroder, 


Quit Rent to the 






for the close I 4 o 


Manor of Worcester 


O O 


8 


2 12 




2 12 












[NOTE.] 

1871. s. d. 

One V'ear's Rent of Commissioners of Police 15 o o 

E. Letchworlh, Esq 12 10 o 

One Year's Rent of Allotment of Land on Enfield 

Chase 220 



29 12 o 



NINTH GIFT. RAYNTON'S. 



SIR NICHOLAS RAYNTON, Knt., and Alderman of the 
City of London, by will dated May the 2nd, 1646, gave to 
the parish of Enfield ,10 per annum for ever, to put out 
three poor children, born in the town of Enfield, appren- 
tices ; which said sum is to be paid to the Churchwardens 
for the time being, at Michaelmas in every year, by the 
Master and Four Wardens of the fraternity of the art and 
mystery of Haberdashers in Ix>ndon, out of some houses 



XV. 



in the parish of St. Kdmoncl the King, in Lombard-street, 
London. 

N.B. Since the dreadful fire of London in 1666, the 
Churchwardens never received the full sum o 



[XOTE]. 

In July. 1813, the attention of the Vestry was called 
to the subject, when an application was made to the 
Haberdashers' Company for the full payment, and also 
for the arrears for the last 35 years, to which the Company 
assented, and accordingly paid over the sum of ^70, 
which was invested in the purchase of ^100 three per 
Cents., in the names of trustees. 



Annual Receipt. Annual Application. 

s. d. s. d. 

Of the Haberdashers' Binding three chil- 

Company 10 o o dren apprentice, at 

2 135. 4d. each ... 8 o o 
Land Tax, at 45. in 

the pound 2 o o 



,10 o o 10 o o 

* d. 

Annuity from Haberdashers' Company 10 o o 

Dividend on Stock 3 o o 



TENTH GIFT. BILLINGS'. 

WILLIAM BILLINGS, of Enfield, Middlesex, yeoman, by 
will dated June the nth, 1659, gave 205. per annum for 
ever, to be paid to the Minister and Churchwardens at 
Bartholomew-tide, every year, for and towards the 
cloathing of poor children of the said parish of Enfield ; 
which said money is to be paid out of one messuage or 
tenement, with the appurtenances, and the closes of 
several pasture grounds thereunto adjoining and belonging, 
situate, lying, or being near unto Cole's Bridge, near 
Clay Hill, in the parish of Enfield aforesaid. 

This, and Ann Osbourn's Gift, being now disposed of 
together, the account is stated in No. 16. 



ELEVENTH GIFT. GRAVE'S. 

ROGER GRAVE, of Enfield, Middlesex, yeoman, by will 
gave 405. yearly for ever, to the Schoolmaster of the Free 
School of the parish of Enfield for the time being, for and 
towards his recompence for teaching and instructing the 
poor children of the inhabitants of the parish of Enfield 
aforesaid ; to be paid out of the issues and profits of a 
certain tenement, with the appurtenances, situate, lying, 
and being by the New River, near Forty-hill, in Enfield 
aforesaid ; which said 403. is to be paid half-yearly, by 
even and equal portions. 



xvn. 



Annual Receipt. 
i 

Of Richard Gough, 
Esq., for his late 
house at Patten's 
Ware . 



200 



TWELFTH GIFT. WROTH'S. 



Annual Application. 

s. d. 

To the Rev. Sam. 
Hardy, the School- 
master .. 200 



^200 



SIR HENRY WROTH, in consideration of his inclosing 
part of Stonard Field, near Ponder' s-end, in the parish of 
Enfield, agreed to pay the parish of Enfield i 73. 6d. 
per annum, at Michaelmas, yearly, to one or more of the 
Churchwardens for the time being, and whosoever enjoys 
the same are to pay the said sum, which the said Church- 
wardens are to distribute amongst the poor people of the 
said parish of Enfield, as they at their discretions shall 
think fit. 



Annual Receipt. 



Of Mr. Chapman, for 
Durance Estate ... I 



d. 
6 



i 7 6 



Annual Application. 

s. d. 

This gift is usually 
received and distri- 
buted by the church- 
wardens of Green- 
street and Ponder's- 
end quarters I 7 6 



i 7 6 



THIRTEENTH GIFT. KING JAMES'S. 

KING JAMES THE FIRST gave to the parish of Enfield a 
sum of money in consideration for his taking some part 



B2 



of Enfield Chace to enlarge Theobald's Park, with which 
money the parishioners of Enfield purchased an estate 
called Marches and Devises, in the parish of North 
Mimms, in the county of Hertford, and which is now lett 
on lease at 18 i8s. per annum, for 21 years from 
Michaelmas, 1784, which rent is at the disposal of the 
parish. When the feoffees are reduced to five, four, or 
three at the least, the feoffment to be renewed. 



Annual Receipt. 

. * d> 
Of John Philips, the 

tenant ... .. 18 18 o 



18 18 o 



Annual Application. 

t. d. 

Land Tax 2 9 o 

To be disposed of at 
the discretion of the 
Vestry 16 9 o 



18 o 



[NOTE.J 

This estate was sold under Act of Parliament (48 Geo. 
III. c. 156), and the purchase-money invested in Consols, 
till in the year ?8i6 the trustees, under the sanction of 
the Court of Chancery, purchased that part of Edwards' 
Hall lying south of the road which passed through the 
estate, containing 94a. 2r. 34p., for the sum of ^1700, 
which was raised by the sale of the said stock, added to 
the sum of ,341 133. 7d., at that time owing to this gift 
from the Benfleet Estate. The rent of this estate is " at 
the disposal of the vestry for any general use that doth 
concern the town and parish of Enfield or the poor 
thereof." 

The rental of Edward's Hall is ^50. 



XIX. 

FOURTEENTH GIFT. NICHOLS'' 

JASPER NICHOLS, of St. Sepulchre's, London, yeoman, 
by will dated the ....... gave 50 to the 

poor of the parish of Enneid, with which money, and a 

benevolence of his executors, the parishioners, with the 

consent of Thomas Coats, gent., and Robert Curry, 

citizen and cordwainer of London, executors of the said 

Jasper Nichols, have purchased an estate, lately lett at 

52s. per annum (besides the quit rent), which is a 

messuage or tenement, lately called or known by the 

name of the Bull and Bell, situate, lying, and being at 

Horsepool Stones in the parish of Enneid, with several 

parcels of land thereunto belonging, lett to Thomas Hill 

on lease for 30 years, from Michaelmas, 1781; 525. 

whereof is to be paid for bread, at i2d. per \veek, and 

thirteen loaves to the dozen, and given to the poor on 

Sundays, according to the will of the said Jasper Nichols, 

deceased. When the feoffees are reduced to five, four, 

or three at least, the feoffment to be renewed. 



Annual Receipt. 
Of Thomas Hill ... 4 



Annual Application. 

* 

Bread given away 
every other Sunday 

in the year 2 12 

Towards the paying 
of a forty shilling 
gift I 8 



XX. 

[NOTE]. 

This land was let on building leases by order of the 
Charity Commissioners in 1860, for terras of 80 years, 
and now produces ground-rents to the amount of 
A part is still not built upon. 



FIFTEENTH GIFT. MARKET PLACE. 

A inessaage or tenement called the KING'S HEAD, and 
the MARKET PLACE thereunto adjoining also a close of 
pasture to the same, with the market, and all liberties, 
free customs, tolls, stallage, pickages, fines, amerciaments, 
and all the shambles, shops, and stalls, for the use of the 
market, with the market-house there, together with all 
the ground and soil, and all other profits whatsoever, 
formerly lett at the yearly rent of 40 per annum, now 
divided as follows viz., the King's Head and close of 
pasture, now a garden and bowling green, is lett to David 
Walker, as tenant at will, at 20 per annum. The 
houses on the west side of the Market-place, and the 
market, &c. , are lett to Thomas Vaughan on lease for 
57 years, from Christmas, 1789, at 12 per annum, and 
the messuage in the Churchyard lett to George Skegg on 
lease for 21 years, from Lady-day, "1772, at $ per 
annum. And whereas by one indenture of feoffment, 
dated October the 24th, in the year of our Lord 1691, 
and inrolled in the Court of Common Pleas at West- 



minster, in that Michaelmas Term, it is therein particu- 
larly mentioned and expressed that the feoffees shall and 
will permit and suffer such person or persons as the 
Minister, Churchwardens, and other parishioners of the 
parish of Enfield shall nominate and appoint to receive 
the rents, issues, and profits of the said premises ; the 
same to be distributed to the only proper behoof, use, 
and benefit of the poor of Enfield, from time to time, 
inhabiting and residing in the said town of Enfield, in, 
such manner and form as the Minister, Churchwardens, 
and others the parishioners of the said parish shall from 
time to time appoint. The Free-school house, and small 
garden thereto belonging, is occupied by the Rev. 
Samuel Hardy, as schoolmaster and lecturer. 



Annual Receipt. 

s. d. 
Of David Walker, for 

the King's Head ... 20 o o 
Of Thomas Vaughan 12 o o 
OfGeo. Skegg ... 5 o o 



^37 



Annual Application. 

s. d. 

By Window and House 
Tax, for the School- 
house . . . . . 10 8 4 
To be disposed of by 

order of Vestry ... 26 u 8 

37 o o 



[NOTE], 



s. d. 



King's Head, now let on yearly tenancy to George 

Baldwin .............. ... 58 o o 

Allotment on Chase ... ... ... ... ...410 



62 



SIXTEENTH GIFT. BILLING'S AND O.SBOURN^S. 

ANN OSBOURN, of the parish of St. Saviour's, Southwark, 
in the county of Surrey, widow, by her will dated 
February the 23d, 1666, gave to the parish of Enfield, 
Middlesex, the sum of ;ioo to purchase land, which 
shall remain for ever, the profits thereof arising yearly to 
be bestowed and employed every year for the relief of 
poor widows that are of good report, and of setting to 
school one or more poor child or children that are either 
fatherless or motherless, in the said parish of Enfield, 
and to be converted to no other use ; and the parishioners 
did add, out of the parish rents, 20 more, and pur- 
chased with the said money* one messuage or tenement, 
since pulled down, a garden, and tvyo acres of land, in 
the parish of Enfield aforesaid, at or near Cole's-bridge, and 
one acre and a half of meadow jn Wild-marsh, and one acre 
of land in Dung-field, and two acres of land in the same 
Dung-field, called Locker Croft, and five roods of land 
in Long-field. 

[NOTE.] 

At the time of the Enclosure Act (41 Geo. III. c. 143), 
a part of the property of this Charity was exchanged by 



* These are the same premises as were charged by the will of 
Wjlliam Billings with the payment of 2Os. per annum to the parish 
of Enfield. 



XX1U. 



the Commissioners for 3a. i2f. lop. of land at the bacR 
of the Workhouse, numbered 1641 on the parish map, 
and now rented by the Edmonton Union. 

Annual Application, 
s. d, s. d t 

Quit Rent to the 

3 10 o Manor of Chapless 076 

400 To four poor widows, 
at 7s. 6d. a quarter 

each 6 o Q 

To the Minister and 
Churchwardens, to 
be bestowed at Bar- 
tholomew-tide, for 



Annual Receipt. 

Ci 

Of Richard Connop, 

one year 
Of [os. Jennis, ditto 



7 I0 



cloathing poor chil- 
dren 



2 <5 
7 10 Q 



{NOTE}. 

One year's rent of Edmonton Union 15 o o 

Ditto of Mr. Lucena 220 

Ditto of Mr. Jennings 4 o o 

Interest on ,100 lent to the Market-place Charity ...400 

25 2 O 



SEVENTEENTH GIFT. DIXON'S. 

HENRY DIXON, citizen and draper of London, and 
inhabitant of the town of Enfield, in the county of 
Middlesex, by will dated November the Qth, 1693, did 
give and bequeath all his messuages, lands, tenements, 
and hereditaments, situate in the towns or parishes of 



XXIV. 

Benington or Munden in the county of Hertford, and 
Enfield, in the county of Middlesex, and in the parish of 
St. Mildred in the Poultry, London, to the Company of 
Drapers, London, and their successors for ever, upon 
trust that the said Company of Drapers and their 
successors (after deducting all charges incident to the said 
lands and premises, and other payments, in his will 
mentioned), should dispose of the residue to the use 
hereinafter mentioned, that is to say, in, for, and towards 
placing apprentices to handicraft trades. In the first 
place, of such poor boys, wheresoever born, as bear his 
Christian name and surname, and are of the age of 15 
years or more, the sum of j$ for each boy ; and for the 
payment of the like sum of ^5 to every such boy so 
placed out apprentice as aforesaid, that shall duly and 
truly serve his said apprenticeship, within a month after 
he shall be made free of the city of London, for the better 
enabling him to set up and follow his trade ; and in the 
next place, in, for, and towards placing apprentices to 
handicraft trades, such poor boys, wheresoever born, as 
bear his surname only, and are above the age of 15 
years, the sum of 4 for each boy ; and for the payment 
of the like sum of 4 to every such boy so placed out 
apprentice, that shall duly and truly serve his said 
apprenticeship, within a month after he shall be made 
free of the City of London, for the better enabling him 
to set up and follow his trade ; and for want of such, then 
in and for placing out apprentices to handicraft trades, 



of such and so many poor boys born and resident in the 
several parishes of Benington and Enfield aforesaid, and 
of the parishes of Saint Katherine Coleman and Saint 
Mildred, in the Poultry, London, that are above the age 
of 15 years, the sum of 4 for every such boy, and for 
the payment of the like sum of ^4 to every such boy of 
the said several parishes so placed out apprentice that 
shall duly and truly serve his said apprenticeship, within 
a month after he shall be free of the City of London, 
for the better enabling him to set up and follow his 
trade ; and for want of such, then, in the next place, 
in and for the placing out apprentices, to the trades 
aforesaid, of such of the sons of the tenants which now 
are, or hereafter shall be, tenants of the hereby devised 
lands, or any part thereof, whose parent or parents shall 
desire the same, and are of the age of 15 years, the sum 
of ^3 for each such son, and for the payment of the like 
sum of ^3 to every such son of a tenant so placed out 
apprentice, within two months after he shall have served 
the term of seven years as an apprentice, and shall 
produce a certificate of his serving such apprenticeship, 
under the hands of the Churchwardens' for the time being 
of the parish in which he shall have served his said 
apprenticeship, and also a certificate of his having been 
above the age of 15 years at the time he was 
bound apprentice as aforesaid, from the hands of the 
Churchwardens for the time being of the parish in which 



he was born, for the better enabling him to set up and: 
follow his trade ; and, for want of such, in the last place, 
to and for the placing out apprentices, to the trades 
aforesaid, of any poor boys as the Court, commonly 
called the Court of Assistants, of the said Company of 
Drapers, for the time being, shall from time to time 
nominate, think fit and appoint, and are above the age of 
1 5 years, the sum of 4 for each such boy ; and for the 
payment of the like sum of ^4 to every such boy so 
placed out apprentice that shall duly and truly serve his 
said aprenticeship, within a month after he shall be made 
free of the City of London, for the better enabling him to 
set up and follow his trade. And he desired that 
immediately after his decease a copy of so much of his 
will be delivered to the respective ministers of the said 
several parishes as shall concern each parish, and to be 
entered in their respective vestry books, for their 
parishioners (for the time being) respective better infor- 
mation and observation of his said bequest, and gave to 
each minister of such respective parish the sum of 205. 
as a legacy, and for his care in causing such clause of his 
will to be entered in the vestry book of his respective 
parish. 

The method of applying for this gift is by producing a 
certificate under the hands of the. Minister and Church 
wardens of Enfield, for the time being, in the form 
following, viz.: 



To the Worshipful the Master, Wardens, and Assistants 
of the Company of Drapers, London. 

We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, the Minister 
and Church \vardens of the parish of Enfield, in the county 
of Middlesex, do hereby certify the Company above- 
named that A.B., the son of C.D. by E. his wife, is a 
poor boy of this parish, and was baptized the .... 
. day of . . . . 17 . as by the register appeareth ; 
and having first made due enquiry, we like and approve 

of G. H. of the parish of in the City of 

London, citizen and , to be a fit master for the 

said A.B. And we do, therefore, desire your worships 
consent for Mr. Henry Dixon's gift, for him to be put 
out apprentice to the said G.H. for the term of seven 
years, according to the last will and testament of the said 
Hemy Dixon, deceased. 

Witness our hands this . . 



Churchwardens. 



N.B. The boy must be presented at Drapers' Hall on 
a Court-day, being the first Monday in every month, by 
one of the Churchwardens who signed the certificate for 
the Company's approbation, before he is bound, otherwise 
the gift will not be paid. 




XXV111. 



[NOTE.] 

The Company has now increased its payment to 
and upwards. 



EIGHTEENTH GIFT. PIGOTT'S. 

THOMAS PIGOT, by his will bearing date February the 
25th, 1681, gives to the parish of Enfield, yearly for ever, 
i os. to the poor of Ponder' s-end quarter, to be laid out 
in bread and distributed to them on St. Thomas's Day, 
and if default shall be made in payment of the said IDS. 
he gives a power of distress and sale in any of his lands 
given to his kinsman, Thomas Pigot and his heirs, on 
which the same is charged. 

4T This gift has not been paid many years, nor is it 
known for any certainty which are the lands. 

NINETEENTH GIFT. 

A messuage or tenement, with the garden and pre- 
mises, situate at the Chace-side, in Enfield, purchased by 
the parish of Enfield in the year 1740, and now used as 
a workhouse for the poor of the said parish. 

gg|F This is part of the premises charged with the 
payment of Smith's gift. 

[NOTE]. 

At the time of the enclosure in 1801, sixteen poles of 
land were added to the garden at the back of the work- 



house, and an allotment of 35 poles was awarded in lieu 
of common rights, the rent of which is paid to the 
Overseers. 

TWENTIETH GIFT. NICHOLS'. 

MRS. MARY NICHOLS, of Enfield, by her will dated May 
the 22nd, 1751, left to the parish of Enfield ,900, part 
thereof to be laid out in the purchase of an organ, the 
other part thereof to be deposited in Government 
Securities, the interest thereof to be applied towards 
paying an organist. When the organ was compleatly 
built and erected, there remained as much money as 
purchased ,319 8s - io^d. 3 per cent. Consolidated 
Bank Annuities, which stands in the name of the 
Accomptant General of the Court of Chancery, and 
placed to the credit of a cause intitled the Attorney 
General against Patteshall, the interest whereof is 
9 us. 8d. per annum, and paid to the organist for the 
time being. 

The parish pays the organist an additional salary, 
us. 8d. 

The said Mary Nichols also left ^50 to the said 
parish, to be laid out at interest, the interest to be 
distributed yearly in bread amongst the poor for ever, on 
the day she was buried, which was on June the i2th, 
1751. This ^50 purchased ^46 IDS. Old South Sea 
Annuities, subscribed, the interest of which is i js. lod 
per annum. 



Annual Receipt. 



Interest on .319 8s. 
loid. 3 per cent. 
Consolidated Bank 
Annuities 

Interest on 46 IDS. 
Old South Sea An- 
nuities, subscribed 







9 ii 8 



7 10 



Annual Application 



10 19 6 



Cash received at the 
Dank by the Or- 
ganist, by warrant 
from the Accomp- 
tant General ..... 

Bread given annually 
to the poor on June 
I2th ......... 



911 8 



7 10 



10 19 6 

N.B. When a new organist is appointed, an affidavit 
of the appointment must be made either by one of the 
Church\vardens or the Vestry Clerk of the parish, of such 
appointment, and the new organist produced at the 
Accomptant General's Chambers by the person making 
such affidavit, to identify his person. 

TWENTY-FIRST Gl FT. M AU K KR's. 

FREDERICK MAURER, of Enfield, Esq., left, by his will 
dated March the 2 2nd, 1772, ^50 to the poor of the 
parish of Enfield, to be distributed amongst them, at the 
discretion of the Ministers and Churchwardens of the 
said parish. 

* # * With this sum the parish, by consent of the 
executor, purchased ^57 los. 3 per cent. Consolidated 
Bank Annuities. 



s. d. 



Annual Receipt. 


Interest on 57 ios; 
3 per cent Consoli- 
dated Bank An- 
nuities ......... i 14 6 



Annual Application. 

C *.'* 

Bread given to the 
poor, every other 
Sunday in tlie year I 14 6 



14 6 



[NOTE]. 

In the year 1813 the parish added to this gift several 
small balances of different charities, which arose from 
returned property tax, and therewith purchased ^,100 
more of the same stock, making the whole income 
4 143. 6d. 



TWENTY-SECOND GIFT. DARBY'S. 

RICHARD DARBY, of Gray's Inn, in the county of 
Middlesex, Esq., by will dated January the i2th, 1735; 
gave to the poor of Ponder's-end quarter, in the parish of 
Knfield, ,ioo to be distributed to such persons, and in 
such proportions, as his wife should think proper. 

The said Sarah Darby never distributed the above 
legacy; but, by order of the Court of Chancery, the 
same was, on the 2nd September, 1776, paid, together 
with the interest thereof to the 5th of August, 1776, 
making together ^278 6s. 3d., with which, and 
$ 95. 5cl. out of the Benfleet Rents, the then Overseers 
purchased ,333 6s. 8d., 3 per cent. Consolidated Bank 
Annuities; the interest whereof is to be paid by half- 
yearly payments, at Midsummer and Christmas, in every 
year, to four poor persons of Ponder's-end quarter, in 
equal proportions, such poor persons to be nominated 
and appointed by the inhabitants of the said parish of 
Enfield, in vestry assembled, by giving notice of such 
vestry in the Church on the two Sundays next preceding 
the same. 



A initial Receipt. 



Interest on 333 6s. 8d. 
3 per cent. Consoli- 
dated Bank Annui- 
ties .. 







10 o o 



Annual Application. 



To 4 poor persons of 
Ponder's-end quarter 
by Half-yearly pay- 
ments, at Midsum- 
mer and Christmas 10 



10 o o 



TWENTY-THIRD GIFT. TURPIN'S. 
MARY TURPIN, of Enfield, spinster, by will dated June 
the 3oth, 1775, directed her executors to lay out ^200 
in the purchase of 3 per Cent. Bank Annuities, in the 
names of the Vicar of Enfield and the Churchwardens 
and Overseer of the town quarter, for the time being, in 
trust, to apply the interest towards teaching and. in- 
structing three poor girls of the said parish and quarter, 
(whose parents do not receive alms of the said parish) in 
reading, writing, and needle work. Messrs. John 
Cradock and John Fenton, the executors, laid out the 
said sum of 200 in the purchase of ,240, 3 per cent. 
Consolidated Bank Annuities, in the names of the 
Reverend Richard Newbon, John Ostlife, and Robert 
Thome. 

Annual Receipt. Annual Application. 

s. d. s. d. 
A Year's Pay to the 
School Master and 
740 Mistress, for teach- 
ing 3 girls 74 

740 740 



Interest On 240, 3 per 
cent. Consolidated 
Bank Annuities . 



XXX111. 

TWENTY-FOURTH GIFT. BENFLEET TIMBER MONEY. 

Out of the monies received for timber, felled on the 
Benfleet Estate, being No. i of the Gifts, there has been 
purchased ,400, 3 per cent. Consolidated Bank 
Annuities. 



Annual Receipt. 



d. 



Interest on 4 3 per 
cent. Consolidated 
Bank Annuities ... 12 o o 



12 o o 



Annual Application. 

s. d. 
B read given away every 

other Sunday in the 

year, at the Church 

Door 768 

Towards three Forty 

Shilling Gifts to 2 

poor men and I 

poor Woman ... 4 12 o 
At the disposal of the 

Vestry o I 4 

12 o o 



N.B. The above 4 I2s. 
and Nichols Gift . l 8s. 

6 o 



makes the three 403. Gifts, called 
Bread Gifts. 







By the foregoing state of the Gifts it appears that 

the annual amount of the same is 357 18 10 

That the annual outgoings of the same are 287 3 4 



Remains to be disposed of, at the discretion of the 

Vestry 70 15 6 

JW Out of this the assistant School-master is paid 

annually 40 o o 



Undisposed of 



30 15 6 



XXXIV. 



Particulars of the several Gifts in the foregoing account 
said to be disposed of in bread. 

' 4. 



Robert Raniston 

George Cock 

Jasper Nichols 

Mary Nichols 

Freder. Maurer 

The Surplus of the In- 
terest of the 400, 
3 per cent. Consoli- 
dated Bank Annui- 
ties, bought with 
the money received 
for timber cut on 
the Benfleet estate 



jf, S. 

1 1-4 

2 II 

2 12 
I 

I 



7 IO 
14 6 



768 
7 6 4 



Forty-nine 3d. loaves 
distributed to the 
' poor every other 
Sunday in the year 15 1 8 6 
Bread given to the poor 
annually on the 
1 2th of June, being 
the burial day of 

Mary Nichols ... I .7 10 



6 4 



RICHARD NEVVBON, Vicar. 

KANDS FORD, \ 

JOSEPH WELCH, ( Churchwardens. 

JOHN ALLEN, ) 

JOHN DELL, 

CHRISTOPHER STROTHOFF, Ova-seers. 

THOMAS WOOD, 1789- 



WRIGHT'S AI.MHOUSES. 

On the west side of Enfield-highway are six almshouses, 
bearing the following inscription : 

" These almshouses were erected and endowed by Mr. 
Charles Wright, of Enfield-highway, for the support of six 
poor widows, A.D. 1847." 

Mr. Wright was for many years a resident at Enfield- 
highway, where he died Aug. 19, 1851, aged 83 years. 

A few years before his death he built these aims- 
houses, and placed six poor widows therein, and by deed 
dated Oct. 4, 1848, conveyed them and a perpetual rent- 
charge of ;8o a year, chargeable upon nineteen freehold 
houses in the parish of St. Luke's, to trustees, for the 
benefit of six poor widows, not possessing an income 
exceeding ^10 a year, and not receiving parochial relief, 
or being under 60 years of age, who had for 1 2 months 
preceding election lived in Enfield-wash, Enfield-highway, 
Green-street, South-street, or Ponder' s-end. 

The said widows are to be elected by the trustees, and 
to occupy the almshouses, and to receive a sum of ;io 
yearly, by quarterly payments, and one ton of good coals 
before Christmas in every year ; and if there should be any 
surplus remaining after providing for the repairs and 
insurance of the almshouses, it is to be disposed of for 
their benefit. 

The present trustees are : Mr. Ellis Hall, James 
Pateshall Jones, Esq., the Rev. John Harman, Mr. 



XXX VI. 

William Mitchell, and Mr. William Walker. The 
appointment and the filling up the trust when a vacancy 
occurs, are vested in the trustees for the time being 
absolutely. 

CROWE'S ALMHOUSES. 

Mrs. Ann Crowe, of Enfield, by. will dated Feb. 26, 
I T^3> g av e to her brother, Matthew Kenriek, 500 three 
per cent. red. stock, in trust, to apply the dividends 
towards repairing her almshouses in Turkey-street, and to 
buy the four inhabitants thereof three chaldrons of coals 
yearly, to be divided along with the remainder of the 
income, if any, equally between them. 



XXXV11. 



APPENDIX. 



ELLSOM'S GIFT. 

JOSEPH ELLSOM, of Enfield, butcher, by his will dated 
March 6th, 1797, left the sum of ^200 five per cent 
stock (now 210 new three and a half per cent stock), 
the interest thereof to be given in equal portions every 
half year, within one month after it becomes due, to two 
poor widows, or single women, of the age of sixty years 
and upwards, born in the parish of Enfield ; to be elected 
by the Trustees and the Churchwardens, or the majority 
of them. He also gave the residue of his five per cent, 
stock, and of his effects, to be laid out in the same stock, 
which being done, produced together ^312 125. stock 
(now ^328 45. 7d. new three and a quarter per cent, 
stock ;) the interest thereof to be given in the same 
manner, and in case either of the said four poor women 
depart this life, then another poor woman to be elected 
in manner aforesaid in her room ; and in the event of the 
death of either of the three trustees, another trustee to be 
appointed by the survivors, within three months ; if they 
neglect to do so, then the Churchwardens are to make the 
appointment. 



xxxviii. 

EATON AND MEYER'S GIFT. 

MRS. ELIZABETH ANNE EATON, of London, by will dated 
August 24th, 1806, gave all her estate at Enfield for the 
benefit of six poor widows ; but as the will was not legally 
executed, so as to pass real estates, and as no heir-at-law 
could be found, an inquisition was held at Enfield, on 
July 3rd, 1815, when it appeared that fourteen acres of 
land, in Broadfield, were within the Manor of Enfield, 
and therefore escheated to the Crown, in right of the 
Duchy of Lancaster ; three houses, and ten acres of land, 
being within the Manor of Worcesters, fell tp James 
Meyer, Esq., as Lord of that Manor who, having sold 
part thereof for as much money as produced ^1700, three 
per cent, consols, added thereto ^300 of the same stock, 
being the value of that part of the estate, which he him- 
self retained ; and acting upon the original intention of 
the said Mrs. Eaton, he made over the whole ^2,000 
stock to trustees, by a deed dated November i6th, 1816, 
enrolled in Chancery ; the interest to be disposed of 
according to the intentions of the said Mrs. Eaton. The 
trustees are the Lord of the Manor of Worcesters for the 
time being, the Vicar of Enfield for the time being, and 
others. 

Any vacancy in the trust to be filled up by the sur- 
vivors, but if the survivors be less than three, then the 
vacancy to be filled up by a Vestry, whereof notice shall 
have been given in the church on two Sundays preceding. 
Two widows are chosen by the Lord of the Manor of 



XXXIX. 

Worcesters for the time being, one by the Vicar of Enfield 
for the time being, and three by the majority of the 
trustees ; the said Lord of the Manor to have the casting 
vote ; and. in case either of the said widows die, or 
remove out of tl>e parish, or marry, oj cease to be poor, 
then another to be elected in her stead. 

There is a proviso in this d,eed, that if the said James 
Meyer, Esq., his heirs, or assigns, shall at. any time be, 
evicted, or turned out of possession, qr interrupted in the. 
quiet enjoyment of a certain piece of land belonging to 
Osborn's gift, lying in his park, containing i.rood and 28 
poles, then the said ^2000 stock shall be transferred to 
the said James Meyer, his -executors, administrators, or 
assigns, for his and their own proper use and benefit. 

The Duchy Court of Lancaster, in 1828, at the inter- 
cession of Dr. Cresswell, agreed to pay the annual rent 
of the 14 acres above mentioned, amounting to 
,32 133. 8d. per annum, to the Vicar and Church- 
wardens of Enfield every year, Mr. Sawyer having given 
up a claim which he had to a beneficial lease thereof ; 
and the Vicar and Churchwardens have agreed to divide 
the same equally between three poor widows, being 
parishioners of Enfield, of unimpeachable characters. 

DICKASON'S GIFT. 

THOMAS DICKASON, of Enfield, Esq., by will dated 
December 3131, 1813, bequeathed to the Vicar and 
Churchwardens of the parish of Enfield for the time being 



xl. 

the sum of ^200, to be laid out in the joint names of the 
Vicar and Churchwardens of Enfield aforesaid, for the time 
being, in the purchase of Government Stocks ; such Vicar 
and Churchwardens, on the 25th day of December, in 
every year for ever, to divide the interest of such stocks 
between such poor persons residing within the parish 
of Enfield as they in their discretion shall think proper 
objects of charity, and the most deserving ; the widows 
of housekeepers (not having usually received alms of the 
parish), to be always preferred. 

The sum of ^"285 33. reduced three per cents,, stands 
in the names of the trustees. 

CLAXTON'S GIFT. 

MRS. FRANCES CLAXTON, of Enfield, by will dated May 
1 9th, 1817, gave to the Vicar of Enfield, for the time 
Dem g> 333 6s. 8d. three per cent, consols ; the interest 
of which is to be applied in keeping her tomb, in Enfield 
churchyard, in repair ; and if anything remain, the same 
to be given to some poor widow above 60 years of age. 
The legacy duty reduced this to ^305 stock. 

MESTURAS' GIFT. 

JAMES FRANCIS MESTURAS, of Enfield, Esq., by will 
dated August 27th, 1817, gave ^50 to the Churchwardens 
of Enfield, for the use of the poor, with which was pur- 
chased ^50 three per cent, reduced stock, in the names 
of the trustees, and the interest given yearly to one 
widow. 



xli. 
THE Two HUNDRED ACRES. 

Enfield-chase, previous to its division in 1777, was 
wholly within the parish of Enfield, and as the Act dis- 
membered that parish, by annexing the allotments of 
Edmonton, South Mimms, and Hadley, to their respective 
parishes, two hundred acres were awarded to Enfield, in 
satisfaction of the said dismemberment ; the rent of 
which said two hundred acres was directed by the Act 
to be applied, one-half thereof in aid of the land-tax of 
the parish, and the other half in aid of the poor rate. 
In 1800, Enfield sold a moiety of the above two hundred 
acres, and with the produce redeemed the land tax ; the 
remaining half, applicable to the poor rate, is let on 
leases for 99 years, from Michaelmas, 1778 (excepting 
lot 36, containing three roods and eighteen perches, 
which is in the occupation of the Workhouse). 

THE TIMBER MONEY. 

The Act of Parliament, passed in the year 1801, for 
dividing and enclosing the Common-fields and Chase- 
allotment in this parish, directed that a certain part of 
the timber then growing on the said Chase-allotment, 
should be sold, and the produce placed in the Govern- 
ment funds, and the interest thereof applied in aid of the 
poor-rate of Enfield parish. Accordingly the Com- 
missioners placed ^15,131 i os. 4d. .three per cent. 
Consols, in the name of the Accountant General of the 



xlii. 

Court of Chancery, exparte the Churchwardens of the- 
parish of Enfield, the annual interest whereof, being 
.453 1 8s. iod., is yearly applied in aid of the poor 
rate of Enfield. 

CONDUITS.. 

In the Enfield Inclosure Act of 1777, it is directed 
That Sir Thomas Halifax, and his assigns, should con- 
tinue at his and their costs and charges, a pipe and cock 
from the main of the conduit on the top of the hill, opposite 
his house, at Chase-side, "for the use and benefit of the 
inhabitants of Enfield, in the manner the same is now, 
(in 1777) or hath been used and enjoyed." 

In the award of the Commissioners of the Inclosure 
Act of 1801, it is directed, "That the well at the north- 
east corner of the allotment of David Miles (1810) shall 
for ever after be continued, and kept open as a public 
watering place ; and that all persons shall and may, at all 
times hereafter, have free access, on foot, to the said 
well, along the footpaths herein before awarded over the 
allotments of Mary May, and David Miles, to the said 
well, and that the stiles which cross the said footpaths 
shall at all times hereafter be made commodious and 
convenient for the persons using the said well, by and at 
the expense of the owners of the allotments through 
which the said footpaths are directed to pass." 



xliii. 
MRS. ANNE COUGH'S GIFT. 

MRS. ANNE GOUGH, widow of the late Richard Gough, 
o,f Forty-hill, Esq., by a codicil dated June 26th, 1830, 
left the sum of ,200, to be distributed amongst poor 
persons, of the parish of Enfield, at the discretion of her 
executors, Humphrey Hall, and John Farran, Esquires; 
who, in order to perpetuate her memory, and to make 
her benefaction a source of permanent good to the poor, 
invested, on the nth day of April, 1834, the above 
mentioned sum in the three per cent. Consolidated 
Annuities, purchasing thereby , 220 IS - 8d. stock, in 
the names of the then Vicar and Churchwardens of the 
said parish, and directed that they, and their successors, 
should lay out the dividends thence accruing, in the 
purchase of articles of clothing, and distribute them 
yearly, on the day after Christmas day, amongst the 
deserving poor of the said parish, for ever. The stock 
stands in the names of the trustees. 

KELHAM'S GIFT. 

MRS. AVICE KELHAM, of Enfield, by her will, dated the 
j2th day of December, 1829,* gave the sum of ^"1260, 

* Extract from the Will of Mrs. Avice Kelham. 

"I give and bequeath to the said Robert Kelham Kelham and 

William Belt, of Bedford-row, in the County of Middlesex, their 

executors, administrators, and assigns, the sum of one thousand 

pounds, 3^ per cent. Reduced Bank Annuities, upon trust from 



xliv. 

three per cent. Consols, the interest of which is to be 
applied for the benefit of the Girls' Sunday School, and 
also the sum of ^1000 in the same Stock, the interest 
of which is to be applied in purchasing coals for the poor 
(chiefly aged widows) of Enfield. 

The dividend annually arising therefrom is thus dis- 
tributed, viz., ^29 i2s. for coals, and ^37 6s. for 
the benefit of the school, which sums are paid by the 
official trustees of Mrs. Kelham's will, and are applied 
as directed, the former by the Vicar and Churchwardens, 
and the latter by the Treasurer to the said school. 

time to time for ever hereafter, to lay out and expend the annual 
interest, dividends, and proceeds thereof in the purchase of coals, 
and to distribute the same in the months of December, January, and 
and February in each and every year, to such poor persons residing 
within the said Parish of Enfield, as they, the said Robert Kelham 
Kelham and William Belt, or the survivor of them, or the executors, 
administrators, or assigns of such survivor shall think fit. And it is 
my will, and I do hereby direct that in the distribution of the said 
coals, aged widows shall always have the preference. 

I give and bequeath to the said Robert K. Kelham and William 
Belt, their executors, administrators, and assigns, the further sum of 
1400, 3^2 per cent, reduced Bank Annuities, upon trust from time 
to time for ever, hereafter to receive the annual interest, dividends, 
and proceeds thereof, and to pay the same as the same shall become 
due and be received, into the hands of the treasurers for the time 
being, of the Girls' Sunday School, now held at the Free School, at 
Enfield, aforesaid, to be applied by the committee of management of 
the said school, in manner hereinafter mentioned, that is to say, as 
to the annual sum of eight pounds, part thereof in paying salary 



xlv. 

The Sunday School, herein mentioned, was originally 
held at the Free School, in the Churchyard, but has 
since been combined with the National Schools in 
London-road. 

The fund (^37 6s.), according to the will of the 
testatrix, is directed to be disposed of entirely for the 
benefit of the said school, viz., in educating and clothing 
the children, and including a salary of eight pounds per 
annum, paid to the school mistress, for giving the girls 
religious instruction and taking them to church on 
Sundays. 

of eight pounds per annum to the school mistress for the time being 
of the said school, and as to the remainder thereof in clothing the 
scholars of the said school, and for and towards the instruction of the 
said scholars, or any other purpose for promoting the interest of the 
said school that the said committee of management thereof for the 
time being shall think fit. 

But in case the said Sunday School shall at any time hereafter be 
discontinued to be attended by ladies, as a committee of management 
thereof, then it is my will, and I do hereby direct that from thence- 
forth, the annual sum of 20, part of the said last mentioned annual 
interest, dividends, and proceeds, shall be paid as a salary to the 
schoolmistress of the said school, to be from time to time chosen 
by the Vicar for the time being, of Enfield, and the remainder of, 
shall be from time to time applied in or towards clothing the 
children of the said school, in such manner as the said Vicar 
for the time being shall think fit. And I do hereby direct that the 
receipt and receipts of the treasurer for the time being, of the said 
Sunday School, shall be a sufficient discharge to the person or 
persons paying the whole or any part or parts of the annual interest, 
dividends, &c." Mrs. Kelham died 27th July, 1841. 



xlvi. 
THE GREEN AND ENCROACHMI 

The Enfield Inclosure Act (41 Geo. 3, c 143) directed 
That the Commissioners should set out and allot to the 
Vicar, Churchwardens, and Overseers, for the time being, 
to be held by them and their successors for ever, such 
part of the Chase, called the Enfield Allotment, as is 
called Enfield Chase Green, not exceeding 20 acres, 
as the said Commissioners should think proper, to be 
inclosed in such manner as the said Commissioners, by 
their award, should direct and appoint ; and as soon as 
the same should be assigned, set out, allotted, and in- 
closed as aforesaid, the said Vicar, Churchwardens, and 
Overseers for the time being, and their successors, 
should from time to time stand seized thereof, with the 
majority of freeholders and copyholders in vestry assem- 
bled, which vestry should be called in- the usual manner, 
and under the same regulations as the Chase vestries are 
by law directed to be held in the parish of Enfield ; and 
that they should have the sole and exclusive management 
thereof in any way they, at such vestries, should direct for 
the benefit of the poor. 

The Commissioners never did assign, set out, allot, or 
inclose any part of this Green, nor have they, by their 
award, given any directions, or made any appointment, 
relating thereto ; therefore the Vicar. Churchwardens, 
and Overseers, with the freeholders, and copyholders in 
vestry, do not stand seized thereof under the Act. 



xlvii. 

It may therefore be considered that the Chase Green 
is still vested in the Churchwardens for the time being 
(who were incorporated) by the 17 Geo. 3, c. 17 an Act 
for dividing the Chase of Enfield, in trust for the owners 
and proprietors of freehold and copyhold property, 
within the parish, and their tenants, entitled to rights of 
common, &c. 

The sum of three pounds is paid by the occupier of the 
Shrubbery on Chase-hill for encroachments, and disposed 
of in clothing for the poor. 

NEW RIVER COMPANY'S GIFT. 

The sum of two pounds is annually paid by the New 
River Company, to the Churchwardens of Enfield for the 
time being, for a certain privilege in respect of drainage, 
at Chase-side, granted by the parish, which sum is 
disposed of in clothing for the poor. 



NAMES OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Abbiss, James, J.P., The Shrub- 
berries, Enfield. 
Adams, F. C., Chase-park. 
Adams, H. J., Chase-park. 
Alexander, W. D., J.P., Summit- 
house. 

Arabin, Mrs., 36, Grosvenor-square. 
Austin, Walter, Juglans-lodge. 
Baird, Rev. James, The Vicarage, 

Southgate. 
Balfour, H. T.; The Clock-house, 

East Barnet. 
Bangs, William, Bow. 
Barclay, J. Gurney, Knott's-green. 
Barker, W. Nutter, B. A., The Palace. 
Barry, Horace, Bush-hill House. 
Batters, George, Brigadier-hill. 
Baxendale, Lloyd, Totteridge. 
Beadle, Edmund, Winchmore-hill. 
Bell, Mrs., Hole-park, Kent. 
Bell, Mrs. Spencer, Devonshire- 
place. 

Bell, Miss, Borovere, Alton. 
Bentley, James, Wood-green Park. 

Bevan, R. C. L., J.P., Trent-park. 

Bevan, F. A., Prince's-gate. 

Bevan, W. A., West Farm. 

Bevan, R. Y., Trent Park. 

Bird and Carpenter, Misses,. Chase- 
side. 



Booth, E,, Trent-park. 
Bond, Mrs., Elm-bank, Hampstead. 
Bosanquet, J. W., J.P., Claysmore. 
Bosanquet, Mrs. Augustus, Osidge. 
Bosanquet, Bernard T., Enfield. 
Bosanquet, Percival, D'Acre Lodge. 
Bowles, H. C. B., J.P., Myddelton- 

house. 

Brading, T., Ponder's-end. 
Braikenridge, Geo. J., Bush-hill. 
Braikenridge, The Rev. G. W. 

Clevedon, Somerset. 
Bunnell, Peter, Penge. 
Burrell, Sir Percy, Bart., M.P., 

West Grinstead-park. 
Burrell, Lady. 

Burnett, George R., Kensington. 
Busk, Mrs., Ford's-grove. 
Butler, Mrs., Observatory, Armagh. 
Butler, Charles, Warreh-wood. 
Buszard, William, Enfield. 
Carr, William, Brunswick-square, 

Brighton. 
Cass, Rev. F. C., M.A.,The Rectory, 

Hadley. 

Cater, J. White, West-lodge. 
Cater, F., Durants. 
Cattarns, R., Enfield. 
Cave, Henry, Enfield. 
Challis, Alderman, Enfield. 



NAMES OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Challis, William H., Enfield. 
Child, Miss, Gough-park. 
Christy, Alexander, Stanley-hall, 
Salop. 

Church, H., Lawn-house, Southgate. 

Collyer, Jas., L.R.C.P., Oak-house. 

Cooper, G. , The Clock-house, East 
Barnet. 

Copleston, Rev. R. E. , Vicarage, 
Edmonton. 

Cotton, Alderman, Theobakl's-park. 

Cundall, Arthur, Enfield. 

Curtis, Thomas, The Hall, Berk- 
hampstead. 

Curzon, Hon. Edward C., J.P., 
Scarsdale-house. 

Curzon, G. A . , Capt. 2nd Li fe Guards. 

The Bishop of St. David's 

Dawson, W. I., Bush-hill Cottage. 

Duncan, T., New-cottage, Potter's- 
bar. 

Durant, R. jun., J.P., High Canons. 

Lord Enfield, M.P., Penerley-lodge. 

Edelsten, P., Manor-house, Bull's- 
cross. 

Egles, Rev. E. H., Enfield. 

Fairhead, Allen, Enfield. 

Ford, H. R., Morecambe-lodge, 
Lancaster. 

Ford, Edward, J.P., Enfield Old- 
park. 

Ford, J. Rawlinson, Adel Grange, 
Yorkshire. 

Ford, J. W., The Cottage, East 
Barnet. 

Ford, A. L. , Liverpool. 



George, A. G., Southgate. 

Gibbons, Eber.ezer, Enfield. 

Gilbert, Josiah, Marden-ash. 

Graham, G. J., East-lodge. 

Grey, Sir William, Bohun-lodge. 

Lord Geo. F. Hamilton, M.P., 
Hertford-street, Mayfair. 

Hall, Ellis, Enfield-highway. 

Hankey, George, Frant, Tunbridge. 

Harman, Rev. J., Vicarage, Enfield- 
highway. 

Harman, John, Portman-square. 

Harnett,Wm.J.,M.D.,L.R.C.P.E., 
L.M., L.R. C.S.I., M.B. 

Harrison, Daniel, J.P., Chase-hill. 

Harrison, T. Haydn, Broxbpurne. 

Heath, Rev. J. M., Milland. 

Heath, H. G., Clay-hill. 

Henry, David, Forty-hill. 

Herbert, J., Birmingham. 

Heseltine, J., Grosvenor Lodge, 
Upper Clapton. 

Hills, T. Hyde, 45, Queen Anne- 
street. 

Hobbs, William, Enfield. 

Hobbs, Thomas, Enfield. 

Hodson, Rev. Geo. H., Vicarage, 
Enfield. 

Hunter, John R., Enfield. 

Hunter, Edward, The Glebe, Black- 
heath. 

Ingersoll, R. T., Enfield-highway. 
Jack, Charles, Beech-hill-park. 
Jackson, Mrs- James, River-house. 



NAMES OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Jackson, Joseph, Enfield. 

Jones, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Green- 
street. 

Jones, f. Pafeshall, Roselands. 

Kemble, Mrs. , Oakmere, Potter's-bar. 

Kempe, Rev. E. W., Chase-side. 

Kemp, C. F., Foxbush, Tunbridge. 

Kent, Rev. Charles, 

Knight, Thomas, Enfield-highway. 

Knott, J., London-road, Enfield. 

Knott, T. , London-road, Enfield. 

Langton, Walter, Southgate. 

Law, J. S., South-lodge. 

Letch worth, Edward, 88, St. James' 
street. 

Lewis, Capt. Henry, R. N., Devon- 
shire street. 

Lister, Mrs., Hampstead. 

Lock, William, Enfield. 

Lucena, S. L., Windmill-hill. 

Luck, Mrs., Hampstead. 

Maclagan, Rev, W. U , Rectory, 
Newington. 

Malcolm, Mrs., Bush-hill. 

Mann, Thomas, Winchmore-hill. 

Mansel, R. S., Everley-lodge. 

Maple, John, Tottenham Court-road. 

Mathison, R., Enfield. 

Meyer, James, J.P., Forty-hall. 

Meyers, J. H., Enfield. 

Micholls, H. L., Southgate-house. 

Miles, John. Friern Barnet. 

Milne, F., Hadley. 



Mitchell, John, South-street, Pon- 

der's-end. 

Mitchell, William, Enfield-highway. 
Monro, M. M., Bury-farm. 
Moore, W. W. , Leggatts, Potter's-bar. 
Morgan, E. L., Wild wood. 
Morison, Miss, Markyata-street. 
Mugliston, G. T. W., M.D., Enfield. 
Muir, H. B. Little-park. 
Murray, John, Albemarle-street. 
Nash, Henry, J.P. , Bury-house. 
Naylor, W. B., Ponder' s-end. 
Oilier, J., Beauchamp-lodge. 
Owen, Arthur, Enfield. 
Paris, Miss, Trent-lodge. 
Parker, Mrs., White-lodge. 
Parker, Henry, jvin., Parkfield, 

Potter's-bar. 
Parker, F. S., The Grange, East 

Barnet. 

Parker, W. S., White Lodge. 
Parry, H., The Elms, Ponder's-end 
Parrott, T. M., Churchbury-house. 
Patman, Messrs., Enfield. 
Paulin, T. , Beaulieu, Winchmore-hill. 
Pearson, George, Bolt-court. 
Peet, Henry, Cockfosters. 
Pitman, Newgate-street. 
Riddell, John R., Bycullah-house. 
Richardson, T. S., Broomfield-park. 
Ridge, James, M. D., Carlton -house, 
Roberts, E. C., Southgate. 
Robins, J. V., J. P., Myton-house, 

Warwick. 



NAMES OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Sawyer, Arthur A., F.nfield. 
Sheppard, Edgar, M.D., Colney- 

hatch. 

Short, Alfred, Clay-hill. 
Sidney, Alderman, Bowes-manor. 
Smart, R. W., Llanover-lodge. 
Smith, Charles, Enfield. 
Smith, E. Cozens, F.R. Hist. Soc., 

Chase-side. 
Somerset, Col. A. P., J.P., Enfield- 

court. 
Somerset, Mrs. 

Somerset, Captain Aylmer, Rifle 
Brigade. 

South Kensington Museum. 

Stearns, Edward, Forty-hill. 

Stearns, F., Clay-hill. 

Stern, S. J., Little-grove. 

Stocks, Herbert W., Enfield. 

Taylor, J. Donnithorne, Grovelands. 

Taylor, J., Baker-street, Portman- 
square. 

Tennant, C. R., 10, West Kensing- 
ton Gardens. 

Thomson, James, Colney-hatch. 

Thompson, Julius H.,The Lindens. 

Tindal, Admiral, Chase-lodge. 

Tipping, William, M.P., Brasted- 
park. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Tremlett, Rev. Dr., Parsonage, 
Belsize park. 

Trenchard, J. A,, Nynn-house, 
Northaw. 

Trotter, Capt, Dyrham-park, 



Todd, Mrs., Winchmore-hill. 
Twells, Philip, J.P., Chase-side 

House. 

Upward, W., Clay-hill Lodge. 
Ear] of Yerulam, Gorhambury. 
Walford, Cornelius, Belsize-park. 
Walker, John, Arno's-grove. 
Walker, Mrs. Edwin, Chase-cottage. 
Walker, Mrs. Francis, Elm-hall. 
Walker, C. H., Crouch-hill House. 
Walker, Rev. Henry Aston. 
Walker, Capt. Albert, Hongkong. 
Walker, Henry, Bayswater. 
Warren, James, Capel-house. 
Watkins, Rev. II. G., Vicarage, 

Potter's-bar. 
Weir, Rev. Arch., D.C.L., Vicarage, 

Forty-hill. 

Whitaker, Joseph, Enfield. 
White, Edward, Brook-house, 

Southgate. 

White, Rev. Geo. W., Enfield. 
Wigan, Mrs., Eversley. 
Wilkinson, H. White-webb's-park. 
Williams, Miss 
Williams, R., Walbrook. 
Willis, J. W., Grove-house. 
Wilson, Rev. Alex., Vicarage, 

Tottenham. 

Wilson, John Richard. 
Withers, Joseph, Burleigh-house. 
Young, C. Baring, Oak-hill. 
Young, John, jun., Bush-hill. 
Lord Zouche, Pai ham-park. 



DA Ford, Edward 

670 A history of Enfield in 

M6F6 the County of Middlesex 



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